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Yellow fever in Buenos Aires

The Yellow Fever in Buenos Aires was a series of epidemics that took place in 1852, 1858, 1870 and 1871, the latter being a disaster that killed about 8% of Porteños: in a city where the daily death rate was less than 20, there were days that killed more than 500 people. The Yellow Fever would have come from Asunción, brought by Argentine soldiers returning from the war just fought in that country, having spread in the city of Corrientes; as its worst, Buenos Aires population was reduced to a third because of the exodus of those escaping the scourge. Some of the main causes of the spread of this disease were the insufficient supply of drinking water, pollution of ground water by human waste, the warm and humid climate in summer, the overcrowding suffered by the black people and, since 1871, the overcrowding of the European immigrants who entered the country incessantly and without sanitary measures; the saladeros polluted the Matanza River, the infected ditches full of debris which ran through the city encouraged the spread of the mosquito Aedes aegypti, responsible of transmitting Yellow Fever.

A witness to the epidemic of 1871, named Mardoqueo Navarro, wrote on April 13 the following description in his diary: Since 1881, thanks to Cuban physician Carlos Finlay, it was known that the transmitting agent of Yellow Fever was mosquito Aedes aegypti. Before that discovery, doctors attributed the cause of many epidemics to what they called "miasmas" floating in the air. Yellow Fever caused an epidemic in Buenos Aires in 1852. However, by a note addressed to practitioner Soler is known that outbreaks occurred before that year; as for the 1870 epidemic, it caused 100 deaths. At the end of 1870 there were large numbers of invalids registered in Asunción, whose populace lived in deplorable poverty; the Paraguayan War had just finished there and the Argentinian intervention began in early 1871, causing the Buenos Aires epidemic by the arrival of the first Argentinian veterans. In the city of Corrientes, with a population of 11,000 and the centre of communication and provision for the allied troops between December 1870 and June of the following year, 2000 people died of yellow fever.

Most of the population fled. Other towns in the Corrientes Province suffered the punishment of the disease, such as San Luis del Palmar, Bella Vista and San Roque. In 1871 the National Government convened in Buenos Aires, presided over by Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, with Buenos Aires Province represented by Emilio Castro, Narciso Martínez de Hoz presided over the municipal government; the city, situated in a plain, had no drainage system. Hygiene was precarious and there were many focuses of infection, such as the slums which lacked basic hygiene standards and were crammed with poor black or European immigrants, the creeks, south of the city limits, which had become a sink for sewage and waste dumped by salting and slaughterhouses along their coasts; as it had no sewerage system, human waste collected in cesspools, which contaminated the ground water and hence the wells, one of the two major sources of the vital element for the majority of the populace. The other source was the Río de la Plata, from which they extracted water by carts, with no process of sanitisation.

The filth and waste were used for levelling the terrain and streets in a city growing mainly due to the influx of migrants. The streets were narrow and there were no avenues. There were few plazas and no vegetation; the first census of Argentina in 1869 registered 177,787 inhabitants in the City of Buenos Aires, of which 88,126 were foreigners, of those 44,233 were Italian and 14,609 were Spanish. In addition there were over 19,000 urban dwellings, of which 2300 were made of wood or clay and straw. In addition to the epidemic of yellow fever that we have mentioned, there were outbreaks of cholera in 1867 and 1868, which killed hundreds of people. On 27 January 1871, three cases of yellow fever were diagnosed in Buenos Aires, they were all in the San Telmo neighbourhood, full of tenements. From this date on, many more cases were registered in that neighbourhood; the doctors Tamini, Salvador Larrosa and Montes de Oca warned the City Commission of the outbreak of an epidemic. But the Commission, under the leadership of Narciso Martínez de Hoz, disregarded their warnings and failed to publicise the cases.

The controversy was reported by the newspapers. Meanwhile, the Municipality intensified preparations for the official carnival festivities. At the end of February, the doctor Eduardo Wilde said there was an outbreak of the fever and he left some apples, but the people were too entertained by the carnival festivities to listen to his warning. By the end of February at total of 300 cases had been registered, March began with over 40 deaths a day, rising to 100 by day 6. All were caused by the fever. By now, the plague was hitting the aristocratic neighbourhoods too. Dances were prohibited. A third of the inhabitants decided to abandon the city. On 4 March, the Tribune newspaper commented that by night the streets were so dark "it appeared as if the terrible scourge had swept away all the residents", yet the worst by far was to come. The General Men's Hospital, the General Women's Hospital, the Hospital Italiano and the orphanage were all overwhelmed. So they created other emergency centres such as the Lazareto de San Roque

Aiden Leslie

Aiden Leslie is an American pop singer-songwriter. He received widespread recognition and acclaim after writing and performing "Worlds Away" in 2011. Leslie was born in Ohio, he attended the School for Performing Arts in Cincinnati, Ohio. Shortly after graduating, he moved to New York City to pursue his love of music. There he was cast in an off Broadway play, during which he was introduced to an underground music world he didn’t know existed, it wasn’t long before he became a fixture in the New York nightlife circuit, frequenting clubs like Palladium, Twilo and Jackie 60 to listen and dance to after-hour DJ's Junior Vasquez and Danny Tenaglia. He found. “A lot of DJ's are not open to playing male artists on their dance floors. I think. I want to be a part of the movement to bring more guys to the dance floor.”He resides in New York City. Leslie released the first white label cover of Erasure's "Love to Hate You" in 2005 on JVM Music, remixed by Junior Vasquez; as a songwriter, Leslie has become known for using his songs as personal diary entries.

“Worlds Away” examined the aftermath of struggle, how people reach a light at the end of the tunnel and grow from adversity. “Trying to Leave Now” looked at fighting feelings in the heart, leaving a love the mind knows is not right. “Diamond Dreams” reflected on Aiden’s story of coming to New York City six days after his high school graduation. And, It’s become a reality as he has been touring the country the last three years, playing to huge crowds in cities such as Chicago, New York City, Albany, opening for acts such as Wilson Phillips, 10,000 Maniacs, Debbie Gibson, Aaron Carter, Kristine W to name just a few. “My fans are always my priority and meeting them makes it all worth it” says Leslie. His newest track, “Nobody Said”, continues his journey in search of life’s ideal, it tackles a desire many feel is more out of reach: finding ultimate love. Aiden Leslie's next release of Please on HMSP Music in 2006 met with favorable reviews. Leslie released his break out single "World's Away" in February 2011.

"World's Away" rose to #1 on Masterbeat, #1 on Logo TV "Click List" for four consecutive weeks, was broadcast in video rotation on MTV, VH1 and was released on iTunes and Amazon.com shortly after. 2011 saw the launch of Leslie's own record label, Ashea Records, which released his next single in July of that year. The pop anthem "Trying to Leave Now", charted number 1 on several pop/dance charts across the globe. Leslie's next single "Diamond Dreams" was released in August 2012. Leslie's release for 2013 was "Nobody Said" issued in November that year. In 2012, Leslie was awarded Odyssey Magazine's Nightlife Best Male Vocalist, he was nominated for the 2012 Odyssey Magazine's Nightlife Award - Best Male Performer as well as a Glam Award for Best Nightlife Performer. Official website Aiden Leslie on IMDb

William Samuel Henson

William Samuel Henson was a pre-Wright brothers aviation engineer and inventor. Henson was born in Nottingham, England on 3 May 1812. Henson was involved in lace-making in Chard and he obtained a patent on improved lace-making machines in 1835. Henson is best known as an early pioneer in aviation, but patented many other inventions, some of which are in wide use today. In 1849 William Henson and his wife, left England and moved to the United States, joining his father and settling in Newark, New Jersey. Henson never did any further aviation research while in the United States and worked as a machinist, civil engineer and inventor, he had only 4 of whom lived to adulthood. Henson died on 22 March 1888 in New Jersey, he and most of his family were buried in Rosedale Cemetery in New Jersey. Starting c. 1838, Henson became interested in aviation. In April 1841 he patented an improved lightweight steam engine, with fellow lacemaking-engineer John Stringfellow in c. 1842 he designed a large passenger-carrying steam-powered monoplane, with a wing span of 150 feet, which he named the "Henson Aerial Steam Carriage".

He received a patent on it in 1843 along with Stringfellow. Henson, Frederick Marriott, D. E. Colombine, incorporated as the Aerial Transit Company in 1843 in England, with the intention of raising money to construct the flying machine. Henson built a scale model of his design, which made one tentative steam-powered "hop" as it lifted, or bounced, off its guide wire. Attempts were made to fly the small model, a larger model with a 20-foot wing span, between 1844 and 1847, without success. Henson grew discouraged and emigrated in 1849 to the United States, while Stringfellow continued to experiment with aviation. Henson appeared as a character in a fictional newspaper story by Edgar Allan Poe, which recounted a supposed trans-Atlantic balloon trip, in which Henson was one of the passengers on the balloon. Henson and Stringfellow are mentioned in books on the history of aviation; the Royal Aeronautical Society holds. A glacier in Antarctica is named. Henson and Stringfellow were referred to in the 1965 film The Flight of the Phoenix.

The Aerial's wings were rectangular, were formed by wooden spars covered with fabric, braced and externally, with wires. The Aerial Steam Carriage was to be powered by two contra-rotating six-bladed propellers mounted in the rear in a push-type system; the design follows earlier "birdlike" gliders, the ideas of George Cayley, Henson corresponded with Cayley in an attempt to obtain funding after the efforts to obtain the support of Parliament and sell stock failed. The Aerial Transit Company never built the largest version of the Aerial Steam Carriage because of the failed attempts with the medium-sized model. Henson, Stringfellow and Colombine dissolved the company around 1848; the Aerial Transit Company's publicist, Frederick Marriott, commissioned prints in 1843 depicting the Aerial Steam Carriage over the pyramids of Egypt, in India, over London and other places, which drew considerable interest from the public. The prints have appeared on several stamps of various countries. Marriott became an aviation pioneer in California.

Henson obtained a number of patents in varying areas. Major patents include: Lace-making decoration, 1835 Lightweight steam engines, 1841 Flying machine, 1843 T-handled safety razor, 1847Henson invented the modern form of the razor, the'T' shaped safety razor, patented it in 1847: "the cutting blade of, at right angles with the handle, resembles somewhat the form of a common hoe." While a major improvement on the previous form of safety razor, an additional improvement was needed to make safety razors common. In 1901, Gillette combined Henson's T-shaped safety razor with disposable blades, produced the modern razor. Henson published a pamphlet on astronomy in 1871 suggesting that the solar system formed from cold dust and gas, discussed how it could condense into meteors and comets, further condense into planets and the sun, in the process heating up, he discusses how this would lead to the planets orbiting in the ecliptic and rotating in the same general plane. Henson created inventions in other areas as well.

Among them were ice-making machines, fabric waterproofing, cistern-cleaning. He patented and submitted a proposal for an improved low-recoil breech-loading cannon design to the US Navy in 1861. Small model, wingspan unknown Medium model, wingspan 20 feet Full-size aircraft, wingspan 150 feet 3 May 1812 Birth in Nottingham, England 1835 UK Patent #4405 on ornamental lace-making improvements 1840 UK Patent #6207 on making fabrics 1841, 1842, 1843 UK Patents on lightweight steam engine and flying machine 17 July 1847 Patent on the T-handled safety razor 1849 Emigration to the United States 1850 US Census in Newark, New Jersey as machinist 2 March 1852 US Patent on improvement to knitting looms 5 November 1861 US Patent #33646 for "Improvement in Breech-loading Ordinance". 13 October 1868 US Patent #83060 for an improvement to a steam engine governor circa 1869-1870: working in Peru in the mining industry 26 January 1869 US Patent #86264 for improvements to centrifugal screw pumps 1870 US Census in Newark, New Jersey as civil engineer, US patent #108816 on ice-making machine 1871 Publication of book on Astrono

Brian Hyde

Brian L. Hyde is an American retired middle-distance runner who specialized in the 1500 meters, he represented the United States at the 1996 Summer Olympics. Hyde attended East Kentwood High School where he competed in cross track, his high school personal best time on a cross country 5,000 meter course was 15:41. He graduated in 1991. Hyde was recruited by William & Mary, where he set two school records in the 1000 meters and 1500 meters; when Hyde broke W&M's record in the 1500 meters, he had run the fastest 1500-meter race in the entire world in 1995. Hyde represented the United States in the men's 1500 meter at the 1996 Summer Olympics, recording a time of 3:48.20. Despite not making it past the first round, Hyde continued to pursue track after his Olympic spell and ran professionally for New Balance. In 1997, Hyde recorded the fourth fastest indoor mile time of any individual from the state of Michigan, 3:56.41. Now he coaches a middle school track team in Virginia, he coached the track team to a regional championship.

That season the track team went undefeated. Track star Courtney Mudd ran for Coach Hyde along with Josh Fong, Zach Blaum, Ashton Shultz, Daniel Mudd

Ordinum Hollandiae ac Westfrisiae pietas

Ordinum Hollandiae ac Westfrisiae pietas is a 1613 book on church polity by Hugo Grotius. It was the first publication of Grotius, a prominent jurist and Remonstrant, concerned with the Calvinist-Arminian debate and its ramifications, a major factor in the politics of the Netherlands in the 1610s; the Ordinum pietas, as it is known for short, gave a commentary on the Five Articles of Remonstrance of 1610 that were the legacy of the theological views of Jacobus Arminius, who died in 1609. In arguing for a relaxation of orthodox Calvinism, or from another perspective against the hardening of Reformed theology along the lines proposed by his colleague and opponent Franciscus Gomarus, Arminius had appealed to the secular authorities; as a tactical move this appeal had brought advantages. Grotius held a prominent legal office, being Advocate General to the States of Zealand. In the period from the Hague Conference of 1611 between Remonstrants and their opponents the Contra-Remonstrants, the views of Grotius were not known.

It was with the publication of the Ordinum Pietas that he came off the fence, became identified with the Remonstrant cause. The consequences on a personal level for the author were serious: six years he was under a death sentence, after the religious conflict became a matter of high politics. Grotius visited England for two months in the spring of 1613, taken there by legal issues centred on Dutch and British trading in the East Indies, he moved in the highest circles, meeting both James I of England, George Abbot the Archbishop of Canterbury. He began the composition of the Ordinum Pietas after his return, making use of Calvinist theological reading which he had spent time on after the Conference. Useful to the debate and relevant for citation were John Calvin, Pierre Du Moulin, David Paraeus, William Perkins, Johannes Piscator, William Whitaker. In writing this book, Grotius was self-consciously taking a position in the affair of Conrad Vorstius; that was because it took aim at a work of Sibrandus Lubbertus from 1611, Commentarii ad nonaginta novem errores Conradi Vorstii from 1611, the year in which Vorstius, an Arminian, had been forced out of the University of Leiden.

More it was directed against the dedication Lubbertus had made to George Abbot, in which the States of Holland were criticised for their lenient handling of the Remonstrants, their reluctance to call a synod. In reply to a polemic, he used a rough insulting polemical tone of opponents. Grotius argued for the tradition of Erasmus of seeking concord, putting down a marker for eirenicism; these ideas he developed by citing the Church Fathers. He brought up the third-century example of Firmilian, a saint, who had taken a soft line with Paul of Samosata adjudged a heretic. Grotius proposed an approach based on modestia, a religious toleration not restricted to the holding of opinions given the existing tolerance in the Netherlands, he wanted to move the ground of the discussion from sharp definition of issues, onto the territory of procedure, the coexistence of orthodoxy with other beliefs. In the second part of the work he argues from the early Protestant Reformation. Erasmus, indeed Dutch if a Catholic, had disagreed with Martin Luther on predestination, the most contentious issue in the debate.

The Contra-Remonstrant view was an import, too. Calvin and Philipp Melanchthon had not agreed in their formulation of Protestant confessions. Grotius argued, in the third part, for what came to be called Erastianism, giving the state power over church matters; the leading Remonstrant theologian Johannes Wtenbogaert had done this in his Tractaet of 1610. Grotius therefore gives arguments, for example that "human jurisprudence" and "divine jurisprudence" cannot be separated without loss. An example was close to hand in the recent history of the Flemish church, to support the disorder inherent in separate jurisdictions. There were numerous hostile responses to the Ordinum Pietas, the first being the Ad Scripti... Hugonis Grotii of Johannes Bogermann. From the Remonstrant side it was answered by Caspar Barlaeus, Johannes Arnoldi Corvinus, Gerard Vossius. Lubbertus replied in 1614, with his considered Responsio ad Pietatem Hugonis Grotii, from a team involving Petrus Plancius, Festus Hommius and Matthew Slade.

Antonius Walaeus, a friendly Calvinist, had warned Grotius that his treatment of predestination would not be accepted by orthodox Calvinists. Jacques-August de Thou received a complimentary copy. Translations from the original Latin were by Samuel Naeranus. A reprint was published which toned down some of the criticisms of Lubbertus, but it was too late for Grotius to regain his reputation as a potential unifier