Zoetermeer is a city in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. The municipality covers an area of 37.05 km2 of which 2.50 km2 is water, a small village until the late 1960s, it had 6,392 inhabitants in 1950. By 2013 this had grown to 123,328, making it the third largest population centre in the province of South Holland, after Rotterdam and it is part of the Haaglanden conurbation. The name Zoetermeer refers to the lake north of the town. Because the name translates as sweet lake local residents have dubbed Zoetermeer Sweet Lake City. In the tenth century Zoetermeer was a village, primarily home to farmers. In the 13th century a village centre was formed, which exists as the historic Dorpsstraat. Until the 17th century there was a lake, called the Zoetermeer, until 1935 the village centre was split into two villages and Zegwaard. The standard of living at the time was said to be higher in Zoetermeer than in Zegwaard, Seghwaert, an older way of spelling of Zegwaard, is now the name of a neighbourhood outside the old village centre.
Zoetermeer began to grow slightly when the first train came around 1868. A few decades the Numico factory started near the station, the real growth started in 1966, when there was an urgent need of houses from people around The Hague. From they started to build new quarters around the old centre, so Zoetermeer began to grow. Although Zoetermeer nowadays has the image of a city, there are still remains of the past. Like the old centre with its small houses and the church with late medieval 15th-century clock tower. Lake Dobbe divides the old town from the new city centre, with the village centre on one side of the lake. Every neighbourhood has at least one shopping mall and a tram stop, the area features the historic De Hoop windmill, which unlike many other windmills in the area used for drainage, has always been used as a corn mill. The postcode for Zoetermeer-Dorp is 2712, Driemanspolder was the first area to be developed as part of modern Zoetermeer, and contains mostly large multi-apartment buildings characteristic of the era.
It is next to the A12 motorway, which forms the border of the wijk
The Randstad is a megalopolis in the central-western Netherlands consisting primarily of the four largest Dutch cities and their surrounding areas. Among other things, it contains the Port of Rotterdam, and Amsterdam Airport Schiphol. With a population of 7,100,000 it is one of the largest metropolitan regions in Europe, comparable in size to Milan or the San Francisco Bay Area and its one of the most important and densely populated economic areas in northwestern Europe. The Randstads main cities are Almere, Amsterdam, Dordrecht, Haarlem, Rotterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Zoetermeer. Although the name Randstad is often translated into English as edge city or border city, a more accurate translation would be rim city. The Dutch name was coined in 1938 by KLM founder Albert Plesman who, while flying over the region, while technically more of a crescent, the ring shape formed by connecting the four major cities of the region led to the use of the name Ring City. Within the Netherlands, a divide between the Randstad and the rest of the country exists.
Recently, Dutch planners have started to refer to the Randstad as Deltametropool, deltametropolis actually consists of two large metropolitan areas,1. The Noordvleugel, consisting of the Haarlem and IJmuiden conurbations in the west, Amsterdam at the centre and Almere, the conurbation of Utrecht can be considered to be part of this wing, but can be excluded. The cultural centre of the Noordvleugel, however, is centered on Amsterdam. Amsterdam recently started to present itself as the Amsterdam Metropolitan Area, the expectation is that the use of the Noordvleugel and the Randstad will become less as a result. The Zuidvleugel, stretching some 60 kilometers from Dordrecht in the South East to Leiden in the North, the main conurbations are the Rotterdam and The Hague areas. The virtual centre of the Zuidvleugel lies in between two major cities, near Delft. The first steps toward this development were taken with the construction of a new fast light-rail connection between Rotterdam and The Hague, RandstadRail.
A long-delayed extension of the western A4-motorway from the south of Delft to Rotterdam has been constructed, creating a second connection between Rotterdam, via The Hague, to Amsterdam. A possible new area would be the Zuidoostflank, parallel to the A2 motorway and parallel to the A12 motorway, over the last few decades, a major topic in the Randstad is the conflict between the cities and the towns in between. Cities need more space to expand, yet the towns fear losing their identity, the Randstads borders have never been officially specified. Some consider only the four biggest cities of the Netherlands part of it, others would say that such as Alkmaar, Hoorn
Utrecht is the capital and most populous city in the Dutch province of Utrecht. It is located in the corner of the Randstad conurbation and is the fourth largest city in the Netherlands with a population of 330,772 in 2014. Utrechts ancient city centre features many buildings and structures several dating as far back as the High Middle Ages and it has been the religious centre of the Netherlands since the 8th century. It lost the status of prince-bishopric but remains the religious center in the country. Utrecht was the most important city in the Netherlands until the Dutch Golden Age, Utrecht is host to Utrecht University, the largest university in the Netherlands, as well as several other institutions of higher education. Due to its position within the country, it is an important transport hub for both rail and road transport. It has the second highest number of events in the Netherlands. In 2012, Lonely Planet included Utrecht in the top 10 of the world’s unsung places, a series of such fortresses was built after the Roman emperor Claudius decided the empire should not expand north.
To consolidate the border the limes Germanicus defense line was constructed along the branch of the river Rhine. These fortresses were designed to house a cohort of about 500 Roman soldiers, near the fort settlements would grow housing artisans and soldiers wives and children. In Roman times, the name of the Utrecht fortress was simply Traiectum, Traiectum became Dutch Trecht, with the U from Old Dutch uut added to distinguish U-trecht from Maas-tricht. In 11th-century official documents it was Latinized as Ultra Traiectum, around the year 200, the wooden walls of the fortification were replaced by sturdier tuff stone walls, remnants of which are still to be found below the buildings around Dom Square. From the middle of the 3rd century Germanic tribes regularly invaded the Roman territories, around 275 the Romans could no longer maintain the northern border and Utrecht was abandoned. Little is known about the next period 270–650, Utrecht is first spoken of again several centuries after the Romans left.
Under the influence of the realms of the Franks, during Dagobert Is reign in the 7th century. In ongoing border conflicts with the Frisians this first church was destroyed, by the mid-7th century and Irish missionaries set out to convert the Frisians. The pope appointed their leader, bishop of the Frisians, the tenure of Willibrordus is generally considered to be the beginning of the Bishopric of Utrecht. In 723, the Frankish leader Charles Martel bestowed the fortress in Utrecht, from on Utrecht became one of the most influential seats of power for the Roman Catholic Church in the Netherlands
Midden-Delfland is a municipality in the Westland region in the province of South Holland in the Netherlands. It had a population of 18,514 in 2014, and it was formed on January 1,2004, through the merger of the former municipalities, covered an area of 24.42 km2 of which 0.6 km2 water. Schipluiden, covered an area of 30.00 km2 of which 0.39 km2 water, the municipality comprises the population centres Hodenpijl, Den Hoorn, Maasland, Schipluiden, t Woudt and Zweth. Now, Midden-Delfland is designated as an area for people from the surrounding cities
Pijnacker-Nootdorp is a suburban municipality in the Randstad conurbation in the Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. The municipality covers an area of 38.61 km2 of which 1.25 km2 is water, the municipality of Pijnacker-Nootdorp comprises the following towns and townships, Nootdorp, Oude Leede and newly built Ypenburg. It is the result of merging the municipalities of Pijnacker and Nootdorp in 2002 and it is part of the Haaglanden conurbation centred on The Hague, but it is close to Delft and Rotterdam. Nootdorp is connected to The Hague through the Randstadrail public transport system, dutch Topographic map of the municipality of Pijnacker-Nootdorp, June 2015 Ackerdijkse Plassen Official website
South Holland is a province in the midwestern Netherlands. It has a population of just over 3.6 million, situated on the North Sea in the west of the Netherlands, South Holland covers an area of 3,403 km2, of which 585 km2 is water. It borders North Holland to the north and Gelderland to the east, the provincial capital is The Hague, while its largest city is Rotterdam. Archaeological discoveries in Hardinxveld-Giessendam indicate that the area of South Holland has been inhabited since at least ca.7,500 years before present and permanent settlements probably originated around 2,000 years later, based on excavations near Vlaardingen. In the classical antiquity, South Holland was part of the Roman Province of Germania Inferior, the Romans built fortresses along the border, such as Praetorium Agrippinae near modern-day Valkenburg, Matilo near modern-day Leiden, and Albaniana near modern-day Alphen aan den Rijn. A city was founded near modern-day Voorburg, Forum Hadriani and it was built according to the grid plan, and facilitated a square, a court, a bathhouse and several temples.
After the departure of the Romans, the area belonged to the Frisian Kingdom, in 690, the Anglo-Saxon monk Willibrord arrived near Katwijk and was granted permission to spread Roman Catholicism by the Frankish king Pepin II. He accordingly founded a church in Oegstgeest, after which the area was gradually Christianised. The area was appointed to East Francia in the Treaty of Verdun in 843, after which the king granted lands to Gerolf and this was the birth of the County of Holland. Gerolf was succeeded by Dirk I, who continued to rule Holland under the Frankish king, in 1248, count William II ordered the construction of the Ridderzaal, which was finished by his son and successor Floris V. The first city in South Holland to receive city rights was Dordrecht, the city retained a dominant position in the area until it was struck by a series of floods in the late 14th century. The same century saw a series of civil wars, the Hook and Cod wars. Both his daughter Jaqueline and his brother John, the supported by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy.
The conflict ended in 1490, with John victorious, the area of South Holland remained largely agrarian throughout the late Middle Ages. This changed around 1500, when Holland became Europes most urbanised area, during the Eighty Years War, the area of South Holland was the scene of the Capture of Brielle, the Siege of Leiden and the assassination of William the Silent. The United Netherlands declared their independence in 1581, and Holland quickly emerged as the dominant province, with important trading cities such as Leiden, Gouda. In 1575, the Netherlands first university was founded in Leiden by William the Silent, the Hague, which had originated around the castle of the counts of Holland, became its new political centre. Both the States of Holland and the States General seated in the Binnenhof, the Dutch Golden Age blossomed in the 17th century
Wassenaar is a town in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. It is part of the Haaglanden region, the municipality covers an area of 62.37 km2, of which 11.45 km2 is covered by water. Wassenaar long remained a little town, known only as the home of the House of Wassenaer. It only began to gain notoriety in the 19th century when Louis Bonaparte ordered the construction of the Heerweg between The Hague and Leiden, which forms the current Rijksstraatweg. In approximately 1840, Prince Frederik had the De Paauw palace built, Wassenaar became attractive as a residence for wealthy people from Rotterdam. From September 1944 to March 1945 Wassenaar was one of launching sites used by the German Luftwaffe, on one of the main routes to the Wassenaarseslag, the main beach for Wassenaarders, a World War II bunker can be found. For safety reasons and the instability of the structure, it was sealed off to prevent entrance. The American World War II and Korean War general Haywood Hansell, in 1982 the Wassenaar Agreement between employers organisations and trade unions in the Netherlands was signed here.
This groundbreaking agreement helped in restraining wage growth in return for the adoption of policies to combat unemployment, the Wassenaar Arrangement, a post Cold War era arms control convention, was signed here by forty member nations in May 1996. The princesses attend the Bloemcampschool in Wassenaar, founded in 1931, in addition, several ambassadorial residences are located here, including those of Canada, South Korea and Ireland. As a community, Wassenaar benefits from several parks and a network of bicycle paths, mainly beech and horse chestnut, are widespread, giving the town a green characteristic. The town centre supports a number of high end shops and bakeries as well as a cafe, there are Football, Field Hockey, Cricket and Tennis clubs located in Wassenaar for locals to participate in or to enthusiastically cheer on. Some remnants of the Atlantic wall are located on Wassenaars beach, the network now serves as a bat sanctuary and is not open to visits anymore. The theme park Duinrell and the race track Duindigt, the remaining grass race track in the Netherlands, are here as well.
Despite being a small town, Wassenaar is well known in the Netherlands as a result of its conspicuous wealth. Areas of the town are amongst the most affluent in the Netherlands, Wassenaar is home to some of the most expensive neighbourhoods in the nation. The Julianawegs average house price is around 2,345,000 million Euros, the Dutch artists Ross and Iba released a song entitled Wassenaar, which poked fun at the wealth of the town. Wassenaar has always enjoyed good relations with the town of Voorschoten
Leidschendam-Voorburg is a municipality in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. The municipality had a population of 73,543 in 2014, the municipality of Leidschendam-Voorburg is the result of merging the municipalities Leidschendam and Voorburg in 2002. It consists of the twin cities Leidschendam and Voorburg, the village Stompwijk, Leidschendam-Voorburg abuts the city of The Hague and is often regarded as its suburb, even though it is an independent municipality. It is part of the Haaglanden conurbation, Stompwijk is still a rural village, located a few kilometres northeast of Leidschendam. Leidschendam-Voorburg is twinned with, Czech Republic, Konstancin-Jeziorna, Poland Temecula, several railway stations are located within the municipality, providing links with all major cities in the Randstad. The main trainstation is Voorburg on The Hague - Utrecht line, there are a number of stations on the Rotterdam-Amsterdam line on the border of The Hague and Voorburg, including Den Haag Mariahoeve and Den Haag Laan van NOI.
Leidschendam-Voorburg has several stations on the RandstadRail lines, RandstadRail is a light rail project connecting the cities of The Hague and Zoetermeer. These lines use the train routes, which are now converted for use by light rail vehicles. Main RandstadRail stations in Leidschendam-Voorburg are Voorburg t Loo and Leidschendam-Voorburg, there are two major bus services running through this municipality. Several tram trajectories through Leidschendam-Voorburg - run by HTM - connect various parts of the city with each other, Leidschendam-Voorburg is connected to the A4 and A12 motorways. The N14 road, which connects the A4 at Leidschendam to the N44 road at Wassenaar runs through a series of tunnels in the city
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands, although it is not the seat of the government, which is The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of 851,373 within the city proper,1,351,587 in the urban area, the city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country. The metropolitan area comprises much of the part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe. Amsterdams name derives from Amstelredamme, indicative of the citys origin around a dam in the river Amstel, during that time, the city was the leading centre for finance and diamonds. In the 19th and 20th centuries the city expanded, and many new neighborhoods and suburbs were planned, the 17th-century canals of Amsterdam and the 19–20th century Defence Line of Amsterdam are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. As the commercial capital of the Netherlands and one of the top financial centres in Europe, Amsterdam is considered a world city by the Globalization.
The city is the capital of the Netherlands. Many large Dutch institutions have their headquarters there, and seven of the worlds 500 largest companies, including Philips and ING, are based in the city. In 2012, Amsterdam was ranked the second best city to live in by the Economist Intelligence Unit and 12th globally on quality of living for environment, the city was ranked 3rd in innovation by Australian innovation agency 2thinknow in their Innovation Cities Index 2009. The Amsterdam seaport to this day remains the second in the country, famous Amsterdam residents include the diarist Anne Frank, artists Rembrandt van Rijn and Vincent van Gogh, and philosopher Baruch Spinoza. The Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world, is located in the city center. After the floods of 1170 and 1173, locals near the river Amstel built a bridge over the river, the earliest recorded use of that name is in a document dated October 27,1275, which exempted inhabitants of the village from paying bridge tolls to Count Floris V.
This allowed the inhabitants of the village of Aemstelredamme to travel freely through the County of Holland, paying no tolls at bridges, the certificate describes the inhabitants as homines manentes apud Amestelledamme. By 1327, the name had developed into Aemsterdam, Amsterdam is much younger than Dutch cities such as Nijmegen and Utrecht. In October 2008, historical geographer Chris de Bont suggested that the land around Amsterdam was being reclaimed as early as the late 10th century. This does not necessarily mean there was already a settlement then, since reclamation of land may not have been for farming—it may have been for peat. Amsterdam was granted city rights in either 1300 or 1306, from the 14th century on, Amsterdam flourished, largely from trade with the Hanseatic League
Rotterdam The Hague Airport
Rotterdam The Hague Airport, located 3 NM north northwest of Rotterdam, is the Netherlands third largest airport. It serves the city of Rotterdam as well as The Hague, the airport handled over 1.5 million passengers in 2013 and features scheduled flights to European metropolitan and leisure destinations. It is used extensively by general aviation and there are several flying clubs, after World War II, the Dutch government decided that a second national airport was needed in addition to Schiphol. Rotterdam had had an airport before the war - Waalhaven airport - but it was damaged in the bombing of Rotterdam. Reconstruction of the airport was not a proposition, so a new location was found in the Zestienhoven polder. Construction of the began in August 1955 and the airport was officially opened in October 1956. Several large international airlines, such as Swissair and Air France, were operating from Rotterdam. However, in the 1970s plans were made to close or move the airport to make room for houses.
The route with the longest continual service, to London Heathrow and this marked the end of KLMs involvement with the airport. However, in December 2012, British Airways began a service to Rotterdam from Heathrow, in October 2014 British Airways announced they would suspend the route again in March 2015. The name of the airport was changed from Zestienhoven to Rotterdam Airport, there is a fair amount of business aviation. With the closure of nearby Ypenburg Airport in 1992 and Valkenburg Naval Air Base in 2006 Rotterdam The Hague airport is now the only remaining airport in the area for those types of flights. The airport is served by bus line 33, which runs between Rotterdam central station, the airport, and further to Meijersplein station, at Meijersplein, you can transfer to metro line E, with frequent service to Den Haag Centraal, Rotterdam Centraal and Rotterdam city center. The airport lies next to the busy A13/E19 motorway, which makes it easily accessible via car
RandstadRail is a public transportation rapid transit network in the southern part of the Randstad conurbation in the west of the Netherlands, connecting The Hague and Rotterdam. The network mainly uses former train and existing tracks, with a new flyover in The Hague. RandstadRail is a system of low-floor tram-train-like carriages used between The Hague and the city of Zoetermeer, and high-floor metro/subway-like carriages between The Hague and Rotterdam. The stations used by both lines have extended platforms with a high and a low part, the network includes two bus lines. It was opened as a RandstadRail line in September 2006, running at the time between Nootdorp and Hofplein until it was extended to The Hague in November of that year. As part of the conversion to RandstadRail operation, it began using RET metro trains, more stops were added. Although the conversion was not flawless, with both a series of problems and a derailment, the line has been in full metro-like operation since September 2007.
Rotterdam Hofplein terminus was replaced in 2010 with a tunnel connecting the line with the local metro network at Rotterdam Centraal railway station. The metro line runs every 10 to 15 minutes, RandstadRail includes two tram-train lines, both running from The Hague to Zoetermeer. These lines are operated by HTM, the transport operator in The Hague. Between Central Station and Zoetermeer they operate on dedicated tracks as a rail system. Line 3 and 4 come every 10 minutes during daytime, on Monday to Saturday, on Sundays, as well as in the evening, they come once every 15 minutes. Line 19, even during the daytime, comes only once every 15 minutes, in December 2012, two bus lines were added to RandstadRail. These so-called ZoRo-bus lines, line 170 and line 173, run between Zoetermeer and Rodenrijs RandstadRail station, where they connect with Randstadrail metroline E to and from Rotterdam, a new bus lane was constructed between the two cities for the project. The buses are operated by the RET three times hourly and have an almost instant connection to arriving Randstadrail-metrotrains at Rodenrijs RandstadRail station, at their terminus in Zoetermeer Centrum-West Randstadrail station these buslines connect with all other Zoetermeer city- and regional buslines and Randstadraillines 3 and 4.
Trams in The Hague Trams in Rotterdam RandstadRail Route map and connections