Magnus V of Norway
Magnus V Erlingsson was a King of Norway during the Civil war era in Norway. Magnus Erlingsson was probably born in Etne in Hordaland and he was the son of Erling Skakke. His father was a Norwegian nobleman who earned his reputation crusading with Rögnvald Kali Kolsson and his mother was Kristin Sigurdsdatter, daughter of king Sigurd Jorsalfare who was king of Norway from 1103 to 1130. Magnus Erlingsson was named king in 1161 at the age of five and he was the first Norwegian king to be crowned. His father Erling took the title of earl and held the power since Magnus was a minor. Erling Skakke continued to be the real ruler even after Magnus had come of age. In 1166, Sigurd Agnhatt and his foster son Olav Ugjæva raised a force in Oppland, Olav was the son of Maria Øysteinsdotter, the daughter of former king Øystein Magnusson. After Erling returned to Norway to fight this uprising, Erling was wounded and barely escaped. In 1168 Olav and his men ventured south to the Oslofjord area, Sigurd was killed in the battle, but Olav escaped and went to Denmark.
Magnus reign saw the arrival in Norway of Sverre Sigurdsson, who claimed the throne for himself, in June 1177, Sverre first led his men to Trøndelag where Sverre was proclaimed as king. Erlings position was compromised and he fell at the Battle of Kalvskinnet outside Nidaros in 1179, several more years of warfare ended with Magnus defeat and death in the Battle of Fimreite on June 15,1184. Sverre attacked Magnus fleet sending his ships into battle in squadrons, to charge and overwhelm on one ship at a time, as the battle proceeded, the remaining ships became extremely crammed, and started to go down because of the weight. King Magnus is reported to have gone down on one of the last of them, the civil war era in Norway would not end with the victory of Sverre over Magnus. After the death of Magnus, Sigurd Magnusson, Inge Magnusson and Erling Magnusson Steinvegg came forth all stating to be sons of Magnus, the civil war era in Norway extended over a 110-year period. It started with the death of King Sigurd I of Norway in 1130, during this period there were several interlocked conflicts of varying scale and intensity.
The background for these conflicts was the unclear Norwegian succession laws, social conditions, there were two main parties, firstly known by varying names or no names at all, but finally condensed into parties of Bagler and Birkebeiner. The rallying point regularly was a son, who was set up as the head figure of the party in question
Eric Haraldsson, nicknamed Eric Bloodaxe, was a 10th-century Norwegian ruler. He is thought to have had short-lived terms as King of Norway, historians have reconstructed a narrative of Erics life and career from the scant available historical data. This identification has been rejected recently by the historian Claire Downham and this argument, though respected by other historians in the area, has not produced consensus. Contemporary or near-contemporary sources include different recensions of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Erics coinage, the Life of St Cathróe, such sources reproduce only a hazy image of Erics activities in Anglo-Saxon England. Current opinion veers towards a critical attitude towards the use of sagas as historical sources for the period before the 11th century. Erics soubriquet blóðøx, ‘Bloodaxe’ or Bloody-axe, is of uncertain origin, the sagas usually explain it as referring to Erics slaying of his half-brothers in a ruthless struggle to monopolise his rule over Norway, Theodoricus gives the similar nickname fratrum interfector.
Fagrskinna, on the hand, ascribes it to Erics violent reputation as a Viking raider. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle describes Eric laconically as ‘Harold’s son’, perhaps assuming some familiarity on the readers part, in the early part of the 12th century, John of Worcester had reason to believe that Eric was of royal Scandinavian stock. One of Egills lausavísur speaks of an encounter in England with a man of Haralds line, while the Arinbjarnarkviða envisages a ruler at York who is a descendant of Halfdán and of the Yngling dynasty. If genuine, the latter identification would form the only clue in the contemporary record which might link Eric with the Norwegian dynasty. Another Haraldr known from this period is Aralt mac Sitric, king of Limerick and this may be relevant, since both these brothers and a certain Eric have been described as rulers of the Isles. In a letter addressed to Pope Boniface VIII, King Edward I remembered a certain Eric as having been a king of Scotland subject to the English king, in the 19th century, a case had been made for Harald Bluetooth King of Denmark as being Erics true father. J. M.
Lappenberg and Charles Plummer, for instance, when the latter had subjugated the island, he was in the end betrayed and killed by the Northumbrians. Even if Erics rise and fall had been the inspiration for the story, in the account cited in full below, Roger of Wendover says that Eric was killed by a certain Maccus – elsewhere a son of Olaf – together with his son Haeric and brother Ragnald. Harald Fairhair is usually portrayed as a polygamous and fertile king, while Erics mother remains anonymous in the synoptic histories and most of the Icelandic sagas, the Heimskringla claims that she was Ragnhildr, daughter of Eric, king of Jutland. It tells that Harald chose the lady from Denmark / broke with his Rogaland loves / and his lemans of Horthaland, / the maidens of Hálogaland /, in the Flateyjarbók, it is preceded by another stanza which refers to the handmaidens of Ragnhildr as witnesses of the event. However, it is uncertain whether her name was already in the original composition, whatever one makes of the discrepancy, the sagas – including Heimskringla – are unanimous in making Haakon Erics younger half-brother and successor.
According to Heimskringla and Egils saga, Eric spent much of his childhood in fosterage with the hersir Thórir son of Hróald
Harald Sigurdsson, given the epithet Hardrada in the sagas, was King of Norway from 1046 to 1066. In addition, he claimed the Danish throne until 1064. Prior to becoming king, Harald had spent around fifteen years in exile as a mercenary and military commander in Kievan Rus, when he was fifteen years old, in 1030, Harald fought in the Battle of Stiklestad together with his half-brother Olaf Haraldsson. Olaf sought to reclaim the Norwegian throne, which he had lost to the Danish king Cnut the Great two years prior, in the battle and Harald were defeated by forces loyal to Cnut, and Harald was forced into exile to Kievan Rus. He thereafter spent some time in the army of Grand Prince Yaroslav the Wise, eventually obtaining rank as a captain, Harald amassed considerable wealth during his time in the Byzantine Empire, which he shipped to Yaroslav in Kievan Rus for safekeeping. He finally left the Byzantines in 1042, and arrived back in Kievan Rus in order to prepare his campaign of reclaiming the Norwegian throne, possibly to Haralds knowledge, in his absence the Norwegian throne had been restored from the Danes to Olafs illegitimate son Magnus the Good.
In 1046, Harald joined forces with Magnuss rival in Denmark, the pretender Sweyn II of Denmark, unwilling to fight his uncle, agreed to share the kingship with Harald, since Harald in turn would share his wealth with him. The co-rule ended abruptly the next year as Magnus died, Harald crushed all local and regional opposition, and outlined the territorial unification of Norway under a national governance. Haralds reign was one of relative peace and stability, and he instituted a viable coin economy. Probably seeking to restore Cnuts North Sea Empire, Harald claimed the Danish throne, although the campaigns were successful, he was never able to conquer Denmark. Harald went along and entered Northern England in September 1066, raided the coast, although initially successful, Harald was defeated and killed in an attack by Harold Godwinsons forces in the Battle of Stamford Bridge. Modern historians have often considered Haralds death at Stamford Bridge, which brought an end to his invasion, Harald is commonly held to have been the last great Viking king, or even the last great Viking.
Through his mother Åsta, Harald was the youngest of King Olaf Haraldssons three half-brothers, in his youth, Harald displayed traits of a typical rebel with big ambitions, and admired Olaf as his role model. He thus differed from his two brothers, who were more similar to their father, down-to-earth and mostly concerned with maintaining the farm. The Icelandic sagas, in particular Snorri Sturluson in Heimskringla, claim that Sigurd, following a revolt in 1028, Haralds brother Olaf was forced into exile until he returned to Norway in early 1030. On hearing news of Olafs planned return, Harald gathered 600 men from the Uplands to meet Olaf and his men upon their arrival in the east of Norway. After a friendly welcome, Olaf went on to gather an army and eventually fight in the Battle of Stiklestad on 29 July 1030, the battle was part of an attempt to restore Olaf to the Norwegian throne, which had been captured by the Danish king Cnut the Great. The battle resulted in defeat for the brothers at the hands of those Norwegians who were loyal to Cnut, Harald was nonetheless remarked to have shown considerable military talent during the battle
The Fairhair Dynasty is traditionally regarded as the first royal dynasty of the united kingdom of Norway. It was founded by Harald I of Norway, known as Haraldr hinn hárfagri, the first King of Norway, according to the traditional view, after Harald Fairhair first unified the kingdom, Norway was inherited by his agnatic descendants. In the 13th century, this was codified in law, unlike other Scandinavian monarchies and Anglo-Saxon England, Norway was never an elective monarchy. The first such period was from about 975 to about 995 under Haakon Sigurdsson, although Harald Fairhairs kingdom was the kernel of a unified Norway, it was still small and his power centre was in Vestfold, in the south. And when he died, the kingdom was divided between his sons, some historians put emphasis on the actual monarchical control over the country and assert that Olav II, who reigned from 1015, was the first king to have control over the entire country. He is generally held to be the force behind Norways final conversion to Christianity and was revered as Rex Perpetuum Norvegiæ.
Some provinces did not actually come under the rule of the Fairhair kings before the time of Harald III, either of these may therefore be regarded as further unifiers of Norway. And some of the rulers were nominally or actually vassals of the King of Denmark and it is undisputed that kings, until Magnus IV, were descended from Harald Hardrada, the Hardrada dynasty. Sverre Sigurdssons claim to be the son of Sigurd Munn is considered to be dubious. Scholars now consider the Fairhair dynasty at least partly the product of medieval invention, one motive would be to increase the legitimacy of rulers by giving them a clear royal ancestry dating back to the foundation of the kingdom. Another was to provide pedigrees for other people by connecting them to the royal house, Claus Krag argued that an important motive was to establish a hereditary claim to Viken, the region around Oslo, because the area had been paying taxes to the King of Denmark. - in fulfillment of prophetic dreams, according to Heimskringla, in which the genealogy reaches its full form, in this critical view, only three generations of Fairhair kings reigned, from 930 to 1030, for 40 years altogether.
The kings Olav Tryggvason and St. Olav, their ties with the Fairhair dynasty perhaps a 12th-century invention, ruled for 18 years altogether. There may be as many as 6 dynasties altogether subsumed under the title of Fairhair dynasty, Harald Fairhairs, Olav Tryggvasons, St. Olavs, Harald Hardradas, Magnus Erlingssons and Sverres. After Olav II of Norways recognition as a saint, successors of his half-brother, Olav I is historically known to have claimed male-line descent from Harald I, as grandson of Haralds alleged son Olav in Vika. And Olav II is known to have claimed descent from Harald I. Opposing sources claim that Viken and its region of Norway, were not parts of Harald Is dominions, the reliability of these two claims depends on the credibility of the Icelandic accounts and the sources used to compile them. Much legends claim Harald IIIs father to have descended from Harald I, Harald III started the Hardrada dynasty, a putative branch of the Fairhair dynasty
Cnut the Great
King Cnut the Great, known as Canute, was King of Denmark and Norway, together often referred to as the Anglo-Scandinavian or North Sea Empire. After his death, the deaths of his heirs within a decade, the medieval historian Norman Cantor said he was the most effective king in Anglo-Saxon history, though he was Danish and not a Briton or Anglo-Saxon. Cnuts father was Sweyn Forkbeard, King of Denmark, the identity of his mother is uncertain, although medieval tradition makes her a daughter of Mieszko I. As a Danish prince, Cnut won the throne of England in 1016 in the wake of centuries of Viking activity in northwestern Europe and his accession to the Danish throne in 1018 brought the crowns of England and Denmark together. Cnut maintained his power by uniting Danes and English under cultural bonds of wealth and custom, after a decade of conflict with opponents in Scandinavia, Cnut claimed the crown of Norway in Trondheim in 1028. The Swedish city Sigtuna was held by Cnut and he had coins struck there that called him king, but there is no narrative record of his occupation.
Cnut attempted to gain concessions on the tolls his people had to pay on the way to Rome from other magnates of medieval Christendom, the Anglo-Saxon kings used the title king of the English. Cnut was ealles Engla landes cyning—king of all England, Cnut was a son of the Danish Prince Sweyn Forkbeard, who was the son and heir to King Harald Bluetooth from a line of Scandinavian rulers central to the unification of Denmark. Neither the place nor the date of his birth are known, Harthacnut was the semi-legendary founder of the Danish royal house at the beginning of the 10th century, and his son, Gorm the Old, was the first in the official line. Harald Bluetooth, Gorms son and Cnuts grandfather, was the Danish king at the time of the Christianization of Denmark, Cnut was two years old when his grandfather, Harald Bluetooth and his father, Sweyn Forkbeard, assumed the throne. The Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg and the Encomium Emmae report Cnuts mother as having been a daughter of Mieszko I of Poland, since in the Norse sagas the king of Vindland is always Burislav, this is reconcilable with the assumption that her father was Mieszko.
Different theories regarding the number and ancestry of Sweyns wives have been brought forward, Cnuts brother Harald was the first born and crown prince. His date of birth, like his mothers name, is unknown, contemporary works such as the Chronicon and the Encomium Emmae, do not mention this. Even so, in a Knútsdrápa by the skald Óttarr svarti and it mentions a battle identifiable with Sweyn Forkbeards invasion of England and attack on the city of Norwich, in 1003/04, after the St. Brices Day massacre of Danes by the English, in 1002. If it is the case that Cnut was part of this, his birthdate may be near 990, if not, and the skalds poetic verse envisages another assault, such as Forkbeards conquest of England in 1013/14, it may even suggest a birth date nearer 1000. There is a passage of the Encomiast with a reference to the force Cnut led in his English conquest of 1015/16, here it says all the Vikings were of mature age under Cnut the king. He had a fair complexion none-the-less, and a fine, thick head of hair and his eyes were better than those of other men, both the handsomer and the keener of their sight.
Hardly anything is known for sure of Cnuts life until the year he was part of a Scandinavian force under his father, King Sweyn and it was the climax to a succession of Viking raids spread over a number of decades
Hedmark is a county in Norway, bordering Sør-Trøndelag to the north, Oppland to the west and Akershus to the south. The county administration is in Hamar, Hedmark makes up the northeastern part of Østlandet, the southeastern part of the country. It has a border with Sweden, Dalarna County and Värmland County. The largest lakes are Femunden and Mjøsa, the largest lake in Norway, parts of Glomma, Norways longest river, flow through Hedmark. Geographically, Hedmark is traditionally divided into, east of Mjøsa, Østerdalen, north of Elverum and Oppland are the only Norwegian counties with no coastline. Hedmark hosted events of the 1994 Winter Olympic Games. Hamar, Kongsvinger and Tynset are cities in the county, Hedmark is one of the less urbanized areas in Norway, about half of the inhabitants live on rural land. The population is concentrated in the rich agricultural district adjoining Mjøsa to the southeast. The countys extensive forests supply much of Norways timber, at one time, logs were floated down Glomma to the coast but are now transported by truck and train.
The Hedmark municipality of Engerdal has the distinction of marking the current southernmost border in Norway of Sápmi, the county is divided into three traditional districts. These are Hedmarken, Østerdalen and Solør, Hedmark was originally a part of the large Akershus amt, but in 1757 Oplandenes amt was separated from it. Some years later, in 1781, this was divided into Kristians amt, until 1919, the county was called Hedemarkens amt. The Old Norse form of the name was Heiðmǫrk, the first element is heiðnir, the name of an old Germanic tribe and is related to the word heið, which means moorland. The last element is mǫrk woodland, march, the coat of arms is from modern times. Every four years the inhabitants of Hedmark elect 33 representatives to Hedmark Fylkesting, after the elections of September 2007 the majority of the seats of the assembly were held by a three-party coalition consisting of the Labour Party, the Centre Party and the Socialist Left Party. Eight parties are represented in the assembly, the remaining 5 being the Progress Party, the Conservative Party, the Liberal Party, the Christian Democratic Party, the assembly is headed by the county mayor.
As of the 2007 elections the county mayor is Arnfinn Nergård, in 2003 a parliamentary system was established, which means that the county assembly elects a political administration or council to hold executive power. The council is led by Siv Tørudbakken, a member of the Labour Party, official homepage Media related to Hedmark at Wikimedia Commons Hedmark travel guide from Wikivoyage
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system but sometimes appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a house, historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the dynasty may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends. The word dynasty itself is often dropped from such adjectival references, until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty, that is, to increase the territory and power of his family members. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. Succession through a daughter when permitted was considered to establish a new dynasty in her husbands ruling house, some states in Africa, determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mothers dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
It is extended to unrelated people such as poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team. The word dynasty derives via Latin dynastia from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to power, dominion and it was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, power or ability, from dýnamai, to be able. A ruler in a dynasty is referred to as a dynast. For example, following his abdication, Edward VIII of the United Kingdom ceased to be a member of the House of Windsor. A dynastic marriage is one that complies with monarchical house law restrictions, the marriage of Willem-Alexander, Prince of Orange, to Máxima Zorreguieta in 2002 was dynastic, for example, and their eldest child is expected to inherit the Dutch crown eventually. But the marriage of his younger brother Prince Friso to Mabel Wisse Smit in 2003 lacked government support, thus Friso forfeited his place in the order of succession, lost his title as a Prince of the Netherlands, and left his children without dynastic rights.
In historical and monarchist references to formerly reigning families, a dynast is a member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchys rules still in force. Even since abolition of the Austrian monarchy and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position. The term dynast is sometimes used only to refer to descendants of a realms monarchs. The term can therefore describe overlapping but distinct sets of people, yet he is not a male-line member of the royal family, and is therefore not a dynast of the House of Windsor. Thus, in 1999 he requested and obtained permission from Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco. Yet a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time and that exclusion, ceased to apply on 26 March 2015, with retroactive effect for those who had been dynasts prior to triggering it by marriage to a Catholic
Haakon Sigurdarson was the de facto ruler of Norway from about 975 to 995. Sometimes he is styled Hakon the Powerful, Haakon was the son of Sigurd Haakonsson, Jarl of Lade and ruler of Trøndelag and Hålogaland. His mother was Bergljot Toresdatter, daughter of Tore Ragnvaldsson, Jarl of Møre, adam of Bremen wrote that he was of the stock of Ivar and descended from a race of giants. In the sagas, Haakon claimed descent from the lineage of Sæming. The Hakon Jarl Runestones in Sweden may refer to him, Haakon became earl after his father was killed by King Harald Greycloaks men in 961. He warred with King Harald for some time, until he was forced to flee to Denmark, in Denmark he conspired with Harald Bluetooth against Harald Greycloak. Haakon Jarl arranged the death of Harald Greycloak around 971 with the connivance of Harald Bluetooth, civil war broke out between Haakon Jarl and the surviving brothers of Harald Greycloak, but Haakon proved victorious. After this, Haakon Jarl ruled Norway as a vassal of Harald Bluetooth, for Harald, he attacked Götaland and killed its ruler Jarl Ottar.
When Haakon was in Denmark, Harald Bluetooth forced him to accept baptism, when a favourable wind came for Haakon to leave, he commanded the clergymen to return ashore. Around 973-974, he went to Denmark to help Harald Bluetooth of Denmark in his defense against the Holy Roman Emperor Otto II, ottos forces successfully opposed an attempt by Harald to throw off the German yoke. After that Haakon paid no taxes to Denmark, Haakon was a strong believer in the old Norse gods, and when Harald Bluetooth attempted to force Christianity upon him around 975, Haakon broke his allegiance to Denmark. In 977 Vladimir I of Kiev fled to him, collecting as many of the Viking warriors as he could to assist him to recover Novgorod, in 986, a Danish invasion fleet led by the fabled Jomsvikings was defeated at the Battle of Hjörungavágr. In 995, a quarrel broke out between Haakon and the Trønders just as Olaf Tryggvason, a descendant of Harald Fairhair arrived. Haakon quickly lost all support, and was killed by his own slave and friend, Tormod Kark, jarlshola is the location in Melhus thought to have been the hiding place of Haakon Jarl and Tormod Kark on their last night before the infamous murder at Rimul.
After his death, Haakon Jarls two sons Eirik Håkonson and Sveinn Hákonarson, fled for protection to the king of Sweden, a number of sources recount Earl Haakons predilection for raping women, whether the daughters of nobles or of commoners. The play is based on the story of Haakon Jarl and Tormod Kark as portrayed in the Sagas by Snorri Sturluson, the first play was a poetic tableau that was made in connection with the 800-year anniversary of the Lade Church in 1989 and repeated two years later. In 1995, Idar Lind wrote a new script, the music is composed by Frode Fjellheim. Source basis for Haakon Jarl are considerable and he was given coverage in several sagas, including by Snorri Sturluson in Heimskringla, Ágrip af Nóregskonungasögum and more
Harald Blåtand Gormsson was a king of Denmark and Norway. He was the son of King Gorm the Old and of Thyra Dannebod and he died in 985 or 986 having ruled as King of Denmark from c.958 and King of Norway for a few years, probably around 970. Some sources say his son Sweyn Forkbeard forcibly deposed him, Harald had the Jelling stones erected to honour his parents. The Encyclopædia Britannica considers the runic inscriptions as the best-known in Denmark, the biography of Harald Bluetooth is summed up by this runic inscription from the Jelling stones, King Harald bade these memorials to be made after Gorm, his father, and Thyra, his mother. The Harald who won the whole of Denmark and Norway and turned the Danes to Christianity, Widukind does not mention such an event in his contemporary Res gestae saxonicae sive annalium libri tres or Deeds of the Saxons. Some two hundred and fifty years later, the Heimskringla relates that Harald was converted with Earl Haakon, a cleric named Poppa, perhaps the same one, appears in Adam of Bremens history, but in connection with Eric of Sweden, who had supposedly conquered Denmark.
The story of this otherwise unknown Poppo or Poppas miracle and baptism of Harald is depicted on the altar piece in the Church of Tamdrup in Denmark. The altar itself dates to about 1200, as noted above, Haralds father, Gorm the Old, had died in 958, and had been buried in a mound with many goods, after the pagan practice. The mound itself was from c.500 BCE, but Harald had it built higher over his fathers grave, and added a second mound to the south. Mound-building was a newly revived custom in the 10th century, perceivably as an appeal to old traditions in the face of Christian customs spreading from Denmarks southern neighbors, the Germans. After his conversion, around the 960s, Harald had his fathers body reburied in the next to the now empty mound. Harald undoubtedly professed Christianity at that time and contributed to its growth, during his reign, Harald oversaw the reconstruction of the Jelling runic stones, and numerous other public works. The most famous is fortifying the fortress of Aros which was situated in a position in his kingdom in the year 979.
Some believe these projects were a way for him to consolidate economic and military control of his country and he constructed the oldest known bridge in southern Scandinavia, the 5 meters wide,760 meters long Ravning Bridge at Ravning meadows. While quiet prevailed throughout the interior, he turned his energies to foreign enterprises, the Norse sagas present Harald in a rather negative light. When Styrbjörn brought this fleet to Uppsala to claim the throne of Sweden, Harald broke his oath and fled with his Danes to avoid facing the Swedish army at the Battle of Fýrisvellir. As a consequence of Haralds army having lost to the Germans at the Danevirke in 974, he no longer had control of Norway, and Germans settled back into the border area between Scandinavia and Germany. They were driven out of Denmark in 983 by an alliance of Obodrite soldiers and troops loyal to Harald and he is believed to have died in 986, although several accounts claim 985 as his year of death
The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the Kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land, until 1814, the kingdom included the Faroe Islands and Iceland. It included Isle of Man until 1266, Shetland and Orkney until 1468, Norway has a total area of 385,252 square kilometres and a population of 5,258,317. The country shares a long border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the North Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea. King Harald V of the Dano-German House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway, erna Solberg became Prime Minister in 2013, replacing Jens Stoltenberg. A constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the Parliament, the Cabinet and the Supreme Court, as determined by the 1814 Constitution, the kingdom is established as a merger of several petty kingdoms. By the traditional count from the year 872, the kingdom has existed continuously for 1,144 years, Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels and municipalities.
The Sámi people have an amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament. Norway maintains close ties with the European Union and the United States, the country maintains a combination of market economy and a Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system. Norway has extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber, the petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the countrys gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the worlds largest producer of oil, the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World Bank and IMF lists. On the CIAs GDP per capita list which includes territories and some regions, from 2001 to 2006, and again from 2009 to 2017, Norway had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world. It has the highest inequality-adjusted ranking, Norway ranks first on the World Happiness Report, the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity and the Democracy Index.
Norway has two names, Noreg in Nynorsk and Norge in Bokmål. The name Norway comes from the Old English word Norðrveg mentioned in 880, meaning way or way leading to the north. In contrasting with suðrvegar southern way for Germany, and austrvegr eastern way for the Baltic, the Anglo-Saxon of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. This was the area of Harald Fairhair, the first king of Norway, and because of him
Haakon the Good
Haakon Haraldsson, Haakon the Good and Haakon Adalsteinfostre, was the king of Norway from 934 to 961. He was noted for his attempts to introduce Christianity into Norway, Haakon was the youngest son of King Harald Fairhair and Thora Mosterstang. He was born on the Håkonshella peninsula in Hordaland, King Harald determined to remove his youngest son out of harms way and accordingly sent him to the court of King Athelstan of England. Haakon was fostered by King Athelstan, as part of an agreement made by his father, the English court introduced him to the Christian religion. On the news of his fathers death, King Athelstan provided Haakon with ships and men for an expedition against his half-brother Eric Bloodaxe, who had been proclaimed king of Norway. At his arrival back in Norway, Haakon gained the support of the landowners by promising to give up the rights of taxation claimed by his father over inherited real property. Eric Bloodaxe soon found himself deserted on all sides, and saved his own, Eric fled to the Orkney Islands and to the Kingdom of Jorvik, eventually meeting a violent death at Stainmore, Westmorland, in 954 along with his son, Haeric.
In 953, Haakon had to fight a battle at Avaldsnes against the sons of Eric Bloodaxe. Haakon won the battle at which Erics son Guttorm died, one of Haakons most famous victories was the Battle of Rastarkalv near Frei in 955 at which Erics son, died. By placing ten standards far apart along a low ridge, he gave the impression that his army was bigger than it actually was and he managed to fool Eric’s sons into believing that they were out-numbered. The Danes fled and were slaughtered by Haakon’s army, the sons of Eric returned in 957, with support from King Gorm the Old, King of Denmark, but were again defeated by Haakons effective army system. Three of the sons of Eric Bloodaxe landed undetected on the coast of Hordaland in 961. Haakon was mortally wounded at the Battle of Fitjar after a victory over Eric’s sons. The King’s arm was pierced by an arrow and he died from his wounds and he was buried in the burial mound in the village of Seim in Lindås municipality in the county of Hordaland. Upon his death his court poet, Eyvindr Skáldaspillir, composed a skaldic poem Hákonarmál about the fall of the King in battle and his reception into Valhalla.
After Haakons death, Harald Greycloak, the eldest surviving son of Eric Bloodaxe, ascended the throne as King Harald II, the Norwegians were tormented by years of war. In 970, King Harald was tricked into coming to Denmark and killed in a plot planned by Haakon Sigurdsson, Haakons Park is the location of a statue of King Haakon sculpted by Anne Grimdalen. During 1961, the statue was erected opposite Fitjar Church for the one thousand-year commemoration of the Battle of Fitjar, håkonarspelet is a historical play written by Johannes Heggland in 1997