Text messaging, or texting, is the act of composing and sending electronic messages consisting of alphabetic and numeric characters, between two or more users of mobile devices, desktops/laptops, or other type of compatible computer. Text messages may be sent over a cellular network, or may be sent via an Internet connection; the term referred to messages sent using the Short Message Service. It has grown beyond alphanumeric text to include multimedia messages containing digital images and sound content, as well as ideograms known as emoji; as of 2017, text messages are used by youth and adults for personal, family and social purposes. Governmental and non-governmental organizations use text messaging for communication between colleagues. In the 2010s, the sending of short informal messages has become an accepted part of many cultures, as happened earlier with emailing; this makes texting a quick and easy way to communicate with friends and colleagues, including in contexts where a call would be impolite or inappropriate.
Like e-mail and voicemail, unlike calls, texting does not require the caller and recipient to both be free at the same moment. Text messages can be used to interact with automated systems, for example, to order products or services from e-commerce websites, or to participate in online contests. Advertisers and service providers use direct text marketing to send messages to mobile users about promotions, payment due dates, other notifications instead of using postal mail, email, or voicemail; the service is referred to by different colloquialisms depending on the region. It may be referred to as a "text" in North America, the United Kingdom, New Zealand and the Philippines, an "SMS" in most of mainland Europe, or an "MMS" or "SMS" in the Middle East and Asia; the sender of a text message is referred to as a "texter". The electrical telegraph systems, developed in the early 19th century, used simple electrical signals to send text messages. In the late 19th century, the wireless telegraphy was developed using radio waves.
In 1933, the German Reichspost introduced the first "telex" service. The University of Hawaii began using radio to send digital information as early as 1971, using ALOHAnet. Friedhelm Hillebrand conceptualised SMS in 1984 while working for Deutsche Telekom. Sitting at a typewriter at home, Hillebrand typed out random sentences and counted every letter, number and space; every time, the messages contained fewer than 160 characters, thus giving the basis for the limit one could type via text messaging. With Bernard Ghillebaert of France Télécom, he developed a proposal for the GSM meeting in February 1985 in Oslo; the first technical solution evolved in a GSM subgroup under the leadership of Finn Trosby. It was further developed under the leadership of Ian Harris. SMS forms an integral part of SS7. Under SS7, it is a "state" with a 160 character data, coded in the ITU-T "T.56" text format, that has a "sequence lead in" to determine different language codes, may have special character codes that permits, for example, sending simple graphs as text.
This was part of ISDN. Messages could be sent and received on ISDN phones, these can send SMS to any GSM phone; the possibility of doing something is one thing, implementing it another, but systems existed from 1988 that sent SMS messages to mobile phones. SMS messaging was used for the first time on 3 December 1992, when Neil Papworth, a 22-year-old test engineer for Sema Group in the UK, used a personal computer to send the text message "Merry Christmas" via the Vodafone network to the phone of Richard Jarvis, at a party in Newbury, organised to celebrate the event. Modern SMS text messaging is messaging from one mobile phone to another. Finnish Radiolinja became the first network to offer a commercial person-to-person SMS text messaging service in 1994; when Radiolinja's domestic competitor, Telecom Finland launched SMS text messaging in 1995 and the two networks offered cross-network SMS functionality, Finland became the first nation where SMS text messaging was offered on a competitive as well as on a commercial basis.
GSM was allowed in the United States and the radio frequencies were blocked and awarded to US "Carriers" to use US technology. Hence there is no "development" in the US in mobile messaging service; the GSM in the US had to use a frequency allocated for private communication services – what the ITU frequency régime had blocked for DECT – Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications – 1000-feet range picocell, but survived. American Personal Communications, the first GSM carrier in America, provided the first text-messaging service in the United States. Sprint Telecommunications Venture, a partnership of Sprint Corp. and three large cable-TV companies, owned 49 percent of APC. The Sprint venture was the largest single buyer at a government-run spectrum auction that raised $7.7 billion in 2005 for PCS licenses. APC operated under the brand name of Sprint Spectrum and launched its service on November 15, 1995 in Washington, D. C. and in Baltimore, Maryland. Vice President Al Gore in Washington, D.
C. made the initial phone-call to lau
Multimedia Messaging Service
Multimedia Messaging Service is a standard way to send messages that include multimedia content to and from a mobile phone over a cellular network. Users and providers may refer to such a message as a PXT, a picture message, or a multimedia message; the MMS standard extends the core SMS capability, allowing the exchange of text messages greater than 160 characters in length. Unlike text-only SMS, MMS can deliver a variety of media, including up to forty seconds of video, one image, a slideshow of multiple images, or audio; the most common use involves sending photographs from camera-equipped handsets. Media companies have utilized MMS on a commercial basis as a method of delivering news and entertainment content, retailers have deployed it as a tool for delivering scannable coupon codes, product images and other information; the 3GPP and WAP groups fostered the development of the MMS standard, now continued by the Open Mobile Alliance. Multimedia messaging service was built using the technology of SMS messaging, first developed in 1984 as a captive technology which enabled service providers to "collect a fee every time anyone snaps a photo."Early MMS deployments were plagued by technical issues and frequent consumer disappointments.
In recent years, MMS deployment by major technology companies have solved many of the early challenges through handset detection, content optimization, increased throughput. China was one of the early markets to make MMS a major commercial success as the penetration rate of personal computers was modest but MMS-capable camera phones spread rapidly; the chairman and CEO of China Mobile said at the GSM Association Mobile Asia Congress in 2009 that MMS in China was now a mature service on par with SMS text messaging. Europe's most advanced MMS market has been Norway, in 2008, the Norwegian MMS usage level passed 84% of all mobile phone subscribers. Norwegian mobile subscribers sent on average one MMS per week. Between 2010 and 2013, MMS traffic in the U. S. increased by 70% from 57 billion to 96 billion messages sent. This is due in part to the wide adoption of smartphones. MMS messages are delivered in a different way from SMS; the first step is for the sending device to encode the multimedia content in a fashion similar to sending a MIME message.
The message is forwarded to the carrier's MMS store and forward server, known as the MMSC. If the receiver is on a carrier different from the sender the MMSC acts as a relay, forwards the message to the MMSC of the recipient's carrier using the internet. Once the recipient's MMSC has received a message, it first determines whether the receiver's handset is "MMS capable", that it supports the standards for receiving MMS. If so, the content is sent to a temporary storage server with an HTTP front-end. An SMS "control message" containing the URL of the content is sent to the recipient's handset to trigger the receiver's WAP browser to open and receive the content from the embedded URL. Several other messages are exchanged to indicate the status of the delivery attempt. Before delivering content, some MMSCs include a conversion service that will attempt to modify the multimedia content into a format suitable for the receiver; this is known as "content adaptation". If the receiver's handset is not MMS capable, the message is delivered to a web-based service from where the content can be viewed from a normal internet browser.
The URL for the content is sent to the receiver's phone in a normal text message. This behavior is known as a "legacy experience" since content can still be received by a phone number if the phone itself does not support MMS; the method for determining whether a handset is MMS capable is not specified by the standards. A database is maintained by the operator, in it each mobile phone number is marked as being associated with a legacy handset or not; this method is unreliable, because customers can independently change their handsets, many of these databases are not updated dynamically. MMS does not utilize operator-maintained "data" plans to distribute multimedia content, only used if the operator clicks links inside the message. E-mail and web-based gateways to the MMS system are common. On the reception side, the content servers can receive service requests both from WAP and normal HTTP browsers, so delivery via the web is simple. For sending from external sources to handsets, most carriers allow a MIME encoded message to be sent to the receiver's phone number using a special e-mail address combining the recipient's public phone number and a special domain name, carrier-specific.
There are some interesting challenges with MMS that do not exist with SMS: Content adaptation: Multimedia content created by one brand of MMS phone may not be compatible with the capabilities of the recipient's MMS phone. In the MMS architecture, the recipient MMSC is responsible for providing for content adaptation, if this feature is enabled by the mobile network operator; when content adaptation is supported by a network operator, its MMS subscribers enjoy compatibility with a larger network of MMS users than would otherwise be available. Distribution lists: Current MMS specifications do not include distribution lists nor methods by which large numbers of recipients can be conveniently addressed by content providers, called Value-added service providers in 3GPP. Since most SMSC vendors have adopted FTP as an ad-hoc method by which large distribution lists are transferred to the SMSC prior to being used in a bulk-mess
History of mobile phones
The history of mobile phones covers mobile communication devices that connect wirelessly to the public switched telephone network. While the transmission of speech by radio has a long history, the first devices that were wireless and capable of connecting to the standard telephone network are much more recent; the first such devices were portable compared to today's compact hand-held devices, their use was clumsy. Along with the process of developing a more portable technology, a better interconnections system, drastic changes have taken place in both the networking of wireless communication and the prevalence of its use, with smartphones becoming common globally and a growing proportion of Internet access now done via mobile broadband. Before the devices existed that are now referred to as mobile phones or cell phones, there were some precursors. In 1908, a Professor Albert Jahnke and the Oakland Transcontinental Aerial Telephone and Power Company claimed to have developed a wireless telephone.
They were accused of fraud and the charge was dropped, but they do not seem to have proceeded with production. Beginning in 1918, the German railroad system tested wireless telephony on military trains between Berlin and Zossen. In 1924, public trials started with telephone connection on trains between Hamburg. In 1925, the company Zugtelephonie AG was founded to supply train telephony equipment and, in 1926, telephone service in trains of the Deutsche Reichsbahn and the German mail service on the route between Hamburg and Berlin was approved and offered to first-class travelers. Fiction anticipated the development of real world mobile telephones. In 1906, the English caricaturist Lewis Baumer published a cartoon in Punch magazine entitled "Forecasts for 1907" in which he showed a man and a woman in London's Hyde Park each separately engaged in gambling and dating on wireless telephony equipment. In 1926, the artist Karl Arnold created a visionary cartoon about the use of mobile phones in the street, in the picture "wireless telephony", published in the German satirical magazine Simplicissimus.
The Second World War made military use of radio telephony links. Hand-held radio transceivers have been available since the 1940s. Mobile telephones for automobiles became available from some telephone companies in the 1940s. Early devices were bulky, consumed large amounts of power, the network supported only a few simultaneous conversations. Modern cellular networks allow automatic and pervasive use of mobile phones for voice and data communications. In the United States, engineers from Bell Labs began work on a system to allow mobile users to place and receive telephone calls from automobiles, leading to the inauguration of mobile service on June 17th 1946 in St. Louis, Missouri. Shortly after, AT&T offered Mobile Telephone Service. A wide range of incompatible mobile telephone services offered limited coverage area and only a few available channels in urban areas; the introduction of cellular technology, which allowed re-use of frequencies many times in small adjacent areas covered by low powered transmitters, made widespread adoption of mobile telephones economically feasible.
In the USSR, Leonid Kupriyanovich, an engineer from Moscow, in 1957-1961 developed and presented a number of experimental pocket-sized communications radio. The weight of one model, presented in 1961, could fit on a palm. However, in the USSR the decision at first to develop the system of the automobile "Altai" phone was made. In 1965, the Bulgarian company "Radioelektronika" presented a mobile automatic phone combined with a base station at the Inforga-65 international exhibition in Moscow. Solutions of this phone were based on a system developed by Leonid Kupriyanovich. One base station, connected to one telephone wire line, could serve up to 15 customers; the advances in mobile telephony can be traced in successive generations from the early "0G" services like MTS and its successor Improved Mobile Telephone Service, to first-generation analog cellular network, second-generation digital cellular networks, third-generation broadband data services to the state-of-the-art, fourth-generation native-IP networks.
In 1949, AT&T commercialized Mobile Telephone Service. From its start in St. Louis, Missouri, in 1946, AT&T introduced Mobile Telephone Service to one hundred towns and highway corridors by 1948. Mobile Telephone Service was a rarity with only 5,000 customers placing about 30,000 calls each week. Calls were set up manually by an operator and the user had to depress a button on the handset to talk and release the button to listen; the call subscriber equipment weighed about 80 pounds Subscriber growth and revenue generation were hampered by the constraints of the technology. Because only three radio channels were available, only three customers in any given city could make mobile telephone calls at one time. Mobile Telephone Service was expensive, costing US$15 per month, plus $0.30–0.40 per local call, equivalent to about $176 per month and $3.50–4.75 per call. In the UK, there was a vehicle-based system called "Post Office Radiophone Service,", launched around the city of Manchester in 1959, although it required callers to speak to an operator, it was possible to be put through to any subscriber in Great Britain.
The service was extended to London in 1965 and other major cities in 1972. AT&T introduced the first major improvement to mobile telephony in 1965, giving the improved service the obvious name of Improved Mobile Telephone Service. IMTS used additional radio channels, allowing more simultaneous calls in a given geographic area, introduced customer dialing, eliminating manual call setup by an operator, reduced the size and weight of the subscriber equipment. Desp
Phone cloning is the copying of identity from one cellular device to another. Analogue mobile telephones were notorious for their lack of security. Casual listeners heard conversations as plain narrowband FM; the intercepted ESN/MDN pairs would be cloned onto another handset and used in other regions for making calls. Due to widespread fraud, some carriers required a PIN before making calls or used a system of radio fingerprinting to detect the clones. Code Division Multiple Access mobile telephone cloning involves gaining access to the device's embedded file system /nvm/num directory via specialized software or placing a modified EEPROM into the target mobile telephone, allowing the Electronic serial number and/or Mobile Equipment Identifier of the mobile phone to be changed. To obtain the MEID of your phone open your phone's dialler and type *#06# to get its MEID number; the ESN or MEID is transmitted to the cellular company's Mobile Telephone Switching Office in order to authenticate a device onto the mobile network.
Modifying these, as well as the phone's Preferred Roaming List and the mobile identification number, or MIN, can pave the way for fraudulent calls, as the target telephone is now a clone of the telephone from which the original ESN and MIN data were obtained. Cloning has been shown to be successful on CDMA, but rare on GSM. However, cloning of a GSM phone is achieved by cloning the SIM card contained within, but not any of the phone's internal data. GSM phones do not have MIN, only an International Mobile Station Equipment Identity number. There are various methods used to obtain the IMEI; the most common methods are to hack into the cellular company, or to eavesdrop on the cellular network. A GSM SIM card is copied by removing the SIM card and placing a device between the handset and the SIM card and allowing it to operate for a few minutes and extracting the Ki, or secret code; this is done with handsets that have the option of an "extended battery" by placing the normal size battery in the handset and the Ki in the now vacant extra space.
This is done by allowing the device to log the interaction between the mobile telephone switching office and the handset. Phone cloning is outlawed in the United States by the Wireless Telephone Protection Act of 1998, which prohibits "knowingly using, trafficking in, having control or custody of, or possessing hardware or software knowing that it has been configured to insert or modify telecommunication identifying information associated with or contained in a telecommunications instrument so that such instrument may be used to obtain telecommunications service without authorization."The effectiveness of phone cloning is limited. Every mobile phone contains a radio fingerprint in its transmission signal which remains unique to that mobile despite changes to the phone's ESN, IMEI, or MIN. Thus, cellular companies are able to catch cloned phones when there are discrepancies between the fingerprint and the ESN, IMEI, or MIN. Subscriber identity module Dual SIM International Mobile Equipment Identity
Mobile operating system
A mobile operating system is an operating system for phones, smartwatches, or other mobile devices. While computers such as typical laptops are'mobile', the operating systems used on them are not considered mobile ones, as they were designed for desktop computers that did not have or need specific mobile features; this distinction is becoming blurred in some newer operating systems that are hybrids made for both uses. Mobile operating systems combine features of a personal computer operating system with other features useful for mobile or handheld use. By Q1 2018, over 383 million smartphones were sold with 86.2 percent running Android and 12.9 percent running iOS. Android alone is more popular than the popular desktop operating system Windows, in general smartphone use outnumber desktop use. Mobile devices with mobile communications abilities contain two mobile operating systems – the main user-facing software platform is supplemented by a second low-level proprietary real-time operating system which operates the radio and other hardware.
Research has shown that these low-level systems may contain a range of security vulnerabilities permitting malicious base stations to gain high levels of control over the mobile device. Mobile operating systems have majority use since 2017, thus traditional desktop OS is now a minority used kind of OS. However, variations occur in popularity by regions, while desktop-minority applies on some days in regions such as United States and United Kingdom. 9294029091 Mobile operating system milestones mirror the development of mobile phones and smartphones: 1973–1993 – Mobile phones use embedded systems to control operation. 1993 – Apple launch Newton OS running on their Newton series of portable computers. 1994 – The first smartphone, the IBM Simon, has a touchscreen, PDA features. 1996 – Palm Pilot 1000 personal digital assistant is introduced with the Palm OS mobile operating system. 1998 – Symbian Ltd. has developed Symbian OS. Symbian was used by many major mobile phone brands, above all by Nokia.
1999 – Nokia S40 Platform is introduced along with the Nokia 7110. 2000 – Symbian becomes the first modern mobile OS on a smartphone with the launch of the Ericsson R380. 2001 – The Kyocera 6035 is the first smartphone with Palm OS. 2002 Microsoft's first Windows CE smartphones are introduced. BlackBerry releases its first smartphone. 2005 – Nokia introduces Maemo OS on the first Internet tablet N770. 2007 Apple iPhone with iOS is introduced as an iPod, "mobile phone" and "Internet communicator". Open Handset Alliance formed by Google, HTC, Dell, Motorola, Samsung, LG, etc. 2008 – OHA releases Android 1.0 with the HTC Dream as the first Android phone. 2009 Palm introduces webOS with the Palm Pre. By 2012, webOS devices were discontinued. Samsung announces the Bada OS with the introduction of the Samsung S8500. November – Windows Phone OS phones are released but are not compatible with the prior Windows Mobile OS. July – MeeGo, a mobile Linux distribution, combining Maemo and Moblin, is introduced with the Nokia N9, a collaboration of Nokia and Linux Foundation.
September Apple releases iOS 9. Google releases Android 6.0 "Marshmallow". October – On October 26, BlackBerry announced that there are no plans to release new APIs and software development kits for BlackBerry 10, future updates would focus on security and privacy enhancements only. November – Microsoft releases Windows 10 Mobile. February – Microsoft released Windows 10 Mobile Anniversary Update. June – Apple announced iOS 10. August – Google posted the Fuchsia source code on GitHub. August – Google released Android 7.0 "Nougat". September – Apple released iOS 10. November – Tizen released Tizen 3.0. November – BlackBerry released BlackBerry 10.3.3. April – Samsung offic
Mobile telephony is the provision of telephone services to phones which may move around rather than stay fixed in one location. Mobile phones connect to a terrestrial cellular network of base stations, whereas satellite phones connect to orbiting satellites. Both networks are interconnected to the public switched telephone network to allow any phone in the world to be dialed. In 2010 there were estimated to be five billion mobile cellular subscriptions in the world. According to internal memos, American Telephone & Telegraph discussed developing a wireless phone in 1915, but were afraid that deployment of the technology could undermine its monopoly on wired service in the U. S. Public mobile phone systems were first introduced in the years after the Second World War and made use of technology developed before and during the conflict; the first system opened in St Louis, Missouri, USA in 1946 whilst other countries followed in the succeeding decades. The UK introduced its'System 1' manual radiotelephone service as the South Lancashire Radiophone Service in 1958.
Calls were made via an operator using handsets identical to ordinary phone handsets. The phone itself was a large box located in the boot of the vehicle containing valves and other early electronic components. Although an uprated manual service was extended to cover most of the UK, automation did not arrive until 1981 with'System 4'. Although this non-cellular service, based on German B-Netz technology, was expanded throughout the UK between 1982 and 1985 and continued in operation for several years before closing in Scotland, it was overtaken by the introduction in January 1985 of two cellular systems - the British Telecom/Securicor'Cellnet' service and the Racal/Millicom/Barclays'Vodafone' service; these cellular systems were based on US Advanced Mobile Phone Service technology, the modified technology being named Total Access Communication System. In 1947 Bell Labs was the first to propose a cellular radio telephone network; the primary innovation was the development of a network of small overlapping cell sites supported by a call switching infrastructure that tracks users as they move through a network and passes their calls from one site to another without dropping the connection.
In 1956 the MTA system was launched in Sweden. The early efforts to develop mobile telephony faced two significant challenges: allowing a great number of callers to use the comparatively few available frequencies and allowing users to seamlessly move from one area to another without having their calls dropped. Both problems were solved by Bell Labs employee Amos Joel who, in 1970 applied for a patent for a mobile communications system. However, a business consulting firm calculated the entire U. S. market for mobile telephones at 100,000 units and the entire worldwide market at no more than 200,000 units based on the ready availability of pay telephones and the high cost of constructing cell towers. As a consequence, Bell Labs concluded that the invention was "of little or no consequence," leading it not to attempt to commercialize the invention; the invention earned Joel induction into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 2008. The first call on a handheld mobile phone was made on April 3, 1973 by Martin Cooper of Motorola to his opposite number in Bell Labs who were racing to be first.
Bell Labs went on to install the first trial cellular network in Chicago in 1978. This trial system was licensed by the FCC to ATT for commercial use in 1982 and, as part of the divestiture arrangements for the breakup of ATT, the AMPS technology was distributed to local telcos; the first commercial system opened in Chicago in October 1983. A system designed by Motorola operated in the Washington D. C./Baltimore area from summer 1982 and became a full public service the following year. Japan's first commercial radiotelephony service was launched by NTT in 1978; the first automatic first generation cellular system was the Nordic Mobile Telephone system launched in 1981 in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. NMT was the first mobile phone network featuring international roaming; the Swedish electrical engineer Östen Mäkitalo started to work on this vision in 1966, is considered as the father of the NMT system and some consider him the father of the cellular phone. The advent of cellular technology encouraged European countries to co-operate in the development of a pan-European cellular technology to rival those of the US and Japan.
This resulted in the GSM system, the initials from the Groupe Spécial Mobile, charged with the specification and development tasks but latterly as the'Global System for Mobile Communications'. The GSM standard spread outside Europe and is now the most used cellular technology in the world and the de facto standard; the industry association, the GSMA, now represents 219 countries and nearly 800 mobile network operators. There are now estimated to be over 5 billion phone subscriptions according to the "List of countries by number of mobile phones in use", which makes the mobile phone the most spread technology and the most common electronic device in the world; the first mobile phone to enable internet connectivity and wireless email, the Nokia Communicator, was released in 1996, creating a new category of multi-use devices called smartphones. In 1999 the first mobile internet service was launched by NTT DoCoMo in Japan under the i-Mode service. By 2007 over 798 million people around the world accessed the internet or equivalent mobile internet services such as WAP and i-Mode at least using a mobile phone rather t
A mobile game is a game played on a feature phone, smartphone/tablet, smartwatch, PDA, portable media player or graphing calculator. The earliest known game on a mobile phone was a Tetris variant on the Hagenuk MT-2000 device from 1994. In 1997, Nokia launched the successful Snake. Snake, preinstalled in most mobile devices manufactured by Nokia, has since become one of the most played games and is found on more than 350 million devices worldwide. A variant of the Snake game for the Nokia 6110, using the infrared port, was the first two-player game for mobile phones. Today, mobile games are downloaded from an app store as well as from mobile operator's portals, but in some cases are preloaded in the handheld devices by the OEM or by the mobile operator when purchased, via infrared connection, memory card or side loaded onto the handset with a cable. Downloadable mobile games were first commercialised in Japan circa the launch of NTT DoCoMo's I-mode platform in 1999, by the early 2000s were available through a variety of platforms throughout Asia, North America and most territories where modern carrier networks and handsets were available by the mid-2000s.
However, mobile games distributed by mobile operators and third party portals remained a marginal form of gaming until Apple's iOS App Store was launched in 2008. As the first mobile content marketplace operated directly by a mobile platform holder, the App Store changed the consumer behaviour and broadened the market for mobile games, as every smartphone owner started to download mobile apps. Towards the end of the 20th century, mobile phone ownership became ubiquitous in the industrialised world - due to the establishment of industry standards, the rapid fall in cost of handset ownership, use driven by economies of scale; as a result of this explosion, technological advancement by handset manufacturers became rapid. With these technological advances, mobile phone games became sophisticated, taking advantage of exponential improvements in display, storage, network bandwidth and operating system functionality. Preloaded games on turn-of-the-century mobile phones were limited to crude monochrome dot matrix graphics and single channel tones.
Commands would be input via the device's keypad buttons. For a period in the early 2000s, WAP and other early mobile internet protocols allowed simple client-server games to be hosted online, which could be played through a WAP browser on devices that lacked the capability to download and run discrete applications. With the advent of feature phones more hardware power became available in bottom-of-the-range devices. Colour screens, multi-channel sound and most the ability to download and store new applications paved the way for commercial mobile game publishing; some early companies utilized the camera phone technology for mobile games such as Namco and Panasonic. In 2003 Namco released a fighting game that used the cell phone's camera to create a character based on the player's profile and determined the character's speed and power based on the image taken; that same year Panasonic released a virtual pet game in which the pet is fed by photos of foods taken with the camera phone. In the early 2000s, mobile games gained popularity in Japan's mobile phone culture, years before the United States or Europe.
By 2003, a wide variety of mobile games were available on Japanese phones, ranging from puzzle games and virtual pet titles that utilized camera phone and fingerprint scanner technologies to 3D games with exceptionally high quality graphics. Older arcade-style games became popular on mobile phones, which were an ideal platform for arcade-style games designed for shorter play sessions. Nokia tried to create its own dedicated mobile gaming platform with the N-Gage in 2003 but this effort failed due to a mixture of unpopular design decisions, poor software support and competition from handheld game consoles regarded as more technically advanced; the N-Gage brand was retained for a few years as a games service included on Nokia's general-purpose phones. In Europe, downloadable mobile games were introduced by the "Les Games" portal from Orange France, run by In-fusio, in 2000. Whereas before mobile games were commissioned directly by handset manufacturers, now mobile operators started to act as distributors of games.
As the operators were not keen on handling hundreds of relationships with one- or two-person developers, mobile aggregators and publishers started to act as a middleman between operators and developers that further reduced the revenue share seen by developers. The launch of Apple's App Store in 2008 radically changed the market. First of all, it widened consumers' opportunities to choose; the Apple users, can only use the Apple App Store, since Apple forbids the distribution of apps via any other distribution channel. Secondly, mobile developers can upload applications directly to the App Store without the lengthy negotiations with publishers and operators, which increased their revenue share and made mobile game development more profitable. Thirdly, the tight integration of the App Store with the device itself