The University of Texas of the Permian Basin and the Los Alamos National Laboratory, are proposing a multifaceted energy research facility called the High-Temperature Teaching & Test Reactor to be located in Andrews County, Texas. The proposal envisions a 25MWt reactor operated by a merchant nuclear power operating company with the education and science at the facility managed through an arrangement between LANL and UTPB/UTS; the original Pre-Conceptual Design for the facility was completed in January, 2008 by UTPB and General Atomics. The HT3R, per the PCD, is a "Generation IV" gas-cooled reactor with a graphite block core containing fuel “compacts.” These compacts are made by mixing graphite with TRISO fuel pellets with Low Enriched Uranium which has less than 20% of Uranium-235. However, the “new” planned operating temperature of 700° to 750°C is well below the previous PCD operating temperature of 850° to 900°C first called for by the DOE’s NGNP program; the HT3R will be the experimental cornerstone of a new energy research center at the UTPB.
Since the early 1990s no new university teaching and training reactors have been constructed and in fact many across the United States have been shut down. Further, only two other aging water-cooled research reactors, one at the University of Missouri and one at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, are capable of operating at power levels greater than 10 MWt that can provide useful facilities for fuel qualification and basic advanced research. Neither of these reactors can provide the enhanced capabilities necessary for education and pilot-scale testing for Gen-IV reactor systems; the mission of the HT3R is to serve as a national user facility for: Demonstrating that a Green FreedomTH pilot plant can be used to manufacture synthetic hydrocarbon fuels, in sufficient quantities per kWhr, at remote sites around the world for military and civilian applications. Performing research and testing to qualify the TRISO LEU fuel for GEN-IV reactors in the US. Exploring the use of proliferation resistant fuels in the US, including thorium-based and other advanced fuel cycle concepts.
Performing basic and applied research using the enhanced capabilities offered by a "Generation IV" type nuclear reactor system. Facilitating the education and training of the next generation of nuclear scientists and engineers; this joint effort uses the scientific and technical resources of New Mexico and Texas to enhance national energy security and regional economic development, plus reduce the environmental impact of GEN-IV nuclear reactors plus liquid fuels production and use. These new technologies offer promising concepts for using low risk technologies to provide security and economic stability for US energy supplies. HT3R Project Website Los Alamos National Laboratory Andrews Economic Development
Alexios Branas or Vranas was a Byzantine nobleman, attempted usurper, the last Byzantine military leader of the 12th century to gain a notable success against a foreign enemy. Alexios Branas was doubly linked to the imperial Komnenos family, he was the son of Michael Branas and of Maria Komnene, the great-niece of Alexios I Komnenos. He himself married the niece of Manuel I Komnenos. Anna's sister, Theodora Vatatzaina, was Manuel's lover; the Branas family had been prominent in the city and region of Adrianople since the middle of the 11th century. Another prominent family in the same city were the Vatatzes. Branas was described by a contemporary as "Small in stature, but colossal in the depth and the deviousness of his understanding and by far the best general of his time". Branas was one of few prominent Byzantine generals never to raise a rebellion against Andronikos I Komnenos; as a reward for loyalty, Branas was raised to the exalted rank of protosebastos by Andronikos I. Branas led several successful campaigns on his behalf, against the forces of Béla III of Hungary in 1183, against a rebellion in north-west Anatolia led by Theodore Kantakuzenos, centred on the cities of Nicaea and Lopadion.
Following the fall of Andronikos I and the elevation of Isaac II Angelos, in 1185, Branas achieved his greatest success in war when fighting against the Siculo-Norman invaders under William II of Sicily. At the Battle of Demetritzes he gained an overwhelming and decisive victory, which ended the Norman threat to the Empire. Branas held the new emperor Isaac II Angelos in contempt, combined with his successes as a general and connections to the former imperial dynasty of the Komnenoi, emboldened him to aspire to the throne. In 1187, Branas was sent to counter the Vlach-Bulgarian Rebellion and Niketas Choniates praised him for his deeds against the rebels; this time, in contrast to his loyalty to Andronikos I, he did rebel. Branas advanced on Constantinople, where his troops gained an initial success against the defending army. However, he could not gain entry by any means; the imperial forces led by Conrad of Montferrat, the emperor's brother-in-law, made a sortie. The troops of Branas began to give way under pressure from Conrad's equipped infantry.
In response Branas attacked Conrad, but his lance thrust did little harm. Conrad unhorsed Branas, his lance striking the cheekpiece of Branas' helmet. Once on the ground, Alexios Branas was beheaded by Conrad's supporting footsoldiers. With their leader dead, the rebel army fled the field. Branas' head was taken to the imperial palace, where it was treated like a football, was sent to his wife Anna, who reacted bravely to the shocking sight, it was after his death that his son, Theodore Branas, became the lover of the dowager Empress Anna: they were together by 1193 according to the Western chronicler Alberic of Trois-Fontaines. Theodore was created hereditary lord of Adrianople by the Latin Empire. Alexios Branas had a daughter named Eudokia, who married Isaac Angelos, son of the sebastocrator John Doukas. Angold, M; the Byzantine Empire 1025-1204: A Political History, Harlow. Choniates, N.: Magoulias, Harry J. ed.. O City of Byzantium. Annals of Niketas Choniates. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.
ISBN 0-8143-1764-2. Van Tricht, Filip; the Latin Renovatio of Byzantium: The Empire of Constantinople. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-20323-5. Kazhdan, Alexander. "Branas, Alexios". In Kazhdan, Alexander; the Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. P. 320. ISBN 0-19-504652-8. Varzos, Konstantinos. Η Γενεαλογία των Κομνηνών. B. Thessaloniki: Centre for Byzantine Studies, University of Thessaloniki. Pp. 394–417, 540–543. OCLC 834784665
Stymphalus or Stymphalos, or Stymphelus or Stymphelos, or Stymphelum or Stymphelon, or Stymphalum, or Stymphala, was a town in the northeast of ancient Arcadia. The territory of Stymphalus is a plain, about six miles in length, bounded by Achaea on the north and Phliasia on the east, the territory of Mantineia on the south, that of Orchomenus and Pheneus on the west This plain is shut in on all sides by mountains. On the north rises the gigantic mass of Cyllene, from which a projecting spur, called Mount Stymphalus, descends into the plain; the mountain at the southern end of the plain, opposite Cyllene, was called Apelaurum, at its foot is the subterranean outlet of the lake of Stymphalus. This lake is formed by the rain-water descending from Cyllene and Apelaurum, by three streams which flow into it from different parts of the plain. From the west descends a small stream, which rises in Mount Geronteium in the neighbourhood of Kastanía, but the most important of the three streams is the one which rises on the northern side of the plain, from a copious subterranean outlet.
Metope is mentioned by Callimachus, with the epithet πολύστειος. The water, which formed the source of the Stymphalus, was conducted to Corinth by the emperor Hadrian, by means of an aqueduct, of which considerable remains may still be traced. Pausanias reported. In the time of Pausanias there occurred such an inundation, ascribed to the anger of Artemis; the water was said to have covered the plain to the extent of 400 stadia. Strabo relates that Iphicrates, when besieging Stymphalus without success, attempted to obstruct the outlet, but was diverted from his purpose by a sign from heaven. Strabo states that there was no subterranean outlet for the waters of the lake, so that the city, in his time 50 stadia from the lake, was situated upon its margin, but this is an error if his statement refers to old Stymphalus, for the breadth of the whole lake is less than 20 stadia. The city derived its name from a son of Elatus and grandson of Arcas; the modern city lay upon the southern edge of the lake, about a mile and a half from the outlet, upon a rocky promontory connected with the mountains behind.
Stymphalus is mentioned by Homer in the Catalogue of Ships in the Iliad, by Pindar, who calls it the mother of Arcadia. Its name does not occur in the ancient historians, it owes its chief importance to its being situated upon one of the most frequented routes leading to the westward from Argolis and Corinth, it was taken by Apollonides, a general of Cassander, subsequently belonged to the Achaean League. In the time of Pausanias it was included in Argolis; the only building of the city mentioned by Pausanias, was a temple of Artemis Stymphalia, under the roof of which were figures of the Stymphalian birds. These birds, so celebrated in mythology, the destruction of, one of the labours of Heracles, are said by Pausanias to be as large as cranes, but resembling in form the ibis, only that they have stronger beaks, not crooked like those of the ibis. On some of the coins of Stymphalus, they are represented in accordance with the description of Pausanias. Pindar mentions an Olympic victor in the mule-cart race in his sixth Olympian Ode, urges the members of the choir to venerate their virginal Hera, a survival of pre-Olympian religion.
Pausanias mentions a statue of Dromeus, a long-distance runner from Stymphalus who won at twice at the Dolichos at the Panhellenic Games in 484 BCE and 480 BCE. The temple of Artemis seems still to have been in use in Roman times. One unusual aspect of the goddess is that her sanctuary is referred to in an inscription of the early 2nd century BCE as that of Brauronian Artemis, an Athenian cult. An inscription commemorating Stymphalian hospitality to the people of Elateia was to be set up in the agora of Elateia and in the sanctuary of Brauronian Artemis at Stymphalus. Cults of Demeter and Hermes are epigraphically attested, its site is located near the modern Stymfalia. Anastasios Orlandos excavated parts of the site for the Archaeological Society of Athens between 1924 and 1930. Since 1982, excavations of the site on the north shore of Lake Stymphalia have been under way, directed by Hector Williams for the University of British Columbia. Archaeological surveys and excavations have revealed a town refounded in the 4th century BCE.
The city was laid out on a grid plan, with
Section Eight Productions, or just Section Eight, was a production company founded in 2000 by film director Steven Soderbergh and actor and director George Clooney. It produced the critical hits Far From Heaven, Syriana, A Scanner Darkly and Michael Clayton, as well as Clooney-directed films Confessions of a Dangerous Mind and Good Night, Good Luck. In 2005, Syriana and Good Night, Good Luck picked up eight Oscars nominations between them. With Soderbergh citing a desire to focus on directing, Clooney forming production company Smoke House Pictures with Grant Heslov, the two decided to shut down Section Eight at the end of 2006. Section Eight Productions on IMDb New York Times, January 18, 2005: Trying to Combine Art and Box Office in Hollywood — article about Section Eight, Clooney, & Soderbergh. Variety.com, 12 October 2006: "Section Eight goes up in Smoke"
A newspaper's circulation is the number of copies it distributes on an average day. Circulation is one of the principal factors used to set advertising rates. Circulation is not always the same as copies sold called paid circulation, since some newspapers are distributed without cost to the reader. Readership figures are higher than circulation figures because of the assumption that a typical copy of the newspaper is read by more than one person. In many countries, circulations are audited by independent bodies such as the Audit Bureau of Circulations to assure advertisers that a given newspaper does indeed reach the number of people claimed by the publisher. There are international open access directories such as Mondo Times, but these rely on numbers reported by newspapers themselves. In many developed countries, newspaper circulation is falling due to social and technological changes such as the availability of news on the internet. On the other hand, in some developing countries circulation is increasing as these factors are more than cancelled out by rising incomes and literacy.
The World Association of Newspapers and News Publishers publishes a list of newspapers with the largest circulation. In 2011, India led the world in terms of newspaper circulation with nearly 330 million newspapers circulated daily. In 2005, China topped the list in term of total newspaper circulation with 93.5 million a day, India came second with 78.8 million, followed by Japan, with 70.4 million. Around 75 of the 100 best selling newspapers are in Asia and seven out of the top ten are Japanese newspapers; the Japanese Yomiuri Shimbun, Asahi Shimbun and Mainichi Shimbun are still the largest circulated newspapers in the world. The Times of India is the largest circulated English-language daily newspaper in the world, across all formats. Reference News is the most popular paper in China. According to the Guinness Book of Records, the daily circulation of the Soviet newspaper Komsomolskaya Pravda exceeded 21,500,000 in 1990, while the Soviet weekly Argumenty i Fakty boasted a circulation of 33,500,000 in 1991.
The Herald Sun has the highest circulation in Australia. Based in one of the country's two major cities, Melbourne, it is the result of the amalgamation of the original Sun and Herald newspapers; the Belgian institution CIM publishes national circulation figures for all written and web-based media in Belgium. The top ten best selling papers according to their website are Het Laatste Nieuws, 317,715; the most read paper in the country is the Toronto Star, which, as of the six-month period ending on March 31, 2007, averaged 634,886 copies sold on Saturday, 436,694 Monday to Friday, 442,265 on Sunday. The second most read paper is Toronto-based national newspaper The Globe and Mail, which averaged 374,000 copies on Saturdays, 303,000 Monday to Friday; the most read French-language newspaper is Le Journal de Montréal, which averaged 319,899 copies on Saturday, 267,404 Monday to Friday, 264,733 on Sunday. Unlike in the United States, newspapers in Canada published their biggest and widely read editions on Saturdays.
The Audit Bureau of Circulations shows that the largest read local language newspapers to be Dainik Bhaskar and Dainik Jagran, both published in Hindi. The Times of India is the most read English language newspaper, followed by Malayala Manorama, Amar Ujala, Hindustan Times, Daily Thanthi, Anandabazar Patrika is Bengali language newspaper; the Hindu is another read English language newspaper. Malayala Manorama newspaper, published in Malayalam from Kerala has a readership of over 2.370 million has the most circulation in other languages. The 2004 circulation figures for the morning and evening editions of Japan's largest newspapers: Yomiuri Shimbun, 14,067,000; the Norwegian Media Businesses' Association publishes national circulation figures for every newspaper in Norway every year. In 2011 the most read newspaper was the Oslo-based national newspaper Aftenposten, with a circulation of 235,795 followed by the tabloid Verdens Gang with 211,588; the local evening newspaper Aften averages 101,574 and the tabloid Dagbladet had 98,989 readers.
The financial newspaper Dagens Næringsliv averaged 82,595. In the top ten list it is followed by five local newspapers: Bergens Tidende, 79,467; as of August 2016, the top 6 best selling papers are respectively: Hürriyet, 340,898. Before it was seized by the governm
Halo 2600 is a 2010 action-adventure game developed by Ed Fries and published by AtariAge for the Atari 2600, a video console released in 1977 that ended production in 1992. Inspired by the Halo video games series, the game sees players control Master Chief and fight through 64 screens with varied enemies. Completing the game once unlocks a tougher "Legendary" mode. Halo 2600 was written by Ed Fries, former vice president of game publishing at Microsoft, involved in Microsoft's acquisition of Halo developers Bungie. Fries enjoyed the creative problems involved with creating a game with extreme technical constraints. Upon release, the game was well-received, was selected for inclusion in a Smithsonian American Art Museum exhibit. Halo 2600 is an action-adventure shooter video game, with gameplay inspired by the Atari titles Adventure and Berzerk; the player uses the joystick to control the character of Master Chief, the protagonist of the Halo video games, as he makes his way through 64 screens, divided into four zones: outdoors, Covenant base, ice world, a final boss area.
Weapons and power-ups are available to combat the many enemies. The player and enemies can each be killed by one hit; the player has three lives. After completing the game once, the player can play through the game in "Legendary mode", with the game tweaked for an extra challenge. Ed Fries got a taste of game development in his teenage years. Fries took a summer internship with Microsoft in college and joined the company. In 2000, he was head of Microsoft Game Studios, trying to develop a launch lineup for Microsoft's unproven Xbox console. After being contacted by developer Bungie's vice president about a possible acquisition, Fries shepherded Microsoft's purchase of Bungie and their developing project, a game that would become the Xbox's killer app, Halo: Combat Evolved. Fries left Microsoft in January 2004, after 18 years with the company. Fries read the book Racing the Beam: The Atari Video Computer System by Ian Bogost and Nick Montfort, about programming for the Atari 2600, was inspired to create his own game.
Fries only intended to recreate the Master Chief, but decided to finish the project after encouragement. He was aided by an extensive community of homebrew enthusiasts, where he found emulators, example code, documentation. Despite having been released in 1977 and ending production in 1992, the Atari 2600 retained a dedicated hobbyist industry who still bought and played classic games. Fries found the challenge of Halo 2600 one of adapting to constraints; the Atari 2600 has millions of times less memory than was available for Halo. With only 128 bytes of RAM, drawing Master Chief was difficult, creating a game with other characters more so. Fries stated that making the game taught him that constraint is sometimes a fuel for creativity, comparing the process of adapting Halo to the effort in turning a novel into a poem or haiku. "It felt more like writing poetry than it did like writing regular code", he said. "It felt like everything had to be so perfect. If one of these tricks didn't exist, if I didn't have this clever way of drawing this sprite, or if I didn't have this sick code for drawing the missiles, I wouldn't have been able to fit it in.
I couldn't have made the machine do what I wanted it to do." Fries pointed to other artists' work such as Bach's fugues or elaborate origami as examples of deliberately setting constraints to create something more interesting. The full game takes up just 4 kilobytes of space; the game was released in July 2010 at the Classic Gaming Expo. At the exposition, a limited number of physical copies of the game were on sale, it was one of four new Atari 2600 titles released by AtariAge at the 2010 Classic Gaming Expo in Las Vegas, along with Duck Attack!, K. O. Cruiser and a port of Sega's 1981 arcade game Turbo; the game was made available for play on modern computers via an emulator. Halo 2600 was well received. Kotaku's Owen Good and Destructoid's Conrad Zimmerman called it an entertaining diversion; the gameplay was called "rough" but "amazing" by John Biggs of TechCrunch, who cited the immense size constraints involved in creating the game. Zimmerman called the game's controls capable, The Escapist's Andy Chalk highlighted the game's chiptune soundtrack.
Anthony John Agnello, writing for The A. V. Club, noted the incongruity of seeing a "modern blockbuster" transformed into devolved version on the 2600's "aesthetically abrasive" hardware; the source code of the game was used to create an 8-bit poster representation of Master Chief. The cartridge version was rereleased through AtariAge in 2013. In the same year, the Smithsonian American Art Museum added Halo 2600 to its "The Art of Video Games" exhibition