Henri de Castries
Henri de La Croix de Castries is a French businessman. He was chairman and CEO of AXA until retiring from both roles on 1 September 2016. Henri de La Croix de Castries was born on August 1954 in Bayonne, his father was Count François de La Croix de Castries who had a military career in Korea and Algeria. His maternal grandfather, Count Pierre de Chevigné, was a colonel in the Free French forces. Castries attended the Ecole Saint-Jean de Passy, followed by high school at the Collège Stanislas de Paris He graduated from HEC Paris in 1976, the same year as Serge Lepeltier and Denis Kessler, from the École nationale d'administration alongside Dominique de Villepin, François Hollande and Ségolène Royal in 1980, he holds a law degree and speaks fluent English and German. From 1980 to 1984, he audited on the behalf of the Minister of Finances of France, in 1984 he became a member of the French Treasury. In 1986, he participated in the privatisation initiated by Jacques Chirac's government, including Compagnie Générale d'Electricité, now known as Alcatel-Lucent, TF1, both on the CAC 40.
He started his career at AXA in 1989. In 1991, he was appointed general secretary, in charge of mergers, he was appointed general director in 1993, in charge of North America and UK in 1994, in charge of the merger and integration with Union des send assurances de Paris in 1996. He served as President of the Board of Equitable in 1997, has been Chairman of the Board of Directors since 2000. In March 2016, it was announced that he would retire from both chairman and CEO roles at AXA on 1 September. In 2010, he served as chairman of the Bilderberg Group's steering committee and again in 2017, he is an administrator of the Association pour l'Aide aux Jeunes Infirmes and is President of AXA Atout Cœur. He lives on the Boulevard Saint-Germain in Paris, his brother-in-law lives in the same building, he spends his weekends in a castle in Anjou, one week a month in the United States. He is married and has three children
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Kathleen L. Casey
Kathleen L. Casey was a Republican commissioner of the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission, she was appointed by President George W. Bush and sworn in on July 17, 2006, her term expired in August 2011. Prior to being appointed commissioner, Casey spent 13 years on Capitol Hill. Before her appointment as commissioner, she served as staff director and counsel of the United States Senate Committee on Banking and Urban Affairs. Casey was responsible for guiding the chairman’s and committee’s consideration of, action on, issues affecting economic and monetary policy, international trade and finance, banking and insurance regulation and housing policy, money laundering and terror finance. Significant issues the committee considered under Ms. Casey’s direction include: reform of Government Sponsored Enterprises, reauthorization of the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act, Deposit Insurance Reform, insurance regulation, Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States, Sarbanes-Oxley implementation, credit rating agencies.
Casey served as legislative director and chief of staff for U. S. Senator Richard Shelby; as legislative director from 1996 to 2002, Casey was instrumental in the drafting and passage of several laws. She developed and coordinated all aspects of legislative operations with a key focus on the appropriations process. In her capacity as Chief of Staff from 2002 to 2003, Casey acted as a key advisor on all policy and political matters. From 1994 to 1996, Casey served as staff director of the Subcommittee on Financial Institutions and Regulatory Relief of the Senate Banking Committee, she was responsible for advising and staffing the Senator on all committee issues, including the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act, Whitewater special investigation, financial services regulatory relief legislation. Casey served Senator Shelby as legislative assistant from 1993 to 1994, during which she was responsible for handling all tax and finance policy matters. Casey voted to prevent the SEC from taking enforcement action against Goldman Sachs.
In May 2013, the Pennsylvania State Senate approved her nomination to the Penn State University Board of Trustees. In March 2014, Casey was appointed to the board of directors of HSBC serving as a member of the Group Audit Committee and the Financial System Vulnerabilities Committee. Casey was born on a military base in Libya, she received a J. D. from George Mason University School of Law in 1993 and a B. A. in International Politics from Pennsylvania State University in 1988. This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Government document "SEC Biography: Commissioner Kathleen L. Casey, U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission". Appearances on C-SPAN
The euro is the official currency of 19 of the 28 member states of the European Union. This group of states is known as the eurozone or euro area, counts about 343 million citizens as of 2019; the euro is the second largest and second most traded currency in the foreign exchange market after the United States dollar. The euro is subdivided into 100 cents; the currency is used by the institutions of the European Union, by four European microstates that are not EU members, as well as unilaterally by Montenegro and Kosovo. Outside Europe, a number of special territories of EU members use the euro as their currency. Additionally, 240 million people worldwide as of 2018 use currencies pegged to the euro; the euro is the second largest reserve currency as well as the second most traded currency in the world after the United States dollar. As of August 2018, with more than €1.2 trillion in circulation, the euro has one of the highest combined values of banknotes and coins in circulation in the world, having surpassed the U.
S. dollar. The name euro was adopted on 16 December 1995 in Madrid; the euro was introduced to world financial markets as an accounting currency on 1 January 1999, replacing the former European Currency Unit at a ratio of 1:1. Physical euro coins and banknotes entered into circulation on 1 January 2002, making it the day-to-day operating currency of its original members, by March 2002 it had replaced the former currencies. While the euro dropped subsequently to US$0.83 within two years, it has traded above the U. S. dollar since the end of 2002, peaking at US$1.60 on 18 July 2008. In late 2009, the euro became immersed in the European sovereign-debt crisis, which led to the creation of the European Financial Stability Facility as well as other reforms aimed at stabilising and strengthening the currency; the euro is managed and administered by the Frankfurt-based European Central Bank and the Eurosystem. As an independent central bank, the ECB has sole authority to set monetary policy; the Eurosystem participates in the printing and distribution of notes and coins in all member states, the operation of the eurozone payment systems.
The 1992 Maastricht Treaty obliges most EU member states to adopt the euro upon meeting certain monetary and budgetary convergence criteria, although not all states have done so. The United Kingdom and Denmark negotiated exemptions, while Sweden turned down the euro in a 2003 referendum, has circumvented the obligation to adopt the euro by not meeting the monetary and budgetary requirements. All nations that have joined the EU since 1993 have pledged to adopt the euro in due course. Since 1 January 2002, the national central banks and the ECB have issued euro banknotes on a joint basis. Euro banknotes do not show. Eurosystem NCBs are required to accept euro banknotes put into circulation by other Eurosystem members and these banknotes are not repatriated; the ECB issues 8% of the total value of banknotes issued by the Eurosystem. In practice, the ECB's banknotes are put into circulation by the NCBs, thereby incurring matching liabilities vis-à-vis the ECB; these liabilities carry interest at the main refinancing rate of the ECB.
The other 92% of euro banknotes are issued by the NCBs in proportion to their respective shares of the ECB capital key, calculated using national share of European Union population and national share of EU GDP weighted. The euro is divided into 100 cents. In Community legislative acts the plural forms of euro and cent are spelled without the s, notwithstanding normal English usage. Otherwise, normal English plurals are sometimes used, with many local variations such as centime in France. All circulating coins have a common side showing the denomination or value, a map in the background. Due to the linguistic plurality in the European Union, the Latin alphabet version of euro is used and Arabic numerals. For the denominations except the 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, the map only showed the 15 member states which were members when the euro was introduced. Beginning in 2007 or 2008 the old map is being replaced by a map of Europe showing countries outside the Union like Norway, Belarus, Russia or Turkey.
The 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, keep their old design, showing a geographical map of Europe with the 15 member states of 2002 raised somewhat above the rest of the map. All common sides were designed by Luc Luycx; the coins have a national side showing an image chosen by the country that issued the coin. Euro coins from any member state may be used in any nation that has adopted the euro; the coins are issued in denominations of €2, €1, 50c, 20c, 10c, 5c, 2c, 1c. To avoid the use of the two smallest coins, some cash transactions are rounded to the nearest five cents in the Netherlands and Ireland and in Finland; this practice is discouraged by the Commission, as is the practice of certain shops of refusing to accept high-value euro notes. Commemorative coins with €2 face value have been issued with changes to the design of the national side of the coin; these include both issued coins, such as the €2 commemorative coin for the fiftieth anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Rome, nationally i
Laura Cha Shih May-lung, GBM, GBS, JP is a Hong Kong businesswoman and politician. She is a non-official member of the Executive Council of Hong Kong, Chairperson of Preparatory Task Force on the Financial Services Development Council, Non-Executive Deputy Chairman of The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. On 5 December 1949, Cha was born in China. At age 2, Cha and her family moved to British Hong Kong. Cha earned a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Wisconsin–Madison and a Juris Doctor degree from the Santa Clara University School of Law, she was a member of the Committee of a Chinese American political and cultural organisation. In 1983, Cha was admitted to the State Bar of California as Laura May-Lung Cha. Cha practised law with Pillsbury Madison and Sutro, one of the powerful lawfirm in San Francisco, California. Since 1994, Cha no longer practice law in California. After her return to Hong Kong, Cha continued practising law with Coudert Brothers, she worked at Hong Kong's Securities and Futures Commission from 1991 to early 2001, becoming its Deputy chairman in 1998.
Cha served as Hong Kong's delegate to the 11th National People's Congress, Vice-Chairman of the International Advisory Council of the CSRC, Chairman of the University Grants Committee in Hong Kong, a member of the advisory board of the Millstein Center of Corporate Governance and Performance at Yale University. Cha was Vice-Chairman of the China Securities Regulatory Commission from 2001 to 2004. Cha was appointed to the post by the State Council of the People's Republic of China and became the first person outside mainland China to join the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China at the vice-ministerial rank. Cha renounced US citizenship to take up the position. In 2012, Cha was named an Honorary Fellow by the Hong Kong Securities and Investment Institute, she has been a Non-Executive Director of Unilever since May 2013. Cha was reported by The Standard to have likened the pro-Occupy activists demand for democracy in the 2014 Hong Kong protests to the emancipation of African-American slaves at a conference at Paris, asking why Universal Suffrage "could not wait" for Hong Kongers in light of the historical disenfranchisement of African Americans.
Her remarks were criticised on social media, with a petition on Change.org stating that the signatories, "will not stand these remarks likening our rights to slavery, nor will we stand the kind of voter disenfranchisement her and her associates attempt to perpetrate on the Hong Kong public."In response, Cha stated that she had in no way made any comparison of the Hong Kong protests to the emancipation of African American slaves. In her interview she had made the point that in every country, the electoral system and voting mechanisms evolved over time, it had done so in the UK, in the United States and elsewhere." She further explained that the National Peoples' Congress decision of August 31, 2014 was the beginning of Hong Kong's journey to full democracy, that Hong Kong should accept the package now... and improve upon it over time. Cha has two children. Cha's husband Victor Cha Mou Zing is a prominent Hong Kong businessman. Cha renounced her United States citizenship prior to taking a position with China.
On May 12, 2011, Cha was an honored by Committee of 100 for her philanthropic contributions to higher education at the 20th Awards Gala in New York, U. S; the Hon. Laura Cha, GBS, JP HKSI Hon Fellow Interview – Laura Cha Laura Cha Shin May-Lung Video produced by Makers: Women Who Make America Laura Cha's profile at HSBC
Malta known as the Republic of Malta, is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. It lies 80 km south of Italy, 284 km east of Tunisia, 333 km north of Libya. With a population of about 475,000 over an area of 316 km2, Malta is the world's tenth smallest and fifth most densely populated country, its capital is Valletta, the smallest national capital in the European Union by area at 0.8 km.2 The official languages are Maltese and English, with Maltese recognised as the national language and the only Semitic language in the European Union. Malta has been inhabited since 5900 BC, its location in the centre of the Mediterranean has given it great strategic importance as a naval base, with a succession of powers having contested and ruled the islands, including the Phoenicians and Carthaginians, Greeks, Normans, Knights of St. John and British. Most of these foreign influences have left some sort of mark on the country's ancient culture. Malta became a British colony in 1815, serving as a way station for ships and the headquarters for the British Mediterranean Fleet.
It played an important role in the Allied war effort during the Second World War, was subsequently awarded the George Cross for its bravery in the face of an Axis siege, the George Cross appears on Malta's national flag. The British Parliament passed the Malta Independence Act in 1964, giving Malta independence from the United Kingdom as the State of Malta, with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state and queen; the country became a republic in 1974. It has been a member state of the Commonwealth of Nations and the United Nations since independence, joined the European Union in 2004. Malta has a long Christian legacy and its Archdiocese is claimed to be an apostolic see because Paul the Apostle was shipwrecked on "Melita", according to Acts of the Apostles, now taken to be Malta. While Catholicism is the official religion in Malta, Article 40 of the Constitution states that "all persons in Malta shall have full freedom of conscience and enjoy the free exercise of their respective mode of religious worship."Malta is a popular tourist destination with its warm climate, numerous recreational areas, architectural and historical monuments, including three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Hypogeum of Ħal-Saflieni and seven megalithic temples which are some of the oldest free-standing structures in the world.
The origin of the name Malta is uncertain, the modern-day variation is derived from the Maltese language. The most common etymology is that the word Malta is derived from the Greek word μέλι, meli, "honey"; the ancient Greeks called the island Μελίτη meaning "honey-sweet" for Malta's unique production of honey. The Romans called the island Melita, which can be considered either a latinisation of the Greek Μελίτη or the adaptation of the Doric Greek pronunciation of the same word Μελίτα; this spelling is found in the New Testament. Another conjecture suggests that the word Malta comes from the Phoenician word Maleth, "a haven", or'port' in reference to Malta's many bays and coves. Few other etymological mentions appear in classical literature, with the term Malta appearing in its present form in the Antonine Itinerary. Malta has been inhabited from around 5900 BC, since the arrival of settlers from the island of Sicily. A significant prehistoric Neolithic culture marked by Megalithic structures, which date back to c. 3600 BC, existed on the islands, as evidenced by the temples of Mnajdra and others.
The Phoenicians colonised Malta between 800 -- 700 BC, bringing their Semitic culture. They used the islands as an outpost from which they expanded sea explorations and trade in the Mediterranean until their successors, the Carthaginians, were ousted by the Romans in 216 BC with the help of the Maltese inhabitants, under whom Malta became a municipium. After a period of Byzantine rule and a probable sack by the Vandals, the islands were invaded by the Aghlabids in AD 870; the fate of the population after the Arab invasion is unclear but it seems the islands may have been depopulated and were to have been repopulated in the beginning of the second millennium by settlers from Arab-ruled Sicily who spoke Siculo-Arabic. The Muslim rule was ended by the Normans who conquered the island in 1091; the islands were re-Christianised by 1249. The islands were part of the Kingdom of Sicily until 1530, were controlled by the Capetian House of Anjou. In 1530 Charles I of Spain gave the Maltese islands to the Order of Knights of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem in perpetual lease.
The French under Napoleon took hold of the Maltese islands in 1798, although with the aid of the British the Maltese were able to oust French control two years later. The inhabitants subsequently asked Britain to assume sovereignty over the islands under the conditions laid out in a Declaration of Rights, stating that "his Majesty has no right to cede these Islands to any power...if he chooses to withdraw his protection, abandon his sovereignty, the right of electing another sovereign, or of the governing of these Islands, belongs to us, the inhabitants and aborigines alone, without control." As part of the Treaty of Paris in 1814, Malta became a British colony rejecting an attempted integration with the United Kingdom in 1956. Malta became independent on 21 September 1964. Under its 1964 constitution
A branch or tree branch is a woody structural member connected to but not part of the central trunk of a tree. Large branches are known as boughs and small branches are known as twigs. Due to a broad range of species of trees and twigs can be found in many different shapes and sizes. While branches can be nearly horizontal, vertical, or diagonal, the majority of trees have upwardly diagonal branches; the term "twig" refers to a terminus, while "bough" refers only to branches coming directly from the trunk. Because of the enormous quantity of branches in the world, there are a variety of names in English alone for them. In general however, unspecific words for a branch have been replaced by the word branch itself. A bough can be called a limb or arm, though these are arguably metaphors, both are accepted synonyms for bough. A crotch or fork is an area. A twig is referred to as a sprig as well when it has been plucked. Other words for twig include branchlet and surcle, as well as the technical terms surculus and ramulus.
Branches found under larger branches can be called underbranches. Some branches from specific trees have their own names, such as osiers and withes or withies, which come from willows. Trees have certain words which, in English, are collocated, such as holly and mistletoe, which employ the phrase "sprig of"; the branch of a cherry tree is referred to as a "cherry branch", while other such formations carry no such alliance. A good example of this versatility is oak, which could be referred to as variously an "oak branch", an "oaken branch", a "branch of oak", or the "branch of an oak ". Once a branch has been cut or in any other way removed from its source, it is most referred to as a stick, a stick employed for some purpose is called a rod. Thin, flexible sticks are called switches, shrags, or vimina. In Old English, there are numerous words for branch, including seten, telgor, hrīs. There are numerous descriptive words, such as blēd, bōgincel, ōwæstm, tūdornes. Numerous other words for twigs and boughs abound, including tān, which still survives as the "-toe" in mistletoe.
Latin words for branch are cladus. The second term is an affix found in other modern words such as cladodonts or cladogram. Basal shoot Plant stem Root Shoot Stolon Switch Trunk Turion Twig Wand