Dutch East Indies
The Dutch East Indies was a Dutch colony. It was formed from the colonies of the Dutch East India Company. During the 19th century, Dutch possessions and hegemony were expanded and this colony was one of the most valuable European colonies under the Dutch Empires rule, and contributed to Dutch global prominence in spice and cash crop trade in the 19th to early 20th century. The colonial social order was based on racial and social structures with a Dutch elite living separate from. The term Indonesia came into use for the location after 1880. In the early 20th century, local intellectuals began developing the concept of Indonesia as a nation state, Japans World War II occupation dismantled much of the Dutch colonial state and economy. Following the Japanese surrender in August 1945, Indonesian nationalists declared independence which they fought to secure during the subsequent Indonesian National Revolution, the word Indies comes from Latin, Indus. The original name Dutch Indies was translated by the English as the Dutch East Indies, the name Dutch Indies is recorded in the Dutch East India Companys documents of the early 1620s.
Scholars writing in English use the terms Indië, the Dutch East Indies, the Netherlands Indies, centuries before Europeans arrived, the Indonesian archipelago supported various states, including commercially oriented coastal trading states and inland agrarian states. The first Europeans to arrive were the Portuguese in the late 15th century, following disruption of Dutch access to spices in Europe, the first Dutch expedition set sail for the East Indies in 1595 to access spices directly from Asia. When it made a 400% profit on its return, other Dutch expeditions soon followed, recognising the potential of the East Indies trade, the Dutch government amalgamated the competing companies into the United East India Company. The VOC was granted a charter to wage war, build fortresses, a capital was established in Batavia, which became the centre of the VOCs Asian trading network. Smuggling, the expense of war and mismanagement led to bankruptcy by the end of the 18th century. The company was dissolved in 1800 and its colonial possessions in the Indonesian archipelago were nationalised under the Dutch Republic as the Dutch East Indies.
From the arrival of the first Dutch ships in the late 16th century, to the declaration of independence in 1945, although Java was dominated by the Dutch, many areas remained independent throughout much of this time, including Aceh, Bali and Borneo. Piracy remained a problem until the mid-19th century, finally in the early 20th century, imperial dominance was extended across what was to become the territory of modern-day Indonesia. In 1811, British forces occupied several Dutch East Indies ports including Java, Dutch control was restored in 1816. Under the 1824 Anglo-Dutch Treaty, the Dutch secured British settlements such as Bengkulu in Sumatra, in exchange for ceding control of their possessions in the Malay Peninsula, the resulting borders between British and Dutch possessions remain between Malaysia and Indonesia
Royal Netherlands Navy
The Royal Netherlands Navy is the navy of the Netherlands. Its origins date back to the Eighty Years War, the war of independence from the House of Habsburg who ruled over the Habsburg Netherlands. The navy of the Batavian Republic and Kingdom of Holland played a role in the Napoleonic Wars. After World War II, the Royal Netherlands Navy has taken part in peacekeeping operations. The main naval base is located at Den Helder, North Holland, secondary naval bases are located at Amsterdam, Vlissingen and Willemstad. Netherlands Marine Corps barracks are found in Rotterdam, Suffisant on Curaçao, officers of the Netherlands Navy are trained at the Koninklijk Instituut voor de Marine, which is part of the Nederlandse Defensie Academie in Den Helder. Around 100–150 people start training every year, an international prefix for Dutch navy ships is HNLMS. HNMS is used, although this can refer to Royal Norwegian Navy ships. The Dutch navy itself uses the prefixes Zr, ms. when a king is on the throne, and Hr.
Ms. when there is a queen, the modern Netherlands Navy dates its founding to a statute of admiralty issued by Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I on January 8,1488. During the 17th century the Dutch navy was one of the most powerful navies in the world, as an organization, the navy of the Dutch Republic consisted of five separate admiralties, each with its own ships, shipyards, command structures and revenues. Around the world Dutch naval units were responsible for transporting troops, for example during Operation Dynamo at Dunkirk and on D-Day, they escorted convoys, one Dutch light cruiser that was under construction was captured in its shipyard by Nazi Germany. Both British and American forces believed that the Dutch admiral in charge of the force was being far too aggressive. Later in the war, a few Dutch submarines scored some remarkable hits, after the war, the relations between the Netherlands and its colonies changed dramatically. The establishment of the Republic of Indonesia, just two days after the Japanese surrender, thwarted the Dutch plans for restoring colonial authority and it took four years of war before the Netherlands acknowledged the independence of Indonesia.
Part of the Dutch Navy was next stationed in Netherlands New Guinea until that and this followed a campaign of infiltrations by the Indonesian National Armed Forces, supported by modern equipment from the Soviet Union, that was nevertheless successfully repulsed by the Dutch navy. These infiltrations took place after the order of President Sukarno to integrate the territory as an Indonesian province. With the creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, the focus was on the army and air force
Battle of the Java Sea
The Battle of the Java Sea was a decisive naval battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II. Allied navies suffered a defeat at the hand of the Imperial Japanese Navy, on 27 February 1942. The American-British-Dutch-Australian Command Strike Force commander— Dutch Rear-Admiral Karel Doorman—was killed, the aftermath of the battle included several smaller actions around Java, including the smaller but significant Battle of Sunda Strait. These defeats led to Japanese occupation of the entire Netherlands East Indies, at the time, the battle was the largest surface ship engagement since the Battle of Jutland in 1916. The Japanese invasion of the Dutch East Indies progressed at a pace as they advanced from their Palau Islands colony and captured bases in Sarawak. To oppose these forces was a small force, consisting of Dutch, American. On 23 January 1942, a force of four American destroyers attacked a Japanese invasion convoy in Makassar Strait as it approached Balikpapan in Borneo, on 13 February, the Allies fought unsuccessfully—in the Battle of Palembang—to prevent the Japanese from capturing the major oil port in eastern Sumatra.
On the night of 19/20 February, an Allied force attacked the Eastern Invasion Force off Bali in the Battle of Badung Strait. Also on 19 February, the Japanese made two air raids on Darwin, on the Australia mainland, one from carrier based planes, the destruction of Darwin rendered it useless as a supply and naval base to support operations in the East Indies. Shortly before the battle commenced, the odds were not good for the Allied forces and they lacked cohesion and were demoralized by constant air attacks and a general sentiment that the Japanese were unbeatable. In addition, the coordination between Allied navies and air forces was poor, the Eastern Strike Force, as it was known, consisted of two heavy cruisers, three light cruisers, and nine destroyers. The Japanese heavy cruisers were more powerful, armed with ten 8-inch guns each. By comparison, Exeter was armed only with six 8-inch guns, the Allies had local air superiority during the daylight hours, because Japanese air power could not reach the fleet in the bad weather.
The weather hindered communications, making cooperation between the many Allied parties involved—in reconnaissance, air cover and fleet headquarters—even worse than it already was, the Japanese jammed the radio frequencies. Exeter was the ship in the battle equipped with radar. The fleets sighted each other at about 16,00 on 27 February and closed to firing range, both sides exhibited poor gunnery and torpedo skills during this phase of the battle. Despite her recent refit, Exeters shells did not come close to the Japanese ships, the only notable result of the initial gunnery exchange was Exeter being critically damaged by a hit in the boiler room from an 8-inch shell. The ship limped away to Surabaya, escorted by Witte de With, the Japanese launched two huge torpedo salvoes, consisting of 92 torpedoes in all, but scored only one hit, on Kortenaer
Oerlikon 20 mm cannon
The Oerlikon 20 mm cannon is a series of autocannons, based on an original German 20 mm Becker design that appeared very early in World War I. It was widely produced by Oerlikon Contraves and others, with various models employed by both Allied and Axis forces during World War II, and many still in use today. During World War I, the German Reinhold Becker developed a 20 mm caliber cannon and this used a 20x70 RB cartridge and had a cyclic rate of fire of 300 rpm. It was used on a scale as an aircraft gun on Luftstreitkräfte warplanes. Because the Treaty of Versailles banned further production of weapons in Germany. SEMAG continued development of the weapon, and in 1924 had produced the SEMAG L, the Oerlikon firm, named after the Zürich suburb where it was based, acquired all rights to the weapon, plus the manufacturing equipment and the employees of SEMAG. In 1927 the Oerlikon S was added to the product line. This fired a larger cartridge to achieve a muzzle velocity of 830 m/s, at the cost of increased weight.
The purpose of development was to improve the performance of the gun as an anti-tank and anti-aircraft weapon. An improved version known as the 1S followed in 1930, three sizes of gun with their different ammunition and barrel length, but very similar mechanisms, continued to be developed in parallel. In 1930 Oerlikon reconsidered the application of its gun in aircraft and introduced the AF and AL, designed to be used in flexible mounts, the 15-round box magazine used by earlier versions of the gun was replaced by drum magazine holding 15 or 30 rounds. In 1935 it made an important step by introducing a series of guns designed to be mounted in or on the wings of fighter aircraft, designated with FF for Flügelfest meaning wing-mounted, these weapons were again available in the three sizes, with designations FF, FFL and FFS. The FF fired a larger cartridge than the AF, 20x72RB. The FF weighed 24 kg and achieved a velocity of 550 to 600 m/s with a rate of fire of 520 rpm. The FFL of 30 kg fired a projectile at a velocity of 675 m/s with a rate of fire of 500 rpm.
And the FFS, which weighed 39 kg, delivered a high velocity of 830 m/s at a rate of fire of 470 rpm. Apart from changes to the design of the guns for wing-mounting and remote control, for the FF series drum sizes of 45,60,75 and 100 rounds were available, but most users chose the 60-round drum. The 1930s were a period of global re-armament, and a number of foreign firms took licenses for the Oerlikon family of aircraft cannon
Fuel oil, is a fraction obtained from petroleum distillation, either as a distillate or a residue. In this sense, diesel is a type of fuel oil, Fuel oil is made of long hydrocarbon chains, particularly alkanes and aromatics. The term fuel oil is used in a stricter sense to refer only to the heaviest commercial fuel that can be obtained from crude oil, i. e. heavier than gasoline. In some countries, the fuel oil usually refers specifically to diesel fuel while in Australia. Although the following trends generally hold true, different organizations may have different numerical specifications for the six fuel grades, the boiling point and carbon chain length of the fuel increases with fuel oil number. Viscosity increases with number, and the heaviest oil must be heated for it to flow, price usually decreases as the fuel number increases. Number 1 fuel oil is a distillate oil intended for vaporizing pot-type burners. It is the kerosene refinery cut that boils off immediately after the heavy naphtha cut used for gasoline, former names include, coal oil, stove oil and range oil.
Number 2 fuel oil is a home heating oil. This fuel is known as Bunker A. Trucks and some cars use similar diesel fuel with a cetane number limit describing the quality of the fuel. Both are typically obtained from the gas oil cut. Gas oil refers to the use of this fraction in the late 19th. Number 3 fuel oil was an oil for burners requiring low-viscosity fuel. ASTM merged this grade into the number 2 specification, and the term has been used since the mid-20th century. Number 4 fuel oil is a heating oil for burner installations not equipped with preheaters. It may be obtained from the gas oil cut. Number 5 fuel oil is an industrial heating oil requiring preheating to 77–104 °C for proper atomization at the burners
The wardroom is the mess cabin or compartment for commissioned naval officers above the rank of midshipman. Although typically applies to officers in a navy, it is applicable to marine officers. Typically the mess compartment aboard a naval or coast guard vessel and it may be used to refer to similar officer mess facilities at naval and coast guard installations ashore. The term the wardroom is used to refer to individuals with the right to occupy that wardroom. The wardoom provides a place of recreation as well as being a dining room, usually, a galley or scullery adjoins the wardroom. Service is provided by stewards, now known in some services as mess specialists or culinary specialists, on warships other than those of the U. S. Navy, there is usually a bar where alcoholic drinks can be purchased. Ships can be wet or dry, the former allowing the consumption of alcohol at sea, while the latter only allows alcohol when alongside at port. Traditionally considered taboo are three topics, politics and sex, on large ships in peacetime, talking about professional business is frowned upon.
It is considered inappropriate to perform work or to meet with subordinates in a wardroom, upon entering the wardroom at meal time, members ask permission from the most senior officer present before joining the table. The ships executive officer is usually the mess president, on warships and coast guard vessels, the commanding officer is normally not a member of the wardroom, but is invited to join the members for special occasions
Boom (navigational barrier)
A boom or a chain is an obstacle strung across a navigable stretch of water to control or block navigation. Booms could be military in nature, with the goal of denying access to an enemys ships, booms could be used, especially along rivers, to force passing vessels to pay a toll. A boom generally floats on the surface, while a chain can be on the surface or below the water, a chain could be made to float with rafts, ships or other wood, making the chain a boom as well. Especially in medieval times, the end of a chain could be attached to a tower or boom tower. This allowed safe raising or lowering of the chain, as they were heavily fortified. By raising or lowering a chain or boom, access could be selectively granted rather than rendering the stretch of water completely inaccessible. The raising and lowering could be accomplished by a mechanism or a capstan. The boom at the siege of Londonderry, for example, was cut by sailors in a longboat, as a key portion of defences, booms were usually heavily defended.
This involved shore-based chain towers, batteries or forts, in the Age of Sail, a boom protecting a harbour could have several ships defending it with their broadsides, discouraging assaults on the boom. On some occasions, multiple booms spanned a single stretch of water. ^ Some sources have the chain being dismantled instead of broken by a ship in the Siege of Damietta and in the Raid on the Medway
Wilhelmina of the Netherlands
Wilhelmina was Queen of the Kingdom of the Netherlands from 1890 until her abdication in 1948. Wilhelmina was the child of King William III and his second wife Emma of Waldeck. She became heir presumptive to the Dutch throne, after her brother and great uncle had died. She became queen when her died, when she was 10 years old. As she was still a minor, her mother served as regent until Wilhelmina became 18 years old, in 1901, she married Duke Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin with whom she had a daughter Juliana. She reigned for nearly 58 years, longer any other Dutch monarch. Her reign saw World War I and World War II, the crisis of 1933. Outside the Netherlands she is remembered for her role in World War II. Princess Wilhelmina Helena Pauline Maria of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau, was born on 31 August 1880 in The Hague and she was the only child of King William III and his second wife, Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont. Her childhood was characterised by a relationship with her parents, especially with her father.
King William III had three sons with his first wife, Sophie of Württemberg, when Prince Frederick died a year in 1881, she became second in line. When Wilhelmina was four, Alexander died and the girl became heir presumptive. King William III died on 23 November 1890, although 10-year-old Wilhelmina became queen of the Netherlands instantly, her mother, was named regent. In 1895, Queen Wilhelmina visited Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, still has her hair hanging loose. She is slender and graceful, and makes an impression as a very intelligent and she speaks good English and knows how to behave with charming manners. Wilhelmina was enthroned on 6 September 1898, on 7 February 1901 in The Hague, she married Duke Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Nine months later, on 9 November, Wilhelmina suffered a miscarriage and her next pregnancy ended in another miscarriage on 23 July 1906. The birth of Juliana, on 30 April 1909, was met with great relief after eight years of childless marriage, Wilhelmina suffered two further miscarriages on 23 January and 20 October 1912
Before World War II, destroyers were light vessels with little endurance for unattended ocean operations, typically a number of destroyers and a single destroyer tender operated together. After the war, the advent of the missile allowed destroyers to take on the surface combatant roles previously filled by battleships. This resulted in larger and more powerful guided missile destroyers more capable of independent operation, the emergence and development of the destroyer was related to the invention of the self-propelled torpedo in the 1860s. A navy now had the potential to destroy an enemy battle fleet using steam launches to launch torpedoes. Fast boats armed with torpedoes were built and called torpedo boats, the first seagoing vessel designed to fire the self-propelled Whitehead torpedo was the 33-ton HMS Lightning in 1876. She was armed with two drop collars to launch these weapons, these were replaced in 1879 by a torpedo tube in the bow. By the 1880s, the type had evolved into small ships of 50–100 tons, in response to this new threat, more heavily gunned picket boats called catchers were built which were used to escort the battle fleet at sea.
The anti-torpedo boat origin of this type of ship is retained in its name in other languages, including French, Portuguese, Greek, Dutch and, up until the Second World War, Polish. At that time, and even into World War I, the function of destroyers was to protect their own battle fleet from enemy torpedo attacks. The task of escorting merchant convoys was still in the future, an important development came with the construction of HMS Swift in 1884, redesignated TB81. This was a torpedo boat with four 47 mm quick-firing guns. At 23.75 knots, while still not fast enough to engage torpedo boats reliably. Another forerunner of the torpedo boat destroyer was the Japanese torpedo boat Kotaka, designed to Japanese specifications and ordered from the London Yarrow shipyards in 1885, she was transported in parts to Japan, where she was assembled and launched in 1887. The 165-foot long vessel was armed with four 1-pounder quick-firing guns and six torpedo tubes, reached 19 knots, in her trials in 1889, Kotaka demonstrated that she could exceed the role of coastal defense, and was capable of accompanying larger warships on the high seas.
The Yarrow shipyards, builder of the parts for the Kotaka, the first vessel designed for the explicit purpose of hunting and destroying torpedo boats was the torpedo gunboat. Essentially very small cruisers, torpedo gunboats were equipped with torpedo tubes, by the end of the 1890s torpedo gunboats were made obsolete by their more successful contemporaries, the torpedo boat destroyers, which were much faster. The first example of this was HMS Rattlesnake, designed by Nathaniel Barnaby in 1885, the gunboat was armed with torpedoes and designed for hunting and destroying smaller torpedo boats. Exactly 200 feet long and 23 feet in beam, she displaced 550 tons, built of steel, Rattlesnake was un-armoured with the exception of a 3⁄4-inch protective deck
A lighter is a type of flat-bottomed barge used to transfer goods and passengers to and from moored ships. Lighters were traditionally unpowered and were moved and steered using long oars called sweeps, unpowered lighters continue to be moved by powered tugs and lighters may now themselves be powered. The term is used in the Lighter Aboard Ship system. The name itself is of uncertain origin, but is believed to derive from an old Dutch or German word. In Dutch, the word lichter is still used for ships that take over goods from larger ships. The lighter barge gave rise to the tug, a small. Lighter tugs—or simply lighters—are designed for towing lighter barges, as such, they are smaller than traditional harbour tugs and lack the power or equipment to handle large ships. Lighters, albeit powered ones, were proposed to be used in 2007 at Port Lincoln, Hong Kong widely uses lighters in midstream operations where lighters transport cargo, mostly containers, between oceangoing vessels or to and from terminals.
Lighters in Hong Kong are usually equipped with cranes of 40-60 tonnes capacity, lighters are not fitted with engines but are towed by tugboats. In 2007, midstream operators handled about 2 million TEUs and 5 million TEUs were transported as river trade cargo which are dependent on lighters
Draft determines the minimum depth of water a ship or boat can safely navigate. The draft can be used to determine the weight of the cargo on board by calculating the displacement of water. A table made by the shows the water displacement for each draft. The density of the water and the content of the bunkers has to be taken into account. The closely related term trim is defined as the difference between the forward and aft drafts, the draft aft is measured in the perpendicular of the stern. The draft forward is measured in the perpendicular of the bow, the scale may use traditional English units or metric units. If the English system is used, the bottom of each marking is the draft in feet, in metric marking schemes, the bottom of each draft mark is the draft in decimeters and each mark is one decimeter high. Larger ships try to maintain a water draft when they are light, in order to make a better sea crossing. In order to achieve this they use sailing ballasts to stabilize the ship, the water draft of a large ship has little direct link with its stability because stability depends solely on the respective positions of the metacenter of the hull and the center of gravity.
It is however, that a light ship has quite high stability which can lead to implying too much rolling of the ship. A fully laden ship can have either a strong or weak stability, the draft of ships can be increased when the ship is in motion in shallow water, a phenomenon known as squat. Draft is a significant factor limiting navigable waterways, especially for large vessels, of course this includes many shallow coastal waters and reefs, but some major shipping lanes. Panamax class ships—the largest ships able to transit the Panama Canal—do have a limit but are usually limited by beam, or sometimes length overall. However, in the much wider Suez Canal, the factor for Suezmax ships is draft. Some supertankers are able to transit the Suez Canal when unladen or partially laden, canals are not the only draft-limited shipping lanes. A Malaccamax ship has the deepest draft able to transit the very busy, there are only a few ships of this size. A small draft allows pleasure boats to navigate through shallower water and this makes it possible for these boats to access smaller ports, to travel along rivers and even to beach the boat. A large draft ensures a level of stability in strong wind
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan