Greece the Hellenic Republic, self-identified and known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern and Southeast Europe, with a population of 11 million as of 2016. Athens is largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is located at the crossroads of Europe and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, Turkey to the northeast; the Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a large number of islands, of which 227 are inhabited. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres; the country consists of nine geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace and the Ionian Islands.
Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilisation, being the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, Western literature, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, Western drama and notably the Olympic Games. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as poleis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. Philip of Macedon united most of the Greek mainland in the fourth century BC, with his son Alexander the Great conquering much of the ancient world, from the eastern Mediterranean to India. Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, in which Greek language and culture were dominant. Rooted in the first century A. D. the Greek Orthodox Church helped shape modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World. Falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence.
Greece's rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The sovereign state of Greece is a unitary parliamentary republic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, a high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the tenth member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001, it is a member of numerous other international institutions, including the Council of Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Greece's unique cultural heritage, large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power, it is the largest economy in the Balkans. The names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures.
The Greek name of the country is Hellas or Ellada, its official name is the Hellenic Republic. In English, the country is called Greece, which comes from Latin Graecia and means'the land of the Greeks'; the earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, in the Greek province of Macedonia. All three stages of the stone age are represented for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries, as Greece lies on the route via which farming spread from the Near East to Europe. Greece is home to the first advanced civilizations in Europe and is considered the birthplace of Western civilisation, beginning with the Cycladic civilization on the islands of the Aegean Sea at around 3200 BC, the Minoan civilization in Crete, the Mycenaean civilization on the mainland; these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek.
The Mycenaeans absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC, during a time of regional upheaval known as the Bronze Age collapse. This ushered from which written records are absent. Though the unearthed Linear B texts are too fragmentary for the reconstruction of the political landscape and can't support the existence of a larger state contemporary Hittite and Egyptian records suggest the presence of a single state under a "Great King" based in mainland Greece; the end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to the year of the first Olympic Games. The Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, which spread to the shores of the Black Sea, So
Tallink is an Estonian shipping company operating Baltic Sea cruiseferries and ropax ships from Estonia to Finland, Estonia to Sweden, Latvia to Sweden and Finland to Sweden. It is the largest cargo shipping company in the Baltic Sea region. Company owns a part of SeaRail. Tallink Hotels runs four hotels in Tallinn one in Riga, it is the co-owner of a taxi company Tallink Takso. It is a publicly traded company, listed in Tallinn Stock Exchange. Mayor shareholder is an investment company AS Infortar, that has ownership in several Tallink subsidiaries and a natural gas company Eesti Gaas; the history of the company known today as Tallink can be traced back to 1965 when the Soviet Union-based Estonian Shipping Company introduced passnger ferry services between Helsinki and Tallinn on MS Vanemuine. Regular around-the-year passenger ferry services began in 1968 on MS Tallinn, which served the route until it was replaced by the new MS Georg Ots in 1980. In May 1989 ESCO formed a new subsidiary, ühisettevõte Tallink, together with the Finnish Palkkiyhtymä Oy.
In December of the same year ESCO and Palkkiyhtymä purchased MS Scandinavian Sky from SeaEscape, the ship began traffic on the Helsinki–Tallinn route in January 1990 as MS Tallink. In the same year the freighter MS Transestonia joined the Tallink on the Helsinki–Tallinn route and Tallink was established as the name of the company as well as the main ship. At the same time ESCO still operated the Georg Ots in the same route competing with its own daughter company; this conflict was resolved in September 1991. In the early 1990s passenger numbers on Helsinki–Tallinn traffic were increasing, during winters between 1992 and 1995 Tallink chartered MS Saint Patrick II from Irish Ferries to increase capacity on the route. Tallink became a Estonian-owned company in 1993 when Palkkiyhtymä sold its shares of both the Tallink company and MS Tallink to ESCO. At this time other companies were establishing themselves on the lucrative Helsinki–Tallinn traffic, including the Estonian New Line, owned by the Tallinn-based Inreko.
ESCO and Inreko saw no sense in competing with each other and in January 1994 Tallink and Inreko Laeva AS were merged into AS Eminre. Tallink remained the marketing name for the company's fleet. In the same year Inreko purchased MS Nord Estonia from EstLine, renamed her MS Vana Tallinn and placed her in Helsinki–Tallinn traffic for Tallink. Inreko brought with them two fast hydrofoils, HS Liisa and HS Laura which began serving under the Tallink Express brand. In 1994 Tallink attempted traffic from Estonia to Germany for the first time, with two chartered ferries MS Balanga Queen and MS Ambassador II that were placed on the route Helsinki–Tallinn–Travemünde. In September 1994 AS Eminre's operations were divided into two companies, one that took care of the traffic to Germany and AS Hansatee which took the Helsinki–Tallinn traffic and the Tallink name. ESCO was the dominant partner in Hansatee, controlling 45% of the shares, whereas Inreko owned only 12.75%. In 1995 Hansatee brought the first large ferry into Helsinki–Tallinn traffic when they chartered MS Mare Balticum from EstLine and renamed her MS Meloodia.
Following various disputes between ESCO and Inreko, Inreko sold their shares of AS Hansatee to ESCO in December 1996. At the same time Inreko sold the Tallink Express hydrofoils to Linda Line and begun operating the Vana Tallinn on Helsinki–Tallinn traffic under the name TH Ferries. In 1997 a second large ferry was brought to Tallink's traffic when the company chartered MS Normandy from Stena Line. To replace the lost hydrofoils, Hansatee purchased a new express catamaran in May 1997, named MS Tallink Express I. At this time it was clear that two large ferries were needed for traffic between Helsinki and Tallinn, when the Normandy's charter ended in December 1997 Tallink purchased MS Lion King from Stena Line, which entered traffic in February 1998 as MS Fantaasia. In July of the same year Tallink purchased the freighter MS Kapella which opened a line from Paldiski to Kapellskär, Tallink's first route to Sweden. In October the original MS Tallink, which no longer conformed modern safety regulations, was sold.
Two months Hansatee purchased their first fast ferry capable of carrying cars, HSC Tallink AutoExpress. By the year 2000 ESCO had become the sole owner of EstLine, in December 2000 EstLine's two ferries MS Regina Baltica and MS Baltic Kristina were chartered to Hansatee, the line between Tallinn and Stockholm began to be marketed as a part of Tallink. A few months earlier, in August 2000, Hansatee had ordered their first newbuild from the Finnish Aker Finnyards. In June 2001 Tallink purchased HSC Tallink AutoExpress 2, while next month EstLine was declared bankrupt. In 2002 AS Hansatee changed its name into AS Tallink Grupp, in May of the same year the company took delivery of the brand new 2500-passenger cruiseferry MS Romantika, placed on Helsinki–Tallinn traffic. In November of the same year the classic Georg Ots was sold to the government of Russia. In 2004 three news ships joined Tallink's fleet, HSC Tallink AutoExpress 3 and HSC Tallink AutoExpress 4 alongside the Romantika's sister MS Victoria I, placed on Tallinn–Stockholm route, replacing MS Fantaasia which in turn started a new route from Helsinki to St. Petersburg via Tallinn.
This route proved unprofitable and was terminated in January 2005. In 2005 Tallink ordered a sister ship of the to-be delivered MS Galaxy and a fast ropax f
Çeşme is a coastal town and the administrative centre of the district of the same name in Turkey's westernmost end, on a promontory on the tip of the peninsula that carries the same name and that extends inland to form a whole with the wider Karaburun Peninsula. It is a popular holiday resort and the district center, where two thirds of the district population is concentrated. Çeşme is located 85 km west of the largest metropolitan center in Turkey's Aegean Region. There is a six-lane highway connecting the two cities. Çeşme district has two neighboring districts, Karaburun to the north and Urla to the east, both of which are part of İzmir Province. The name "Çeşme" means "fountain" and draws reference from the many Ottoman fountains that are scattered across the city, it was an ancient Greek city in Classical antiquity named Kyssos and, under the Romans Cysus. Turkish sources always cited the town and the region as Çeşme, a Persian word since the first settlement 2 km south of the present-day center founded by Tzachas and pursued for some time by his brother Yalvaç before an interlude until the 14th century.
The name "Çeşme" means "spring, fountain" in Persian and draws reference from the many Ottoman fountains scattered across the city. Some of the main districts of Çeşme are Alaçatı, Ilıca, Paşalimanı, Şifne, Ardıç, Boyalık, Ovacık, Ildır and Germiyan. A prized location of country houses and secondary residences for the well-to-do inhabitants of İzmir for more than a century, Çeşme perked up in recent decades to become one of Turkey's most prominent centers of international tourism. Many hotels, clubs, boutique hotels, family accommodation possibilities and other facilities for visitors are found in Çeşme center and in its surrounding towns and villages and the countryside, as well as popular beaches. Çeşme district has one depending township with own municipal administration, Alaçatı, where tourism is an important driving force as the district center area and which offers its own arguments for attracting visitors, as well as four villages: Ildırı on the coast towards the north, notable for being the location of ancient Erythrae, three others which are more in the background, in terms both of their geographical location and renown: Germiyan, Karaköy and Ovacık, where agriculture and livestock breeding still forms the backbone of the economy.
Some andesite and marble are being quarried in the Çeşme area, while the share of industrial activities in the economy remains negligible. In terms of livestock, an ovine breed known as sakız koyunu in Turkish, more a crossbreeding between that island's sheep and breeds from Anatolia, is considered in Turkey to be native to the Çeşme region, where it yields the highest levels of productivity in terms of their meat, their milk, their fleece, the number of lambs they produce. Preparations such as jam, ice cream and desserts, sauces for fish preparations, based on the distinctively flavored resin of the tree pistachia lentiscus from which it is harvested, are among nationally known culinary specialties of Çeşme; the adjacent Greek island of Chios is the source of mastic resin. Some efforts to produce mastic resin in Çeşme, where climate conditions are similar, but they failed to produce the aromatic mastiche. A number of efforts are being made to rehabilitate the potential presented by the mastic trees that presently grow in the wilderness, to increase the number of cultivated trees those planted by secondary-residence owners who grow them as a hobby activity.
The fish is abundant both in variety and quantity along Çeşme district's coastline. In relation to tourism, it is common for the resorts along Çeşme district's 90 km coastline to be called by the name of their beaches or coves or the visitor's facilities and attractions they offer, as in Şifne, famous both for its thermal baths and beach, in Çiftlikköy, Dalyanköy, Reisdere, Küçükliman, Paşalimanı, Kocakarı, Mavi and Pırlanta beaches; some of these localities may not be shown on a map of administrative divisions The district area as a whole is one of the spots in Turkey where foreign purchases of real estate are concentrated at the highest levels. The town of Çeşme lies across a strait facing the Greek island of Chios, only a few miles' away. There are regular ferry connections between the two locations, as well as larger ferries from and to Italy, used extensively by Turks living in Germany returning for their summer holidays; the town itself is dominated by Çeşme Castle. While the castle is recorded to have been extended and strengthened during the reign of Ottoman sultan Bayezid II, sources differ as to their citation of the original builders, whether the Genoese or the Turks at an earlier time after the early 15th century capture.
A statue of Cezayirli Gazi Hasan Pasha, one of the naval commanders of the Battle of Çeşme is in front of the castle and the Pasha is depicted caressing his famous pet lion and facing the town square. The battle itself, although ended in Ottoman defeat, had seen Hasan Pasha pulling out honorably after having sunk the Russian flagship Sv. Evstafii, together with his own ship, after which he had to follow the main battle from the coast before joining the capital by way of land, where he rose to become a distinguished gr
Ruston (engine builder)
Ruston & Hornsby was an industrial equipment manufacturer in Lincoln, England founded in 1918. The company is best known as a manufacturer of narrow and standard gauge diesel locomotives and of steam shovels. Other products included cars, steam locomotives and a range of internal combustion engines, gas turbines, it is now a subsidiary of Siemens. Proctor & Burton was established in 1840, operating as engineers, it became Ruston and Company in 1857 when Joseph Ruston joined them, acquiring limited liability status in 1899. From 1866 it built a number of four and six-coupled tank locomotives, one of, sent to the Paris Exhibition in 1867. In 1868 it built five 0-6-0 tank engines for the Great Eastern Railway to the design of Samuel W. Johnson. Three of these were converted to crane tanks. Among the company's output were sixteen for Argentina and some for T. A. Walker, the contractor building the Manchester Ship Canal. During the First World War, Ruston assisted in the war effort, producing some of the first tanks and a number of aircraft, notably the Sopwith Camel.
On 11 September 1918, Ruston and Company merged with Richard Hornsby & Sons of Grantham to become Ruston and Hornsby Ltd. Hornsby was the world leader in heavy oil engines, having been building them since 1891, a full eight years before Rudolph Diesel's engine was produced commercially. Ruston built diesel engines in sizes from a few HP up to large industrial engines. Several R&H engines are on display at the Anson Engine Museum at Poynton, ]. At Internal Fire - Museum of Power, Tanygroes near Cardigan; the company diversified into the manufacture of petrol engines, again from around 1.5 hp upwards, some of these designs were manufactured under licence by The Wolseley Sheep Shearing Machine Company. The firm were builders of steam engines and portable steam engines for many years for the agricultural market however they created steam rollers which were used for making roads and owned by contractors and councils. In World War 1, the company made around 3,000 aero engines; the 1,000th Sopwith Camel, built at the plant in 1917, was named the Wings of Horus.
The company built around 1,600 Sopwith Camels, 250 Sopwith 1½ Strutters, 200 Royal Aircraft Factory B. E.2s. The company, as Ruston & Proctor, was the largest British builder of aero-engines in the war, built the largest bomb of the war. One of the directors, Frederick Howard Livens, had a son, an army officer on the front line. Captain William Howard Livens was sent to Lincoln, where he developed the Livens Projector and the Livens Large Gallery Flame Projector. Neighbouring manufacturer Clayton & Shuttleworth built planes. In 1919, Colonel J. S. Ruston was inspired to create a garden suburb in Lincoln – the Swanpool Garden Suburb, his vision was to provide affordable houses for his workers, with easy access to healthy outdoor recreation, such as a pleasure ground, cricket ground and swimming baths. Ruston purchased 25 acres of the Boultham Hall estate and established the Swanpool Co-operative Society. Architects Hennell and James of London created the designs for the houses, which were built between April 1919 and September 1920.
The vision for the new suburb included a technical institute and schools. After running into financial difficulties the development was sold in 1925 to Swanpool Garden Suburb Ltd, a private company, but only 113 of the planned 2–3000 houses had been constructed and no more were built. After World War I the company attempted to diversify and one outcome was the Ruston-Hornsby car. Two versions were made, a 15.9 hp with a Dorman 2614 cc engine and a larger 20 hp model with 3308 cc engine of their own manufacture. The cars were, however heavy, being built on a 9-inch chassis, expensive – the cheapest was around £440 and the most expensive nearly £1,000, within a few years other makers were selling similar vehicles that weighed only 3/4 ton and cost around £120–200 – and never reached the hoped-for production volumes. About 1,500 were made between 1919 and 1924, two of which are still retained by Siemens on the Lincoln site. One is restored in running/driving condition, while the second example is still awaiting attention.
The R-H car was developed by the chief engineer, Edward Boughton, who joined the company in 1916 after helping to develop the tank. He would start the Automotive Products Group in Leamington Spa in 1920 which made Borg & Beck clutches, Lockheed hydraulic brakes, Purolator fuel filters. In September 1944, when the German Wehrmacht OB West headquarters at Saint-Germain-en-Laye were captured commanded by Field Marshal Günther von Kluge, they were found to be powered by Ruston diesel engines, it built the first prototype of the Valiant tank in 1944. The Grantham site built the Matilda II tank. Ruston & Hornsby was a major producer of small and medium diesel engines for land and marine applications; the company began to build diesel locomotives in 1931. It was a pioneer and major developer in the industrial application of small heavy duty gas turbines from the 1950s onwards. In the 1960s it was Europe's leading supplier of land-based gas turbines, it introduced Dry Low Emission combustion technology in the mid-1990s becoming market leaders.
The initiation of the production and design of gas turbines was due to Bob Feilden CBE who joined the company in 1946. Gas turbines were first produced in 1952; the Beevor Foundry on Beevor Street was opened in 1950 by General Sir William Joseph Slim, claimed to be the
The Baltic Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark, Finland, Lithuania, northeast Germany, Poland and the North and Central European Plain. The sea stretches from 53 ° N from 10 ° E to 30 ° E longitude. A mediterranean sea of the Atlantic, with limited water exchange between the two bodies, the Baltic Sea drains through the Danish islands into the Kattegat by way of the straits of Øresund, the Great Belt, the Little Belt, it includes the Gulf of Bothnia, the Bay of Bothnia, the Gulf of Finland, the Gulf of Riga, the Bay of Gdańsk. The Baltic Proper is bordered on its northern edge, at the latitude 60°N, by the Åland islands and the Gulf of Bothnia, on its northeastern edge by the Gulf of Finland, on its eastern edge by the Gulf of Riga, in the west by the Swedish part of the southern Scandinavian Peninsula; the Baltic Sea is connected by artificial waterways to the White Sea via the White Sea Canal and to the German Bight of the North Sea via the Kiel Canal. Administration The Helsinki Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area includes the Baltic Sea and the Kattegat, without calling Kattegat a part of the Baltic Sea, "For the purposes of this Convention the'Baltic Sea Area' shall be the Baltic Sea and the Entrance to the Baltic Sea, bounded by the parallel of the Skaw in the Skagerrak at 57°44.43'N."Traffic history Historically, the Kingdom of Denmark collected Sound Dues from ships at the border between the ocean and the land-locked Baltic Sea, in tandem: in the Øresund at Kronborg castle near Helsingør.
The narrowest part of Little Belt is the "Middelfart Sund" near Middelfart. Oceanography Geographers agree that the preferred physical border of the Baltic is a line drawn through the southern Danish islands, Drogden-Sill and Langeland; the Drogden Sill is situated north of Køge Bugt and connects Dragør in the south of Copenhagen to Malmö. By this definition, the Danish Straits are part of the entrance, but the Bay of Mecklenburg and the Bay of Kiel are parts of the Baltic Sea. Another usual border is the line between Falsterbo and Stevns Klint, Denmark, as this is the southern border of Øresund. It's the border between the shallow southern Øresund and notably deeper water. Hydrography and biology Drogden Sill sets a limit to Øresund and Darss Sill, a limit to the Belt Sea; the shallow sills are obstacles to the flow of heavy salt water from the Kattegat into the basins around Bornholm and Gotland. The Kattegat and the southwestern Baltic Sea have a rich biology; the remainder of the Sea is poor in oxygen and in species.
Thus, the more of the entrance, included in its definition, the healthier the Baltic appears. Tacitus called it Mare Suebicum after the Germanic people of the Suebi, Ptolemy Sarmatian Ocean after the Sarmatians, but the first to name it the Baltic Sea was the eleventh-century German chronicler Adam of Bremen; the origin of the latter name is speculative and it was adopted into Slavic and Finnic languages spoken around the sea likely due to the role of Medieval Latin in cartography. It might be connected to the Germanic word belt, a name used for two of the Danish straits, the Belts, while others claim it to be directly derived from the source of the Germanic word, Latin balteus "belt". Adam of Bremen himself compared the sea with a belt, stating that it is so named because it stretches through the land as a belt, he might have been influenced by the name of a legendary island mentioned in the Natural History of Pliny the Elder. Pliny mentions an island named Baltia with reference to accounts of Xenophon.
It is possible. Baltia might be derived from belt and mean "near belt of sea, strait." Meanwhile, others have suggested that the name of the island originates from the Proto-Indo-European root *bhel meaning "white, fair". This root and its basic meaning were retained in both Latvian. On this basis, a related hypothesis holds that the name originated from this Indo-European root via a Baltic language such as Lithuanian. Another explanation is that, while derived from the aforementioned root, the name of the sea is related to names for various forms of water and related substances in several European languages, that might have been associated with colors found in swamps, yet another explanation is that the name meant "enclosed sea, bay" as opposed to open sea. Some Swedish historians believe. In the Middle Ages the sea was known by a variety of names; the name Baltic Sea became dominant only after 1600. Usage of Baltic and similar terms to denote the region east of the sea started only in 19th century.
The Baltic Sea was known in ancient Latin language sources as Mare Suebicum or Mare Germanicum. Older native names in languages that used to be spoken on the shores of the sea or near it indicate the geographical location of the sea, or its size in relation to smaller gulfs, or tribes associated with it. In modern lang
A pump-jet, hydrojet, or water jet is a marine system that produces a jet of water for propulsion. The mechanical arrangement may be a ducted propeller, a centrifugal pump, or a mixed flow pump, a combination of both centrifugal and axial designs; the design incorporates an intake to provide water to the pump and a nozzle to direct the flow of water out of the pump. A pump-jet works by having an intake that allows water to pass underneath the vessel into the engines. Water enters the pump through this inlet; the pump can be of a centrifugal design for high speeds, or an axial flow pump for low to medium speeds. The water pressure inside the inlet is forced backwards through a nozzle. With the use of a reversing bucket, reverse thrust can be achieved for faring backwards and without the need to change gear or adjust engine thrust; the reversing bucket can be used to help slow the ship down when braking. This feature is the main reason; the nozzle provides the steering of the pump-jets. Plates, similar to rudders, can be attached to the nozzle in order to redirect the water flow port and starboard.
In a way, this is similar to the principles of air thrust vectoring, a technique which has long been used in launch vehicles later in military jet-powered aircraft. This provides pumpjet-powered ships with superior agility at sea. Another advantage is that when faring backwards by using the reversing bucket, steering is not inverted, as opposed to propeller-powered ships. An axial-flow waterjet's pressure is increased by diffusing the flow as it passes through the impeller blades and stator vanes; the pump nozzle converts this pressure energy into velocity, thus producing thrust. Axial-flow waterjets produce high volumes at lower velocity, making them well suited to larger low to medium speed craft, the exception being personal water craft, where the high water volumes create tremendous thrust and acceleration as well as high top speeds, but these craft have high power-to-weight ratios compared to most marine craft. Axial-flow waterjets are by far the most common type of pump. Mixed-flow waterjet designs incorporate aspects of centrifugal flow pumps.
Pressure is developed by both radial outflow. Mixed flow designs produce lower volumes of water at high velocity making them suited for small to moderate craft sizes and higher speeds. Common uses include high speed pleasure craft and waterjets for shallow water river racing. Centrifugal-flow waterjet designs make use of radial flow to create water pressure. Centrifugal designs are not used anymore except on outboard sterndrives. Pump jets have some advantages over bare propellers for certain applications related to requirements for high-speed or shallow-draft operations; these include: Higher speed before the onset of cavitation, because of the raised internal dynamic pressure High power density of both the propulsor and the prime mover Protection of the rotating element, making operation safer around swimmers and aquatic life Improved shallow-water operations, because only the inlet needs to be submerged Increased maneuverability, by adding a steerable nozzle to create vectored thrust Noise reduction, resulting in a low sonar signature.
Submarines, for example the Royal Navy Trafalgar class and Astute class, the US Navy Seawolf class and Virginia class, the French Navy Triomphant class and Barracuda class, the Russian Navy Borei class. Modern torpedoes, such as the Spearfish, the Mk 48 and Mk 50 weapons; the Italian inventor Secondo Campini showed the first functioning man-made pump-jet engine in Venice in 1931. However, he never applied for a patent, since the device suffered from material problems resulting in a short life-span, it never became a commercial product; the first person to achieve, New Zealand inventor Sir William Hamilton in 1955. Pump-jets were once limited to high-speed pleasure craft and other small vessels, but since 2000 the desire for high-speed vessels has increased and thus the pump-jet is gaining popularity on larger craft, military vessels and ferries. On these larger craft, they can be powered by diesel engines or gas turbines. Speeds of up to 40 knots can be achieved with this configuration with a displacement hull.
Pump-jet powered ships are maneuverable. Examples of ships using pumpjets are the fast patrol boat Dvora Mk-III craft, Car Nicobar-class patrol vessels, the Hamina-class missile boats, Valour-class frigates, the Stena High-speed Sea Service ferries, the United States Seawolf-class and Virginia-class submarines, the United States littoral combat ships. Personal water craft Wetbike Kitchen rudder Water rocket Chain boat#Water turbines