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Habemus papam

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The announcement of the election of Pope Martin V at the Council of Constance

Habemus papam ('We have a pope') is the announcement traditionally given by the Protodeacon of the College of Cardinals (the senior cardinal deacon in the College) or by the senior cardinal deacon participating in the papal conclave, in Latin, upon the election of a new pope of the Catholic Church.[1]

The announcement is made from the central balcony (loggia) of St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican, overlooking St. Peter's Square. After the announcement, the new pope is presented to the people and he gives his first Urbi et Orbi blessing.

Format[edit]

The format for the announcement when a cardinal is elected pope is:[a][2]

Annuntio vobis gaudium magnum;
habemus Papam:

Eminentissimum ac Reverendissimum Dominum,
Dominum [first name]
Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae Cardinalem [surname]
qui sibi nomen imposuit [papal name].

In English, it can be translated as:

I announce to you a great joy;
we have a pope:

The most eminent and reverend lord,
Lord [first name]
Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church [surname]
who takes to himself the name [papal name].

In the Habemus papam announcement given by Cardinal Jorge Arturo Medina Estévez on 19 April 2005, upon the election of Pope Benedict XVI, the announcement was preceded by an identical greeting in several languages, respectively, Italian, Spanish, French, German and English:[3][4]

Fratelli e sorelle carissimi,
Queridísimos hermanos y hermanas,
Bien chers frères et sœurs,
Liebe Brüder und Schwestern,
Dear brothers and sisters.

History[edit]

The text of the announcement is partly inspired by the Gospel of Luke (2:10–11), which records the words of the angel announcing to the shepherds the birth of the Messiah:

"Fear not; for, behold, I bring thee good tidings of great joy, that shall be to all the people: For unto thee is born, this day, in the city of David a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord."

Note that, in the Vulgate (the Latin translation of the Bible by St. Jerome), the words used are "Evangelizo vobis gaudium magnum", while the word "annuntio" was used in previous translations.

The adoption of this formula is dated from the election of Odo Colonna as Pope Martin V (1417), who was chosen as the new pope by the cardinals and representatives from different countries at the Council of Constance. In this context, prior to Martin V, there were three claimants to the papal throne: Antipope John XXIII (who had called for the council, and appointed most of the cardinal electors), Antipope Benedict XIII (the only one to have been named cardinal before the outbreak of the Western Schism) and Pope Gregory XII; the first two were deposed by the Council itself, and Gregory XII abdicated after formally convoking the already convened council and authorizing its acts including the act of electing his successor. Two years after the first two contenders were deposed[b] and the resignation of the third, the council elected the new pope; the announcement, therefore, could be interpreted as: "(Finally) we have a pope (and only one!)".[5]

The adoption of the Habemus papam formula took place prior to 1484, the year in which it was used to announce the election of Giovanni Battista Cybo, who took the name of Innocent VIII.

Announcement[edit]

In announcing the name of the newly elected pontiff, the new pontiff's birth first name is announced in Latin in the accusative case (e.g. Carolum,[6][7] Iosephum,[3][4] Georgium Marium[8][9]), but the new pontiff's surname is announced in the undeclined form (e.g. Wojtyła,[6][7] Ratzinger,[3][4] Bergoglio[8][9]); the new papal name has usually been given in the genitive case in Latin, corresponding to the translation "who takes the name of ..." (e.g. Ioannis vigesimi tertii,[10] Ioannis Pauli primi[11]), although it can also be declined in the accusative case, corresponding to the translation "who takes the name ...", as was the case in 1963 and in 2013, when Pope Paul VI's and Pope Francis's regnal names were announced as Paulum sextum[12][13] and Franciscum[8][9], respectively. In the situation where the name is declined in the genitive, the name is considered as a complement of the noun "nomen" while in the instance where the name is declined in the accusative, it is considered as an apposition of the direct object complement nomen in the accusative. Both forms are equally correct. According to certain Latin grammarians though, like Nicola Fiocchini, Piera Guidotti Bacci and the Maiorum Lingua Manual, the accusative is the more correct form.[14]

During the announcement of Pope Paul VI's election, protodeacon Alfredo Ottaviani used the conjunction et (which also means "and") instead of ac, the word usually used for "and" within the formula (he said Eminentissimum et reverendissimum instead of Eminentissimum ac reverendissimum).[12][13]

During the announcement of Pope Benedict XVI's election, his regnal name was declined by Cardinal Medina in the genitive case (he said Benedicti decimi sexti),[3][4] but in the Holy See website, the page announcing his election with a copy of the Habemus Papam formula has Benedict's regnal name declined in the accusative case (i.e., Benedictum XVI)[15]

If a papal name is used for the first time, the announcement may or may not use the numeral the first. In John Paul I's election, the numeral primi (the first) was used (Cardinal Pericle Felici announced the papal name as Ioannis Pauli primi)[11] but in Pope Francis' election, no numeral was uttered (Cardinal Jean-Louis Tauran simply gave the papal name as Franciscum).[9]

The numeral in the papal name if it exists can be omitted if the new regnal name is the same as the one used by the immediate predecessor, as was the case in October 1978, when Pope John Paul II's regnal name was announced simply as Ioannis Pauli without the numeral,[6][7] since his immediate predecessor was Pope John Paul I, it also happened in 1939, when Pope Pius XII's regnal name, following his election, was announced simply as Pium[16][17][18] since his immediate predecessor was Pope Pius XI. In the announcement of Pope Pius XII's election, his regnal name was declined in the accusative,[16][17][18] like the later announcements for Paul VI's[12][13] and Francis's elections.[8][9]

Actual examples[edit]

The following are examples of how the names were announced as noted on existing videos and recordings; the case and inclusion or exclusion of numeral for the papal names are noted.

Birth name First name
(accusative)
Surname
(undeclined)
Papal name Papal name
(as announced in Latin)
Latin declension
of papal name
Numeral
in papal name
Ref.
Eugenio Pacelli Eugenium Pacelli Pius XII Pium accusative not given [16][17][18]
Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli Angelum Iosephum Roncalli John XXIII Ioannis vigesimi tertii genitive given [10]
Giovanni Battista Montini Ioannem Baptistam Montini Paul VI Paulum sextum accusative given [12][13]
Albino Luciani Albinum Luciani John Paul I Ioannis Pauli primi genitive given [11]
Karol Wojtyła Carolum Wojtyła John Paul II Ioannis Pauli genitive not given [6][7]
Joseph Ratzinger Iosephum Ratzinger Benedict XVI Benedicti decimi sexti genitive given [3][4]
Jorge Mario Bergoglio Georgium Marium Bergoglio Francis Franciscum accusative none [8][9]

Evolution of the formula[edit]

From the beginning, the Habemus papam did not follow a strict formula, but varied in considerable form for many years; the table shows selected announcements given since the 1484 papal conclave.

Date Protodeacon or senior cardinal deacon Pope elected Announcement Translation
August 29, 1484 Francesco Piccolomini Giovanni Battista Cibo – elected Innocent VIII Annuncio vobis gaudium magnum: Papam habemus. Reverendissimus Dominus cardinalis Melfictensis electus est in summum pontificem et elegit sibi nomen Innocentium Octavum.[19] I announce to you a great joy: we have a pope. The most reverend lord cardinal[, the bishop] of Molfetta has been elected as supreme pontiff, and has chosen for himself the name Innocent VIII.
November 1, 1503 Raffaele Sansoni Riario Giuliano della Rovere – elected Julius II Papam habemus Reverendissimum Dominum Cardinalem Sancti Petri ad Vincula, qui vocatur Julius Secundus.[20] We have a pope, the most reverend lord, cardinal [priest] of San Pietro in Vincoli, who is called Julius II.
March 11, 1513 Alessandro Farnese Giovanni de Medici – elected Leo X
Note: Cardinal protodeacon at time of election
Gaudium magnum nuntio vobis! Papam habemus, Reverendissimum Dominum Johannem de Medicis, Diaconum Cardinalem Sanctae Mariae in Domenica, qui vocatur Leo Decimus.[21] A great joy I announce to you! We have a pope, the most reverend lord Giovanni de' Medici, cardinal deacon of Santa Maria in Domnica, who is called Leo X.
October 13, 1534 Innocenzo Cibo Alessandro Farnese – elected Paul III Annuncio vobis gaudium magnum: Papam habemus Reverendissimum Dominum Alexandrum Episcopum Hostiensem, Cardinalem de Farnesio nuncupatum, qui imposuit sibi nomen Paulus Tertius.[22] I announce to you a great joy: we have a pope, the most reverend lord Alexander, designated bishop of Ostia and Cardinal Farnese, who takes to himself the name Paul III.
September 15, 1644 Francesco Barberini Giovanni Battista Pamphili – elected Innocent X Annuncio vobis gaudium magnum, habemus Papam Eminentissimum et Reverendissimum Dominum Johannem Baptistum Pamphilium, qui sibi nomen imposuit Innocentium Decimum.[23] I announce to you a great joy, we have a pope, the most eminent and reverend lord Giovanni Battista Pamphili, who takes to himself the name Innocent X.
April 7, 1655 Giangiacomo Teodoro Trivulzio Fabio Chigi – elected Alexander VII Annuncio vobis gaudium magnum: Papam habemus Eminentissimum et Reverendissimum Dominum Fabium Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae Presbyterum Cardinalem Chisium, qui elegit sibi nomen Alexandrum Septimum.[24] I announce to you a great joy: we have a pope, the most eminent and most reverend lord Fabio, cardinal priest of the Holy Roman Church Chigi, who chooses for himself the name Alexander VII.
September 21, 1676 Francesco Maidalchini Benedetto Odeschalchi – elected Innocent XI Annuncio vobis gaudium magnum: Papam habemus Reverendissimum Benedictum Titulo Sancti Honufrii Cardinalem Odeschalcum, qui sibi nomen imposuit Innocentium Undecimum.[25] I announce to you a great joy: we have a pope, the most reverend lord Benedetto, cardinal [priest] of the title of Sant'Onofrio, Odescalchi, who takes to himself the name Innocent XI.
May 8, 1721 Benedetto Pamphili Michelangelo Conti – elected Innocent XIII Annuncio vobis gaudium magnii: Papam habemus. Eminentissimum et Reverendissimum Dominum Michaelem Angelum Tituli Sanctorum Quirici et Iulitta Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae Presbyterum Cardinalem de Comitibus, qui sibi nomen imposuit Innocentius Tertius Decimus.[26] I announce to you a great joy: we have a pope, the most eminent and reverend lord Michelangelo, cardinal priest of the Holy Roman Church of the title of Santi Quirico e Giulitta, Conti, who takes to himself the name Innocent XIII.
May 29, 1724 Benedetto Pamphili Vincenzo Maria Orsini – elected Pope Benedict XIII Annuncio vobis gaudium magnum: Papam habemus: Eminentissimum et Reverendissimum Dominum Fratrem Vincentium Mariam Cardinalem Ursinum Episcopum Portuensem, qui sibi nomen imposuit Benedictus Tertius Decimus.[27] I announce to you a great joy: we have a pope: the most eminent and reverend lord brother Vincenzo Maria Cardinal Orsini, Bishop of Porto, who takes to himself the name Benedict XIII.
February 15, 1775 Alessandro Albani Giovanni Angelo Braschi – elected Pope Pius VI Annuntio vobis gaudium magnum: Papam habemus! Eminentissimum et reverendissimum Dominum Ioannem Angelum, tituli Sancti Onuphrii Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae Presbyterum Cardinalem Braschi, qui sibi nomen imposuit Pius Sextus.[28] I announce to you a great joy: we have a pope! The most eminent and reverend lord Giovanni Angelo, cardinal priest of the Holy Roman Church of the title of Sant'Onofrio, Braschi, who takes to himself the name Pius VI.
September 28, 1823 Fabrizio Ruffo Annibale Della Genga – elected Pope Leo XII Annuncio vobis gaudium magnum: papam habemus, eminentissimum ac reverendissimum Dominum Annibalem, tituli Sanctae Mariae Transtiberim, presbyterum Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalem Della Genga, qui sibi imposuit nomen Leo Duodecimus.[29] I announce to you a great joy: we have a pope, the most eminent and reverend lord Annibale, cardinal priest of the Holy Roman Church of the title of Santa Maria in Trastevere, Della Genga, who takes to himself the name Leo XII.
February 2, 1831 Giuseppe Albani Mauro Cappellari – elected Pope Gregory XVI Annuncio vobis gaudium magnum: Papam habemus! Eminentissimum ac reverendissimum Dominum Maurum Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae Presbyterum tituli sancti Calysti Cardinalem Cappellari, qui sibi nomen imposuit Gregorium Sextum Decimum.[30] I announce to you a great joy: we have a pope! The most eminent and reverend lord Mauro, cardinal priest of the Holy Roman Church of the title of San Callisto, Cappellari, who takes to himself the name Gregory XVI.
June 16, 1846 Tommaso Riario Sforza Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti – elected Pope Pius IX Annuncio vobis gaudium magnum: Papam habemus! Eminentissimum et Reverendissimum Dominum Ioannem Mariam Mastai Ferretti, Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae Presbyterum Cardinalem, qui sibi nomen imposuit Pius Nonus.[31] I announce to you a great joy: we have a pope! The most eminent and reverend lord Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti, cardinal priest of the Holy Roman Church, who takes to himself the name Pius IX.
March 2, 1939 Camillo Caccia Dominioni Eugenio Pacelli – elected Pope Pius XII Annuntio vobis gaudium magnum; habemus papam: Eminentissimum ac reverendissimum Dominum, Dominum Eugenium Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalem Pacelli, qui sibi nomen imposuit Pium.[16][17][18] I announce to you a great joy; we have a pope: the most eminent and reverend lord, Lord Eugenio, cardinal of the Holy Roman Church, Pacelli, who takes to himself the name Pius.
October 28, 1958 Nicola Canali Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli – elected Pope John XXIII Annuntio vobis gaudium magnum; habemus papam: Eminentissimum ac reverendissimum Dominum, Dominum Angelum Iosephum Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalem Roncalli, qui sibi nomen imposuit Ioannis Vigesimi Tertii.[10] I announce to you a great joy; we have a pope: the most eminent and reverend lord, Lord Angelo Giuseppe, cardinal of the Holy Roman Church, Roncalli, who takes to himself the name John XXIII.
June 21, 1963 Alfredo Ottaviani Giovanni Battista Montini – elected Pope Paul VI Annuntio vobis gaudium magnum; habemus papam: Eminentissimum et reverendissimum Dominum, Dominum Ioannem Baptistam Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalem Montini, qui sibi nomen imposuit Paulum Sextum.[12] I announce to you a great joy; we have a pope: the most eminent and reverend lord, Lord Giovanni Battista, cardinal of the Holy Roman Church, Montini, who takes to himself the name Paul VI.
August 26, 1978 Pericle Felici Albino Luciani – elected Pope John Paul I Annuntio vobis gaudium magnum; habemus papam: Eminentissimum ac reverendissimum Dominum, Dominum Albinum Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalem Luciani, qui sibi nomen imposuit Ioannis Pauli Primi.[11] I announce to you a great joy; we have a pope: the most eminent and reverend lord, Lord Albino, cardinal of the Holy Roman Church, Luciani, who takes to himself the name John Paul I.
October 16, 1978 Pericle Felici Karol Wojtyła – elected Pope John Paul II Annuntio vobis gaudium magnum; habemus papam: Eminentissimum ac reverendissimum Dominum, Dominum Carolum Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalem Wojtyła, qui sibi nomen imposuit Ioannis Pauli.[6] I announce to you a great joy; we have a pope: the most eminent and reverend lord, Lord Karol, Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church, Wojtyła, who takes to himself the name John Paul.
April 19, 2005 Jorge Arturo Medina Estévez Joseph Ratzinger – elected Pope Benedict XVI Annuntio vobis gaudium magnum; habemus papam: Eminentissimum ac reverendissimum Dominum, Dominum Iosephum Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalem Ratzinger, qui sibi nomen imposuit Benedicti Decimi Sexti.[4] I announce to you a great joy; we have a pope: the most eminent and reverend lord, Lord Joseph, Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church, Ratzinger, who takes to himself the name Benedict XVI.
March 13, 2013 Jean-Louis Tauran Jorge Mario Bergoglio – elected Pope Francis Annuntio vobis gaudium magnum; habemus papam: Eminentissimum ac reverendissimum Dominum, Dominum Georgium Marium Sanctæ Romanæ Ecclesiæ Cardinalem Bergoglio, qui sibi nomen imposuit Franciscum.[9] I announce to you a great joy; we have a pope: the most eminent and reverend lord, Lord Jorge Mario, Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church, Bergoglio, who takes to himself the name Francis.

List of cardinals who have given the announcement[edit]

Cardinal Pope Year
15th century
Francesco Piccolomini Pope Innocent VIII 1484
Pope Alexander VI 1492
16th century
Raffaele Riario Pope Pius III 1503
Pope Julius II
Alessandro Farnese Pope Leo X 1513
Marco Cornaro Pope Hadrian VI 1522
Pope Clement VII 1523
Innocenzo Cibo Pope Paul III 1534
Pope Julius III 1550
Francesco Pisani Pope Marcellus II 1555
Pope Paul IV
Alessandro Farnese Pope Pius IV 1559
Giulio Feltre della Rovere Pope Pius V 1566
Girolamo Simoncelli Pope Gregory XIII 1572
Luigi d'Este Pope Sixtus V 1585
Francesco Sforza di Santa Fiora Pope Urban VII 1590
Andreas von Österreich Pope Gregory XIV 1590
Pope Innocent IX 1591
Pope Clement VIII 1592
17th century
Francesco Sforza di Santa Fiora Pope Leo XI 1605
Pope Paul V
Andrea Baroni Peretti Montalto Pope Gregory XV 1621
Alessandro d'Este Pope Urban VIII 1623
Francesco Barberini Pope Innocent X 1644
Giangiacomo Teodoro Trivulzio Pope Alexander VII 1655
Rinaldo d'Este Pope Clement IX 1667
Francesco Maidalchini Pope Clement X 1670
Pope Innocent XI 1676
Pope Alexander VIII 1689
Urbano Sacchetti Pope Innocent XII 1691
18th century
Benedetto Pamphilj Pope Clement XI 1700
Pope Innocent XIII 1721
Pope Benedict XIII 1724
Lorenzo Altieri Pope Clement XII 1730
Carlo Maria Marini Pope Benedict XIV 1740
Alessandro Albani Pope Clement XIII 1758
Pope Clement XIV 1769
Pope Pius VI 1775
19th century
Antonio Doria Pamphili Pope Pius VII 1800
Fabrizio Ruffo Pope Leo XII 1823
Giuseppe Albani Pope Pius VIII 1829
Pope Gregory XVI 1831
Tommaso Riario Sforza Pope Pius IX 1846
Prospero Caterini[c] Pope Leo XIII 1878
20th century
Luigi Macchi Pope Pius X 1903
Francesco Salesio Della Volpe Pope Benedict XV 1914
Gaetano Bisleti Pope Pius XI 1922
Camillo Caccia Dominioni Pope Pius XII 1939
Nicola Canali Pope John XXIII 1958
Alfredo Ottaviani Pope Paul VI 1963
Pericle Felici Pope John Paul I 1978
Pope John Paul II
21st century
Jorge Arturo Medina Estévez Pope Benedict XVI 2005
Jean-Louis Tauran Pope Francis 2013

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ While every pope after Urban VI (r. 1378–1389) has been a cardinal, this is not a strict requirement; the conclave is capable of electing any Catholic male, even a layman.
  2. ^ Jesuit professor Norman Tanner claims that Antipope John XXIII actually resigned but under pressure.[5]
  3. ^ Richard Henry Clarke's book about Leo XIII claims that Prospero Caterini made the announcement[32] and Salvador Miranda's entry on Cardinal Caterini at The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church website mentions Caterini as having given the announcement[33] but Francis Burkle-Young claims that Caterini started to make the announcement but was incapable of completing the formula and was ultimately assisted in delivering the news by Bartolomeo Grassi-Landi, a non-cardinal and the conclavist of Cardinal Luigi Oreglia di Santo Stefano[34]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pope John Paul II (22 February 1996). "Universi Dominici Gregis" (Apostolic constitution). Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Archived from the original on 26 August 2018. Retrieved 23 February 2019 – via the Holy See.
  2. ^ "Annuntio vobis gaudium magnum habemus Papam" (in Latin). Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
  3. ^ a b c d e NBC News Coverage of the Election of Pope Benedict XVI YouTube. Accessed February 2, 2013
  4. ^ a b c d e f 19 Aprile 2005 – Elezione di Papa Benedetto XVI YouTube. Accessed March 16, 2013
  5. ^ a b "Origins of the 'Annuntio vobis gaudium magnum: habemus papam". News.va Official Vatican Network – Vatican Radio. 21 March 2013. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
  6. ^ a b c d e RAIStoria Elezione Giovanni Paolo II. YouTube. Accessed on March 16, 2012.
  7. ^ a b c d Announcement of John Paul II becoming Pope October 1978 . YouTube. Accessed on March 16, 2012.
  8. ^ a b c d e http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/francesco/elezione/index_en.htm Holy See website on Francis' election. Retrieved March 13, 2013.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Habemus Papam, Franciscus. YouTube. Retrieved March 16, 2013.
  10. ^ a b c Election of Pope John XXIII. YouTube. Accessed March 24, 2013
  11. ^ a b c d John Paul I Election and First Blessing. YouTube. Accessed on March 16, 2012.
  12. ^ a b c d e Elezione Papa Paolo VI (1963) . YouTube. Accessed on December 22, 2012.
  13. ^ a b c d Un'opera che continua Edizione straordinaria. YouTube. Accessed on March 16, 2012.
  14. ^ Nicola Flocchini, Piera Guidotti Bacci, Marco Moscio, Maiorum Lingua Manuale, Bompiani per la scuola, Milano 2007, p. 309.
  15. ^ http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/elezione/index_en.htm Holy See website on Benedict XVI's election. Retrieved February 2, 2013.
  16. ^ a b c d Habemus Papam – Pope Pius XII. YouTube. Accessed on December 21, 2012.
  17. ^ a b c d Habemus Papam! – Pope Pio XII. YouTube. Accessed on March 17, 2013.
  18. ^ a b c d Habemus Papam Pope Pius XII. YouTube. Accessed on October 10, 2013
  19. ^ L. Thuasne (red.), Johannis Burchardi Argentinensis Diarium sive Rerum Urbanum commentarii, Vol. I, Paris 1883, pp. 62–63.
  20. ^ Giovanni Battista Gattico, Acta Selecta Caremonialia Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae. Tomus I, Rome 1753, p. 309.
  21. ^ Herbert Vaughan, The Medici popes : Leo X and Clement VII, London 1908, p. 108.
  22. ^ Giovanni Battista Gattico, Acta Selecta Caremonialia Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae. Tomus I, Rome 1753, p. 328.
  23. ^ Herman, Eleanor (2009). Królowa Watykanu (in Polish). Warszawa: Wydawnictwo JEDEN ŚWIAT. p. 139. ISBN 978-83-89632-45-6.
  24. ^ Giovanni Battista Gattico, Acta Selecta Caremonialia Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae. Tomus I, Rome 1753, p. 359.
  25. ^ Giovanni Battista Gattico, Acta Selecta Caremonialia Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae. Tomus I, Rome 1753, p. 361.
  26. ^ Relazione della morte ... Clemente XI., Venice 1721, no. 11, pp. 9–10.
  27. ^ Diario ordinario, Rome, Numero 1065 of May 31, 1724, p. 7.
  28. ^ Revue des questions historiques, Paris, tome 7 (1892), p. 451.
  29. ^ Artaud de Montor, Histoire du Pape Léon XII., vol. 1, Paris 1843, p. 79.
  30. ^ Gaetano Moroni, Dizionario Di Erudizione Storico-Ecclesiastica. Vol. XV, Venice 1842, p. 317.
  31. ^ Maurizio Marocco, Storia di papa Pio IX., Torino 1856, p. 158.¸
  32. ^ Richard Henry Clarke. The life of His Holiness Pope Leo XIII ...: together with extracts from his pastorals and encyclicals.
  33. ^ "Caterini, Prospero". Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church.
  34. ^ Francis A. Burkle-Young. Papal Elections in the Age of Transition, 1878–1922.