University of the Witwatersrand
The University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, is a multi-campus South African public research university situated in the northern areas of central Johannesburg. It is more known as Wits University. The university has its roots in the industry, as do Johannesburg. It was desegregated once again prior to the abolition of apartheid in 1990, several of apartheids most provocative critics, of either European or African descent, were one-time students and graduates of the university. The university has an enrolment of 33,711 students as of 2015,65 percent of the universitys total enrolment is for undergraduate study, with the remaining 35 percent being postgraduate. The university was founded in Kimberley in 1896 as the South African School of Mines, eight years later, in 1904, the school was moved to Johannesburg and renamed the Transvaal Technical Institute. The schools name changed yet again in 1906 to Transvaal University College, in 1908, a new campus of the Transvaal University College was established in Pretoria.
The Johannesburg and Pretoria campuses separated on 17 May 1910, each becoming a separate institution, in 1920, the school was renamed the University College, Johannesburg. Finally, on 1 March 1922, the University College, was granted university status after being incorporated as the University of the Witwatersrand. The Johannesburg municipality donated a site in Milner Park, north-west of Braamfontein, to the new institution as its campus and construction began the same year, on 4 October. True to Hofmeyrs words, from the outset Wits was a university with a policy of non-discrimination on racial or any other grounds. Initially, there were six faculties—Arts, Medicine, Engineering and Commerce—37 departments,73 academic staff, and approximately 1,000 students. In 1923, the university began moving into the new campus, slowly vacating its former premises on Ellof Street for the first completed building in Milner Park, in 1925, the Prince of Wales officially opened Central Block. The universitys first library, housed at the time in what was meant to be a construction, was destroyed in a fire on Christmas Eve in 1931.
Following this, an appeal was made to the public for ₤80,000 to pay for the construction of a new library, and this resulted in the fairly rapid construction of the William Cullen Library, completed in 1935. During this period, as the Great Depression hit South Africa, nonetheless, it continued to grow at an impressive rate. From a total enrolment of 2,544 students in 1939 and this growth led to accommodation problems, which were temporarily resolved by the construction of wood and galvanised-iron huts in the centre of the campus. During World War II, Wits was involved in South Africas war efforts, the Bernard Price Institute of Geophysical Research was placed under the Union of South Africas defence ministry, and was involved in important research into the use of radar
La Trobe University
La Trobe University is an Australian, multi-campus, public research university with its flagship campus located in the Melbourne suburb of Bundoora. The university was established in 1964, becoming the third university in the state of Victoria, La Trobe is a verdant university and a member of the Innovative Research Universities. La Trobes original and principal campus is located in the Melbourne metropolitan area and it is the largest metropolitan campus in the country. It has two major campuses located in the regional Victorian city of Bendigo and the twin border cities of Albury-Wodonga. The university has two regional campuses in Mildura and Shepparton and three CBD campuses, two in Melbourne on Franklin Street and Collins Street and one on Elizabeth Street in Sydney. La Trobe offers undergraduate and postgraduate courses across its two colleges of Arts, Social Science and Commerce and Science and Engineering, in 2015 it was ranked in the top 100 universities under 50 in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings.
The university was established in 1964 following the assent of the La Trobe University Act by Victorian Parliament on 9 December 1964, the passing of the Act of Victorian Parliament to establish La Trobe University followed earlier University Acts to establish the University of Melbourne and Monash University. At this time, Flinders University and Macquarie University were establishing a schools-based system, many prominent Victorians were involved in La Trobes establishment process, and there was a strong belief that it was important to increase research and learning in Victoria. One of the individuals involved was Davis McCaughey, who became Governor of Victoria. The university was named after Charles Joseph La Trobe, the first Governor of Victoria, the origins of La Trobe can be traced back to the post-World War II era where there emerged a global recognition of the need to increase facilities for higher education. The Murray Committee, in a report submitted in September 1957, recommend a major expansion of university facilities in Australia and changes in administration.
As a direct consequence of the key recommendations of the Murray report, Menzies appointed Martin to chair a special committee in 1961 to report to the AUC on the rapidly increasing demands for higher education in Australia. The Commission therefore is willing to support in the 1964–1966 triennium the extension of university facilities in the Melbourne metropolitan area, the first capital grant was for 1966 and amounted to $1,000,000. These grants were to be matched by equivalent state grants, in April 1964, Sir Archibald Glenn was invited by the Victorian Premier, Sir Henry Bolte, to chair a Third University Committee. In addition to Glen,13 other members were announced on 21 May 1964, the committee, consisted of, Sir Archibald Glenn, OBE, AMIE Aust. MIChemE, Chairman and Managing Director, ICI Australia Ltd, Chairman F. H. A. A and it was planned that La Trobe would enrol students, if possible, in March 1967. The first meeting of the committee occurred on 2 June 1964 in the rooms of the Historical Society of Victoria on Victoria Street, from there, they acted promptly in seeking out a suitable metropolitan location, inspecting 27 sites from a list of 57 possibilities.
An early list of possibilities read, Outer - Bundoora, the ultimate choice was unanimously agreed upon by the end of July, resulting in the farm attached to the Mont Park Asylum
Australopithecus africanus is an extinct species of the australopithecines, the first of an early -form species to be classified as hominin. Recently it was dated as living between 3.3 and 2.1 million years ago, or in the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene times, it is debated as being a direct ancestor of modern humans. A. africanus was of slender, or gracile and has found only in southern Africa at four sites, Sterkfontein, Makapansgat. Dart assigned the specimen the name Australopithecus africanus, it was dubbed the Taung child. This was the first time the word ape was formally assigned to any hominin, Dart theorized the Taung child skull must represent an intermediate species between apes and humans. And the rejection was buttressed by the widespread belief then, especially in British academia and he dismissed Darts claim, suggesting instead that the Taung child skull belonged to a young ape, most likely an infant gorilla or chimpanzee. Keith immersed himself in defending the Piltdown man and his reputation suffered greatly after the hoax was exposed in 1953, phillip Tobias, in a lengthy essay published in Current Anthropology in 1992, detailed the history of the investigation of the hoax.
As part of the essay Tobias debated the inconsistencies in Keiths statements, Darts theory—that the skull known as the Taung child was a human ancestor—was supported by Robert Broom, a paleontologist with the Transvaal Museum of natural history in Pretoria. In 1936, the Sterkfontein caves yielded the first adult australopithecine, Broom classified an adult endocranial cast having a brain capacity of 485 cc as Plesianthropus transvaalensis. In April 1947, while blasting at Sterkfontein, he and John T. Robinson discovered a skull belonging to a female which he classified as Plesianthropus transvaalensis. Both fossils were classified as Australopithecus africanus. Mrs. Ples, whose capacity is only about 485 cubic centimetres, was one of the first fossils to reveal that upright walking had evolved well before any significant growth in brain size. And, in comparison to modern apes, Dart noted as with the Taung child the lack of facial projection and it has slightly human-like, advanced cranial features, but presents primitive features including ape-like curved fingers adapted to tree climbing.
Both P. robustus and A. africanus crania seem very alike despite the heavily built features of P. robustus. A. africanus had a pelvis that would enable more efficient bipedalism than that of A. afarensis, such a morphology would support an earlier time for making and using tools than previously had been thought likely. Evidence of human-like sexual dimorphism in the spine has recently been described in the primate A. africanus. Recent analysis of the Little Foot specimen dated it to about 3, the Makapansgat fossils have been dated to between 3.0 and 2.6 mya. Those at Sterkfontein currently are dated to between 2.6 and 2.0 mya with the Mrs Ples fossil dating to around 2.0 million years, and Gladysvale fossils were dated between about 2.4 and 2.0 mya
Monash University is an Australian public research university based in Melbourne, Australia. Founded in 1958, it is the second oldest university in the State of Victoria, Monash is one of two Australian universities to be ranked in the École des Mines de Paris ranking on the basis of the number of alumni listed among CEOs in the 500 largest worldwide companies. Monash is in the top 20% in teaching, top 10% in international outlook, top 20% in industry income, Monash enrolls over 48,000 undergraduate and almost 21,000 graduate students, It has more applicants than any university in the state of Victoria. In 2014, its revenue was over $2.2 billion. The university has a number of campuses, five of which are in Victoria, Monash has a research and teaching centre in Prato, Italy, a graduate research school in Mumbai, India and a graduate school in Jiangsu Province, China. Since December 2011, Monash has had an alliance with the University of Warwick in the United Kingdom. Monash University courses are delivered at other locations, including South Africa.
The Clayton campus contains the Robert Blackwood Hall, named after the universitys founding Chancellor Sir Robert Blackwood, in 2014, the University ceded its Gippsland campus to Federation University. On 15 July 2016, Monash confirmed that Federation University Australia would take over the operations of the Berwick campus prior to the end of 2018, the university was named after the prominent Australian general Sir John Monash. This was the first university in Australia to be named after a person, rather than a city, the original campus was in the south-eastern Melbourne suburb of Clayton. The first University Council, led by Monashs first Chancellor Sir Robert Blackwood, selected Sir Louis Matheson, to be the first Vice-Chancellor of Monash University, the University was granted an expansive site of 100 hectares of open land in Clayton. The 100 hectares of land consists of the former Talbot Epileptic Colony, in its early years, it offered undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in engineering, science, economics, politics and law.
It was a provider for international student places under the Colombo Plan. In its early years of teaching and administration, Monash was not disadvantaged by entrenched traditional practices, Monash was able to adopt modern approaches without resistance from those who preferred the status quo. A modern administrative structure was set up, Australias first research centres, from the mid-1960s to the early 1970s, Monash became the centre of student radicalism in Australia. It was the site of mass student demonstrations, particularly concerning Australias role in Vietnam War. By the late 1960s, several student organisations, some of which were influenced by or supporters of communism, turned their focus to Vietnam, with numerous blockades, in the late 1970s and 1980s, some of Monashs most publicised research came through its pioneering of in-vitro fertilisation. Led by Professors Carl Wood and Alan Trounson, the Monash IVF Program achieved the worlds first clinical IVF pregnancy in 1973, in 1980, they delivered the first IVF baby in Australia
Cradle of Humankind
The Cradle of Humankind is a paleoanthropological site about 50 kilometres northwest of Johannesburg, South Africa in the Gauteng province. Declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1999, the site currently occupies 47,000 hectares, the registered name of the site in the list of World Heritage Sites is Fossil Hominid Sites of South Africa. The Sterkfontein Caves contain the discovery of a 2. 3-million-year-old fossil Australopithecus africanus, found in 1947 by Robert Broom, Sterkfontein alone has produced more than a third of early hominid fossils ever found prior to 2010. The Dinaledi Chamber contains over 1500 H. naledi fossils, the most extensive discovery of a hominid species ever found in Africa. The name Cradle of Humankind reflects the fact that the site has produced a number of hominin fossils ever found. In 1935, Robert Broom found the first ape-man fossils at Sterkfontein, in 1938, a young schoolboy, Gert Terrblanche, brought Raymond Dart fragments of a skull from nearby Kromdraai which were identified as Paranthropus robustus.
Also in 1938, a single tooth was found at the Coopers site between Kromdraai and Sterkfontein. In 1948, the Camp-Peabody Expedition from the United States worked at Bolts Farm and Gladysvale looking for fossil hominids, in 1948, Robert Broom identified the first hominid remains from Swartkrans cave. Brain began working at sites in the Cradle, including Coopers Cave and he soon would initiate his three-decade work at Swartkrans cave, it would result in the recovery of the second-largest sample of hominid remains from the Cradle. The oldest controlled use of fire by Homo erectus was discovered at Swartkrans. In 1966, Phillip Tobias began his excavations of Sterkfontein which are continuing and are the longest continuously running fossil excavations in the world. In 1994, Andre Keyser discovered fossil hominids at the site of Drimolen, in 1997, Kevin Kuykendall and Colin Menter of the University of the Witwatersrand found two fossil hominid teeth at the site of Gondolin. Also in 1997, the near-complete Australopithecus skeleton of Little Foot, in 2001, Steve Churchill of Duke University and Lee Berger found early modern human remains at Plovers Lake.
Also in 2001, the first hominid fossils and stone tools were discovered in-situ at Coopers, in 2008, Lee Berger discovered the partial remains of two hominids in the Malapa Fossil Site that lived between 1.78 and 1.95 million years ago. Cavers Rick Hunter and Steven Tucker discovered hominid fossils in an unexplored area of the Rising Star/Westminster Cave System assigned site designation UW-101. In November 2013, Lee Berger led a joint expedition of the University of the Witwatersrand, the site is still in the process of being dated. In the last days of the Rising Star Expedition, cavers Rick Hunter, preliminary excavations at this site, designated UW-102, have begun and yielded complete hominid fossil material of its own. It is unknown what the relationship of sites 101 and 102 is, hominids may have lived all over Africa, but their remains are found only at sites where conditions allowed for the formation and preservation of fossils
Motsetsi has been declared a South African National Heritage Site. Motsetsi has been investigated since its discovery by Lee Berger in 1999, since a series of part-time excavations have recovered tens of thousands of fossils. Excavations have been conducted at Motsetse by the University of the Witwatersrand, only a very small part of this site has been excavated. Of the many thousands of fossils recovered from Motsetsi, no fossils have yet been found. Many very fine fossils of animals, have been discovered including the remains of very well preserved Dinofelis fossils – a type of false saber-toothed cat. Motsetse is a series of breccia-filled dolomitic caves that formed in a fissure along a geological fault, Motsetsi has been dated to 1. o to 1.6 million years old based on the animals recovered
Little Foot is the nickname given to a nearly complete Australopithecus fossil skeleton found in 1994–1998 in the cave system of Sterkfontein, South Africa. The fossils were found in a formation in Sterkfontein. The nickname little foot was given to the fossil in 1995, from the structure of the four ankle bones they were able to ascertain that the owner was able to walk upright. The recovery of the bones proved extremely difficult and tedious, because they are embedded in concrete-like rock. It is due to this that the recovery and excavation of the site took around 15 years to complete, the four bones of the ankle had been collected already in 1980 but were undetected between numerous other mammal bones. Only after 1992, on initiative by Phillip Tobias, a rock was blown up in the cave that contained an unusual accumulation of fossils. The fossils recovered were taken from the cave and scrutinized thoroughly by paleoanthropologist Ronald J. Clarke, in 1994 while searching through museum boxes labelled Cercopithecoids containing fossil fragments, Ronald J.
Clarke identified several that were unmistakably hominin. He spotted four left foot bones that were most likely from the same individual and these fragments came from the Silberberg Grotto, a large cavern within the Sterkfontein cave system. They were described as belonging to the genus Australopithecus, and catalogued as Stw 573, due to the diminutive nature of the bones, they were dubbed Little Foot. Dr. Clarke found further foot bones from the individual in separate bags in 1997. Amazingly, within two days they found the part of the bone protruding from the rock in the lower part of the grotto. Because the bones of both legs were in anatomically correct arrangement, the team speculated that it could be a complete skeleton, in the following months and his two assistants with the help of a hammer and small chisel uncovered further foot bones. Stephen Motsumi discovered the first remains of the body, an upper arm bone on 11 September 1998. It was a connected with the lower jaw, which was facing up.
These were announced to the press in 1998. A year later, in July and August 1999, a left forearm as well as the left hand was discovered. These were again in anatomically correct arrangement, subsequent work has uncovered a relatively complete skeleton, including parts of the pelvis and vertebrae, a complete humerus and most of the lower limb bones. This discovery is likely to be far more complete than the famous Australopithecus afarensis skeleton, from the site of Hadar, the discovery was not assigned to any particular species in the genus of Australopithecus. In the first description in July 1995 it was said, The bones are probably a member of Australopithecus africanus or another early species of hominids
It is situated within the Cradle of Humankind World Heritage Site and is itself a South African National Heritage Site. Gladysvale is the first cave that Robert Broom visited in the Transvaal in his mid-1930s search for a hominid-bearing cave nearer to Johannesburg than Taung and he visited Gladysvale after a butterfly collector from the Transvaal Museum reported a human mandible in the wall of the cave. When Broom arrived at the cave the mandible was gone, sterkfontein soon lured Broom away from the site. In 1946 Phillip Tobias led a student expedition to the site where a fine baboon fossil was recovered, in 1948 Frank Peabody of the Camp-Peabody expedition from the United States spent several weeks at Gladysvale but failed to find any hominid remains. The site was lost from scientific memory until it was re-opened by Lee Berger, within a few weeks of excavation the first hominid remains were discovered – two teeth of Australopithecus africanus. This discovery made Gladysvale the first new hominid site to be discovered in South Africa since 1948.
Many thousands of fossils have been recovered from the Gladysvale deposits including rare remains of hominids, from the Gladysvale external deposits, almost a quarter of a million bones have been recovered since excavations began in 1992. There are many millions of bones still in place in the cave, fossils recovered include antelope, giant zebra, carnivores including extinct wolves and hominids attributed to Australopithecus africanus and early Homo. Tools have found with the most spectacular being an Acheulean handaxe. The site is divided into three underground cave systems with the upper cave holding the Gladysvale Internal Deposits and an External Deposit. Gladysvale was one of the first sites in Africa to be 3-D digitally mapped by Peter Schmid, the Gladysvale sequence has been dated using a combination of biostratigraphy, electron spin resonance and uranium series dating. The youngest deposits are thought to be around 54,000 years old while the oldest deposits that are the source of the Au. africanus fossils are around 2. 4–2.0 million years old.
The Gladysvale External deposits contain extensive faunal remains and date to between 780,000 and 530,000 years ago, an Acheulian handaxe was recovered from internal deposits older than the Bruhnes-Matuyama boundary at 780,000 years. Media related to Gladysvale Cave at Wikimedia Commons The Gladysvale Homepage
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title, ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971, ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the content is published in more than one media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media, the ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN and electronic ISSN, respectively. The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers, as an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits. The last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows, NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character.
The ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, for calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, the modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker that can validate an ISSN, ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres, usually located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris. The International Centre is an organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, at the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept, where ISBNs are assigned to individual books, an ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole.
An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an identifier associated with a serial title. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change, separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. Also, a CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial
University of Melbourne
The University of Melbourne is a public research university located in Melbourne, Australia. Founded in 1853, it is Australias second oldest university and the oldest in Victoria, Times Higher Education ranks Melbourne as 33rd in the world, while the Academic Ranking of World Universities places Melbourne 40th in the world. Melbournes main campus is located in Parkville, a suburb north of the Melbourne central business district. Melbourne is a university and a member of the Group of Eight, Universitas 21. Since 1872 various residential colleges have become affiliated with the university, there are 12 colleges located on the main campus and in nearby suburbs offering academic and cultural programs alongside accommodation for Melbourne students and faculty. Amongst Melbournes 15 graduate schools the Melbourne Business School, the Melbourne Law School, four Australian prime ministers and five governors-general have graduated from Melbourne. Nine Nobel laureates have been students or faculty, the most of any Australian university, the university was established by Act of Incorporation on 22 January 1853, with power to confer degrees in arts, medicine and music.
The act provided for an endowment of £9,000. The original buildings were opened by the Lieutenant Governor of the Colony of Victoria, Sir Charles Hotham. The first chancellor, Redmond Barry, held the position until his death in 1880, the inauguration of the university was made possible by the wealth resulting from Victorias gold rush. The institution was designed to be an influence at a time of rapid settlement. In 1881, the admission of women was a seen as victory over the conservative ruling council. The universitys 150th anniversary was celebrated in 2003, as of May 2009 the university suspended the Bachelor of Music Theatre and Puppetry courses at the college and there were fears they may not return under the new curriculum. New dean Sharman Pretty outlined drastic changes under the plan for the college in early April 2009. As a result, it is now being called into question whether the university have upheld that agreement, staff at the college responded to the changes, claiming the university did not value vocational arts training, and voicing fears over the future of quality training at the VCA.
Melbourne University has 12 residential colleges in total, seven of which are located in an arc around the oval at the northern edge of the campus. The other five are located outside of university grounds, the residential colleges aim to provide accommodation and holistic education experience to university students. Several of the earliest campus buildings, such as the Old Quadrangle and Baldwin Spencer buildings, the new Wilson Hall replaced the original building which was destroyed by fire
The archaeological sites of Swartkrans and Kromdraai are in the same area. Sterkfontein is a South African National Heritage Site and was declared a World Heritage Site in 2000. The Sterkfontein Caves are home to numerous wild African species including Belonogaster petiolata, numerous early hominin remains have been found at the site over the last few decades. These have been attributed to Australopithecus, early Homo and Paranthropus, modern excavation of the caves began in the late 1890s by limestone miners who noticed the fossils and brought them to the attention of scientists. It was not until 1936 that students of Professor Raymond Dart, in 1936, the Sterkfontein caves yielded the first adult Australopithecine, substantially strengthening Raymond Darts claim that the skull known as the Taung child was a human ancestor. There was a pause in excavation during World War II, in 1947 he found the almost complete skull of an adult female A. africanus. Robert Broom initially named the skull Plesianthropus transvaalensis, but it became known by its nickname.
Mrs Ples is now defined as a member of A. africanus, in 1997, a near complete skeleton of a second species of Australopithecus was found in the caves by Ronald J. Clarke, extraction of the remains from the surrounding breccia is ongoing. The skeleton was named Little Foot, since the first parts found were the bones of a foot, excavations continue to this day and finds now total some 500 hominids, making Sterkfontein one of the richest site in the world for early hominids. The Member 4 deposits containing the Australopithecus africanus fossils have been dated to between 2.6 and 2.0 Ma, with the Sts5 Mrs Ples fossil estimated to date to between 2. 05-2. It is estimated to be around 2. 6-2.2 Ma based on a combination of uranium-lead dating and palaeomagnetic analysis and belongs to a species of australopith. In contrast, surface exposure dating of sediments indicate that skeleton StW573 has an age of approximately 4 million years. While the flowstone dated in the dating has been shown to have formed than the fossil.
The palaeomagnetic analysis remains the most credible age estimate based on the current data as it included work on both sediments and speleothem, a slightly younger deposit dated to between 1.8 to 1.5 Mya has revealed the remains of a specimen of early Homo. StW53 has been described as similar to Homo habilis or as a new species Homo gautengensis. No stone tools were associated with the fossil but StW53 itself has evidence for stone tool cut-marks, Member 5 contains Oldowan and Acheulian stone tools as well as specimens of early Homo and Paranthropus and is dated to between 1.6 and 1.1 Mya. Cradle of Humankind List of caves in South Africa Muldersdrift About Sterkfontein Caves