A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system but sometimes appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a house, historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the dynasty may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends. The word dynasty itself is often dropped from such adjectival references, until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty, that is, to increase the territory and power of his family members. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. Succession through a daughter when permitted was considered to establish a new dynasty in her husbands ruling house, some states in Africa, determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mothers dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
It is extended to unrelated people such as poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team. The word dynasty derives via Latin dynastia from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to power, dominion and it was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, power or ability, from dýnamai, to be able. A ruler in a dynasty is referred to as a dynast. For example, following his abdication, Edward VIII of the United Kingdom ceased to be a member of the House of Windsor. A dynastic marriage is one that complies with monarchical house law restrictions, the marriage of Willem-Alexander, Prince of Orange, to Máxima Zorreguieta in 2002 was dynastic, for example, and their eldest child is expected to inherit the Dutch crown eventually. But the marriage of his younger brother Prince Friso to Mabel Wisse Smit in 2003 lacked government support, thus Friso forfeited his place in the order of succession, lost his title as a Prince of the Netherlands, and left his children without dynastic rights.
In historical and monarchist references to formerly reigning families, a dynast is a member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchys rules still in force. Even since abolition of the Austrian monarchy and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position. The term dynast is sometimes used only to refer to descendants of a realms monarchs. The term can therefore describe overlapping but distinct sets of people, yet he is not a male-line member of the royal family, and is therefore not a dynast of the House of Windsor. Thus, in 1999 he requested and obtained permission from Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco. Yet a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time and that exclusion, ceased to apply on 26 March 2015, with retroactive effect for those who had been dynasts prior to triggering it by marriage to a Catholic
Eric IV of Denmark
Eric IV, known as Eric Ploughpenny or Eric Plowpenny, was king of Denmark from 1241 until his death in 1250. He was the son of King Valdemar II by his wife, Berengaria of Portugal, Eric was born in 1216 as the second legitimate son of King Valdemar II by his second wife Berengária of Portugal. In 1218, when his older half-brother Valdemar was crowned king as their fathers co-ruler and designated heir, after the premature death of Valdemar in 1231, Eric in his turn was crowned king at Lund Cathedral 30 May 1232 as his fathers coruler and heir. Subsequently, he ceded the Duchy of Schleswig to his younger brother Abel, when his father died in 1241, he automatically acceded to the throne. His rule was marked by conflicts and civil wars against his brothers. Especially he fought his brother, Duke Abel of Schleswig who seems to have wanted an independent position, Eric fought the Scanian peasants, who rebelled because of his hard taxes, among other things, on ploughs. The number of ploughs a man owned was used as a measure of his wealth and this gave the king the epithet plough-penny, Plovpenning).
Eric had only been king for about a year when he first came into conflict with his brother, Duke Abel of Schleswig, the conflict lasted for two years before the brothers agreed on a truce in 1244 and made plans for a joint crusade to Estonia. At the same time Eric faced trouble from the religious orders who insisted that they were immune from taxes that Eric might assess, Eric wanted the church lands taxed as any other land holder would be. The pope sent a nuncio to negotiate between the king and the bishops at Odense in 1245, excommunication was threatened for anyone, great or small who trespassed upon the ancient rights and privileges of the church. It was a warning to Eric that the church would not tolerate his continued insistence at assessing church property for tax purposes. Infuriated, King Eric directed his rage at Bishop Niels Stigsen of Roskilde who fled Denmark the same year, Eric confiscated the bishoprics properties in Zealand, including the emerging city of Copenhagen, as compensation for his troubles with Abel.
In spite of intervention from Pope Innocent IV who advocated the reinstatement of the bishop and the return of the properties to the diocese, the dispute could not be resolved. Niels Stigsen died in 1249 in the Clairvaux Abbey and the properties were not restored to the diocese until after the death of King Eric in 1250, in the meantime, the conflict between King Eric and his brothers had broken out again in 1246. The conflict started when Eric invaded Holstein in an attempt to restore his fathers control of the county, the following year and the Holsteiners stormed into Jutland and Funen and pillaging as far north as Randers and Odense. Abel was supported by the city of Lübeck, as well as by his brothers Christopher, Lord of Lolland and Falster and Canute. Eric retaliated immediately, reconquering the city of Ribe and occupying Abel’s patrimonial city of Svendborg the same year, in 1247, he captured the castle of Arreskov on Funen, as well as taking Christopher and Canute prisoners. A truce was arranged by Erics sister Sophie of Brandenburg which left Eric in firm control of all of Denmark, in 1249 the peasants in Scania rose in rebellion against the plow tax
Store norske leksikon
Store norske leksikon, abbreviated SNL, is a Norwegian language encyclopedia. The SNL was created in 1978 when the two publishing houses Aschehoug and Gyldendal merged their encyclopedias and created the company Kunnskapsforlaget, the name translates into English as Great Norwegian encyclopedia. Up until 1978 the two publishing houses of Aschehoug and Gyldendal, Norways two largest, had published Aschehougs konversasjonsleksikon and Gyldendals konversasjonsleksikon, the respective first editions were published in 1907–1913 and 1933–1934. The fourth edition consists of 16 volumes, a total of 12,000 pages and 280,000 entries, on 12 March 2010 Store Norske Leksikon announced that from 1 July 2010 there would be no new editions of Store Norske Leksikon, because of lacklustre sales. The main reason behind this decision was stated to be Wikipedia, SNL became available online since 2000 and had several hundred thousand subscribers, both private and institutional. The number of articles is about 150,000.
Since 25 February 2009, the encyclopedia has been free. The online version of the Store norske leksikon
Ingeborg of Norway
In 1318-1319, she was Swedens de facto ruler, and from 1319 until 1326, she was Swedens first de jure female regent. Ingeborg was born as the legitimate daughter of King Håkon V of Norway from his marriage with Euphemia of Rügen. As a child, she was first betrothed to Magnus Birgerson, in 1312, Ingeborg and Eric were formally married in a double wedding in Oslo, at the same time, her cousin Ingeborg Eriksdottir of Norway, married Erics brother duke Valdemar Magnusson. At her wedding, her mother Queen Euphemia had published the recently translated famous poems, the couple had two children before Duke Eric was murdered. Upon the imprisonment of her spouse and her brother-in-law and her cousin and sister-in-law, Ingeborg Eriksdottir, the same year, their husbands were confirmed to have died. Her son Magnus VII of Norway, at the age of 3, was proclaimed king of Norway upon her fathers death, Ingeborg was recognized as formal regent of her son in Norway. Duchess Ingeborg held her own court at her residence in Varberg, the exact position of Ingeborg in the regency council is hard to define properly due to the documentation.
Mats Kettilumndsson, her ally, presided over the Swedish regency council alongside the two Duchesses Ingeborg, Ingeborg Håkansdotter and her cousin and sister-in-law Ingeborg Eriksdottir, already King of Norway, was elected King of Sweden with the approval of the Norwegian council in her presence. Ingeborg was the one with a seat in both the Swedish and the Norwegian minor regency and council of state. She was the independent reigning duchess of her own fiefs, which were autonomous under her rule, Ingeborgs position at court was not well-defined, she was the Kings Mother, but without being a dowager Queen. She was criticized for her way of conducting her own politics without the counsel of the Swedish and Norwegian councils,1 October 1320, she liberated Riga from its debts in her name on behalf of her son. She was known to large donations to her supporters. Canute Porse had been one of the supporters of her spouse and was appointed governor of Varberg, Ingeborg surrounded herself with young foreign men, thought to affect her politics, of which Canute was the most known.
Ingeborg and Canute had the ambition to make the Danish Scania a part of her possessions, in 1321, Ingeborg arranged a marriage with her daughter Euphemia and Albert II, Duke of Mecklenburg. The marriage was arranged with the terms that Mecklenburg, Holstein and this was approved by the council of Norway but not Sweden. To finance the invasion, Ingeborg took a loan from Stralsund with free trade in Sweden, when Ingeborgs forces under command of Canute invaded Scania in 1322-23, Mecklenburg betrayed her to Denmark and the alliance was broken. In 1323, Ingeborg was forced to accept the terms and give up several of her strategical castles,20 February 1323, the Norwegian regency council rebelled against Ingeborg. She was accused of misusing the royal seal, to have broken the peace with Denmark and for greater costs, after 1323, Ingeborgs power was limited to what was approved by votes in the councils, which in practice had deposed her
Haakon the Good
Haakon Haraldsson, Haakon the Good and Haakon Adalsteinfostre, was the king of Norway from 934 to 961. He was noted for his attempts to introduce Christianity into Norway, Haakon was the youngest son of King Harald Fairhair and Thora Mosterstang. He was born on the Håkonshella peninsula in Hordaland, King Harald determined to remove his youngest son out of harms way and accordingly sent him to the court of King Athelstan of England. Haakon was fostered by King Athelstan, as part of an agreement made by his father, the English court introduced him to the Christian religion. On the news of his fathers death, King Athelstan provided Haakon with ships and men for an expedition against his half-brother Eric Bloodaxe, who had been proclaimed king of Norway. At his arrival back in Norway, Haakon gained the support of the landowners by promising to give up the rights of taxation claimed by his father over inherited real property. Eric Bloodaxe soon found himself deserted on all sides, and saved his own, Eric fled to the Orkney Islands and to the Kingdom of Jorvik, eventually meeting a violent death at Stainmore, Westmorland, in 954 along with his son, Haeric.
In 953, Haakon had to fight a battle at Avaldsnes against the sons of Eric Bloodaxe. Haakon won the battle at which Erics son Guttorm died, one of Haakons most famous victories was the Battle of Rastarkalv near Frei in 955 at which Erics son, died. By placing ten standards far apart along a low ridge, he gave the impression that his army was bigger than it actually was and he managed to fool Eric’s sons into believing that they were out-numbered. The Danes fled and were slaughtered by Haakon’s army, the sons of Eric returned in 957, with support from King Gorm the Old, King of Denmark, but were again defeated by Haakons effective army system. Three of the sons of Eric Bloodaxe landed undetected on the coast of Hordaland in 961. Haakon was mortally wounded at the Battle of Fitjar after a victory over Eric’s sons. The King’s arm was pierced by an arrow and he died from his wounds and he was buried in the burial mound in the village of Seim in Lindås municipality in the county of Hordaland. Upon his death his court poet, Eyvindr Skáldaspillir, composed a skaldic poem Hákonarmál about the fall of the King in battle and his reception into Valhalla.
After Haakons death, Harald Greycloak, the eldest surviving son of Eric Bloodaxe, ascended the throne as King Harald II, the Norwegians were tormented by years of war. In 970, King Harald was tricked into coming to Denmark and killed in a plot planned by Haakon Sigurdsson, Haakons Park is the location of a statue of King Haakon sculpted by Anne Grimdalen. During 1961, the statue was erected opposite Fitjar Church for the one thousand-year commemoration of the Battle of Fitjar, håkonarspelet is a historical play written by Johannes Heggland in 1997
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Monarchy of Norway
The Norwegian monarch is the monarchical head of state of Norway, which is a constitutional and hereditary monarchy with a parliamentary system. The present monarch is King Harald V, who has reigned since 17 January 1991, succeeding his father, the heir apparent is his only son, Crown Prince Haakon. The crown prince undertakes various public functions, as does the kings wife. The crown prince acts as regent in the kings absence, there are several other members of the Royal Family, including the kings daughter and siblings. Whilst the Constitution of Norway grants important executive powers to the King, formally the King appoints the government according to his own judgement, but parliamentary practice has been in place since 1884. Constitutional practice has replaced the meaning of the word King in most articles of the constitution from the king personally to the elected government. The powers vested in the monarch are significant, but are treated only as reserve powers, the King does not, by convention, have direct participation in government.
He ratifies laws and royal resolutions and sends envoys from and to foreign countries and he has a more tangible influence as the symbol of national unity. The annual New Years Eve speech is one occasion when the King traditionally raises negative issues, the King is Supreme Commander of the Norwegian Armed Forces and Grand Master of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav and of the Royal Norwegian Order of Merit. The King has no role in the Church of Norway. The position of King of Norway has been in existence since the unification of Norway in 872. In recent years members of the Socialist Left party have proposed the abolition of the monarchy during each new session of parliament and this gives the Norwegian monarchy the unique status of being a popularly elected royal family and receiving regular formal confirmations of support from the Storting. Prior to and in the phase of the Viking Age Norway was divided into several smaller kingdoms. Harald Fairhair was the first king of Norway, the boundaries of Fairhairs kingdom were not identical to those of present-day Norway, and upon his death the kingship was shared among his sons.
Some historians emphasise the actual control over the country and assert that Olaf II, alias Saint Olaf. Olaf is generally held to have been the force behind Norways final conversion to Christianity. In the 12th and 13th centuries the Norwegian kingdom was at its geographical and cultural peak, the kingdom included Norway, the Faroe Islands, Shetland and other smaller areas in the British Isles. The king had diplomatic relations with most of the European kingdoms and formed alliances with Scotland and Castile, large castles such as Haakons Hall and cathedrals, the foremost being Nidaros Cathedral, were built
Harald Fairhair is remembered by medieval historians as the first King of Norway. According to traditions current in Norway and Iceland in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, most of his life remains uncertain, since the extant accounts of his life in the sagas were set down in writing around three centuries after his lifetime. A few remnants of skaldic praise poems attributed to court poets exist which seem to refer to Haralds victories against opponents in Norway. Two of his sons, Eric Bloodaxe and Haakon the Good, the only early sources mentioning him are the two skaldic poems Haraldskvæði and Glymdrápa, which have been attributed to Þorbjörn Hornklofi or alternatively to Þjóðólfr of Hvinir. The first poem has only been preserved in fragments in 13th century Kings sagas and it describes life at Haralds court, mentions that he took a Danish wife, and that he won a battle at Hafrsfjord. The second relates a series of battles Harald won and his life is described in several of the Kings sagas, none of them older than 12th century.
His protector-regent was his mothers brother Guthorm, the unification of Norway is something of a love story. It begins with a proposal that resulted in rejection and scorn from Gyda. She said she refused to marry Harald before he was king over all of Norway, in 872, after a great victory at Hafrsfjord near Stavanger, Harald found himself king over the whole country. However, his opponents leaving was not entirely voluntary, many Norwegian chieftains who were wealthy and respected posed a threat to Harald, they were subjected to much harassment from Harald, prompting them to vacate the land. At last, Harald was forced to make an expedition to the West, to clear the islands, the earliest narrative source which mentions Harald, the 12th century Íslendingabók notes that Iceland was settled during his lifetime. Harald is thus depicted as the cause of the Norse settlement of Iceland and beyond. Iceland was settled by malcontents from Norway, who resented Haralds claim of rights of taxation over lands, there are several accounts of large feasting mead halls constructed for important feasts when Scandinavian royalty was invited.
The older Swedish king, on the hand, had to stay in the old feasting hall. The Swedish king was so humiliated that he killed Áki, according to the saga sources, the latter part of Haralds reign was disturbed by the strife of his many sons. The number of sons he left varies in the different saga accounts, twelve of his sons are named as kings, two of them over the whole country. When he grew old, Harald handed over the power to his favourite son Eirik Bloodaxe. Eirik I ruled side-by-side with his father when Harald was 80 years old, Harald died three years due to age in approximately 933
Bohus Fortress lies along the old Norwegian–Swedish border in Kungälv, Bohuslän, north east from Hisingen where the Göta river splits into two branches. It commands the area from a cliff 40 m high. The construction of Bohus Fortress began in 1308 under King Haakon V Magnuson, håkon V initiated construction of Norwegian fortresses at Akershus and Vardøhus as part of a broader defensive policy. At the time Bohuslän was Norwegian territory and served as the main Norwegian defence against Sweden, according to architect Guthorm Kavli, The fortress was attacked or besieged 14 times, but was never captured. During the Northern Seven Years War, in 1563–1570, it was seriously damaged and this occurred in 1566, when 250 Swedish soldiers successfully stormed the northeastern-most tower. The Norwegian commander sent in a volunteer to blow up the ammunition stores underneath the tower, killing the Swedes, as a reward the family of the volunteer got a piece of land which is still owned by the descendants of this volunteer.
The Norwegians rebuilt the fortress of stone and brick, and reinforced it substantially, the reconstruction immediately after the war was directed by Hans Paaske from the Netherlands. In 1593–1604, similar to the construction undertaken at Akershus in Oslo, a new outer fortification was raised. This construction was one of the works of Hans van Steenwinckel, from the Netherlands. As Swedish invasions continuously threatened Norwegian Båhuslen during this time period, under the terms of the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658, Denmark–Norway ceded the Danish provinces of Scania and Halland and the Norwegian provinces Trøndelag and Bohuslän. After Denmark–Norway ceded the territory which included Bohus Fortress, Fredriksten Fortress was constructed in Fredrikshald on the newly established Norwegian-Swedish border. Since the Bohus Fortress no longer lay on the border, it was of use to Sweden, which relied on the existing Älvsborg fortress at Gothenburg. Instead the fortress was used as a prison, the most noted prisoner was the radical pietist Thomas Leopold, who spent 42 years of his life behind bars,32 of those at Bohus, for his alleged heresies.
His stone-clad cell still exists in the castle, at the end of the 18th century it was decided that the now unused fortress should be demolished. Demolition crews worked at the fortress for two months, after that the allocated for the job had run out. Residents of the town of Kungälv used the dressed stone from the fortress to build houses. However, much of the fortress is still intact, including the northern tower. As of 2015, the fortress is a open to visitors during summer
Magnus VI of Norway
Magnus Haakonsson was King of Norway from 1263 to 1280. One of his greatest achievements was his modernisation and nationalisation of the Norwegian law-code and he was the first Norwegian monarch known to personally have used an ordinal number, although originally counting himself as IV. He was the youngest son of King Håkon Håkonsson and his wife Margaret Skuladotter and he was born in Tunsberg and was baptised in May 1238. He spent most of his upbringing in Bergen, in 1257 his older brother Håkon died, leaving Magnus the heir-apparent to the kingdom. His father gave him the title of king the same year, the struggle to claim Ingeborgs inheritance from her murdered father involved Norway in intermittent conflicts with Denmark for decades to come. Magnus and Ingeborg were crowned directly after their marriage, and Magnus was given Ryfylke for his personal upkeep, on 16 December 1263 King Håkon died while fighting the Scottish king over the Hebrides, and Magnus became the ruler of Norway. Magnus rule brought about a change from the aggressive foreign policy of his father.
In 1269 the Treaty of Winchester cemented good relations with the English king Henry III, Magnus seems to have had good relations with the Swedish King Valdemar Birgersson, and in the 1260s, the border with Sweden was officially defined for the first time. When Valdemar was deposed by his two brothers and fled to Norway in 1275, this stirred Magnus into gathering a leidang-fleet for the first, in internal politics, Magnus carried out a great effort to modernise the law-code, which gave him his epithet law-mender. These were adopted at the Things in the years 1274 and 1276, in 1274 he promulgated the new national law, a unified code of laws to apply for the whole country, including the Faroe Islands and Shetland. This replaced the different regional laws which had existed before and it was supplemented by a new municipal law in 1276, and a slightly modified version was drawn up for Iceland. A unified code of laws for a country was at this time something quite new. His code introduced the concept that crime is an offense against the rather than against the individual.
It increased the power of the king, making the throne the source of justice. The municipal law gave the cities increased freedom from rural control, a specific section fixed the law of succession to the throne, in accordance with the arrangements laid down by King Håkon Håkonsson in 1260. The royal succession was an important and prickly matter, the last of the wars, fought for decades over disputed successions to the throne. In 1273 Magnus gave his eldest son, five-year-old Eirik, the name of king, the Tønsberg Concord signed in 1277 between King Magnus and Jon Raude, Archbishop of Nidaros, confirmed certain privileges of the clergy, the freedom of episcopal elections and similar matters. The church preserved considerable independence in matters, but gave up its old claim that the Norwegian kingdom was a fief under the ultimate authority of the Catholic Church
Eric Haraldsson, nicknamed Eric Bloodaxe, was a 10th-century Norwegian ruler. He is thought to have had short-lived terms as King of Norway, historians have reconstructed a narrative of Erics life and career from the scant available historical data. This identification has been rejected recently by the historian Claire Downham and this argument, though respected by other historians in the area, has not produced consensus. Contemporary or near-contemporary sources include different recensions of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Erics coinage, the Life of St Cathróe, such sources reproduce only a hazy image of Erics activities in Anglo-Saxon England. Current opinion veers towards a critical attitude towards the use of sagas as historical sources for the period before the 11th century. Erics soubriquet blóðøx, ‘Bloodaxe’ or Bloody-axe, is of uncertain origin, the sagas usually explain it as referring to Erics slaying of his half-brothers in a ruthless struggle to monopolise his rule over Norway, Theodoricus gives the similar nickname fratrum interfector.
Fagrskinna, on the hand, ascribes it to Erics violent reputation as a Viking raider. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle describes Eric laconically as ‘Harold’s son’, perhaps assuming some familiarity on the readers part, in the early part of the 12th century, John of Worcester had reason to believe that Eric was of royal Scandinavian stock. One of Egills lausavísur speaks of an encounter in England with a man of Haralds line, while the Arinbjarnarkviða envisages a ruler at York who is a descendant of Halfdán and of the Yngling dynasty. If genuine, the latter identification would form the only clue in the contemporary record which might link Eric with the Norwegian dynasty. Another Haraldr known from this period is Aralt mac Sitric, king of Limerick and this may be relevant, since both these brothers and a certain Eric have been described as rulers of the Isles. In a letter addressed to Pope Boniface VIII, King Edward I remembered a certain Eric as having been a king of Scotland subject to the English king, in the 19th century, a case had been made for Harald Bluetooth King of Denmark as being Erics true father. J. M.
Lappenberg and Charles Plummer, for instance, when the latter had subjugated the island, he was in the end betrayed and killed by the Northumbrians. Even if Erics rise and fall had been the inspiration for the story, in the account cited in full below, Roger of Wendover says that Eric was killed by a certain Maccus – elsewhere a son of Olaf – together with his son Haeric and brother Ragnald. Harald Fairhair is usually portrayed as a polygamous and fertile king, while Erics mother remains anonymous in the synoptic histories and most of the Icelandic sagas, the Heimskringla claims that she was Ragnhildr, daughter of Eric, king of Jutland. It tells that Harald chose the lady from Denmark / broke with his Rogaland loves / and his lemans of Horthaland, / the maidens of Hálogaland /, in the Flateyjarbók, it is preceded by another stanza which refers to the handmaidens of Ragnhildr as witnesses of the event. However, it is uncertain whether her name was already in the original composition, whatever one makes of the discrepancy, the sagas – including Heimskringla – are unanimous in making Haakon Erics younger half-brother and successor.
According to Heimskringla and Egils saga, Eric spent much of his childhood in fosterage with the hersir Thórir son of Hróald
Oslo is the capital and the most populous city in Norway. It constitutes both a county and a municipality, founded in the year 1040, and established as a kaupstad or trading place in 1048 by Harald Hardrada, the city was elevated to a bishopric in 1070 and a capital under Haakon V of Norway around 1300. Personal unions with Denmark from 1397 to 1523 and again from 1536 to 1814, after being destroyed by a fire in 1624, the city was moved closer to Akershus Fortress during the reign of Christian IV of Denmark and renamed Christiania in his honour. It was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838, following a spelling reform, it was known as Kristiania from 1877 to 1925, at which time its original Norwegian name was restored. Oslo is the economic and governmental centre of Norway, the city is a hub of Norwegian trade, banking and shipping. It is an important centre for industries and maritime trade in Europe. The city is home to companies within the maritime sector, some of which are among the worlds largest shipping companies, shipbrokers.
Oslo is a city of the Council of Europe and the European Commission intercultural cities programme. Oslo is considered a city and ranked Beta World City in studies carried out by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group. It was ranked one in terms of quality of life among European large cities in the European Cities of the Future 2012 report by fDi magazine. A survey conducted by ECA International in 2011 placed Oslo as the second most expensive city in the world for living expenses after Tokyo. In 2013 Oslo tied with the Australian city of Melbourne as the fourth most expensive city in the world, as of January 1,2016, the municipality of Oslo has a population of 658,390, while the population of the citys urban area was 942,084. The metropolitan area had an population of 1.71 million. The population was during the early 2000 increasing at record rates and this growth stems for the most part from international immigration and related high birth rates, but from intra-national migration. The immigrant population in the city is growing faster than the Norwegian population.
As of January 1,2016, the municipality of Oslo has a population of 658,390, the urban area extends beyond the boundaries of the municipality into the surrounding county of Akershus, the total population of this agglomeration is 942,084. To the north and east, wide forested hills rise above the city giving the location the shape of a giant amphitheatre. The urban municipality of Oslo and county of Oslo are two parts of the entity, making Oslo the only city in Norway where two administrative levels are integrated