Paolo Soleri was an Italian architect. He established Arcosanti. Soleri was a lecturer in the College of Architecture at Arizona State University and a National Design Award recipient in 2006, he died at home of natural causes on 9 April 2013 at the age of 93. Soleri authored several books, including The Bridge Between Matter & Spirit is Matter Becoming Spirit and Arcology - City In the Image of Man. Soleri was born in Turin, Europe, he was awarded his "laurea" in architecture from the Politecnico di Torino in 1946. He visited the United States in December 1946 and spent a year and a half in fellowship with Frank Lloyd Wright at Taliesin West in Arizona, at Taliesin in Spring Green, Wisconsin. During this time, he gained international recognition for a bridge design, displayed at the Museum of Modern Art. In 1950, with his wife Colly, returned to Italy where he was commissioned to build a large ceramics factory, Ceramica Artistica Solimene, in Vietri on the Amalfi coast. Soleri adapted ceramics industry processes learned at this time to use in his award-winning designs and production of ceramic and bronze windbells and silt-cast architectural structures.
For more than 40 years, proceeds from sales of the wind-bells have been an important source of funds for construction, meant to test his theoretical work. Ceramic and bronze bells continue to be sold at Arcosanti and Cosanti in Arizona. In 1956, Soleri settled in Scottsdale, with Colly and the elder of their two daughters, he began building Arcosanti in 1970 with the help of architecture and design students, as a place to test his urban design hypotheses. This "urban laboratory" became internationally renowned. Paolo and Colly Soleri made a lifelong commitment to experimentation in urban planning, they established a 501-3C educational non-profit foundation. Soleri's philosophy and works were influenced by the Jesuit paleontologist and philosopher Pierre Teilhard de Chardin. Soleri was buried at Arcosanti in its private cemetery, beside his wife; the Cosanti Foundation's major project is Arcosanti. Arcosanti, as designed by Soleri, was intended for 5,000 people. Located near Cordes Junction, about 70 miles north of Phoenix and visible from Interstate I-17 in central Arizona, the intention of the project is to provide a model that can demonstrate Soleri's concept of "Arcology", architecture coherent with ecology.
Arcology was envisioned by Soleri as a hyper-dense city, designed to: maximize human interaction with ready access to shared, cost-effective infrastructural services. In 2010, construction was underway to complete Arcosanti's Greenhouse Apron, but that initiative was put on hold not long after Soleri's death in 2013. Arcosanti is intended as a prototype of a desert arcology. Soleri's other arcology designs envisioned sites such as the ocean, et al.. Since 1970, over 7000 people have participated in Arcosanti's construction, their international affiliation group is called the Arcosanti Alumni Network. The International Architecture Symposium "Mensch und Raum" at the Vienna University of Technology in 1984 received international attention. Paolo Soleri participated with, among others: Justus Dahinden, Dennis Sharp, Bruno Zevi, Jorge Glusberg, Otto Kapfinger, Frei Otto, Pierre Vago, Ernst Gisel, Ionel Schein. Soleri was a distinguished lecturer in the College of Architecture at Arizona State University and a member of the Lindisfarne Association.
In 1966, Paolo Soleri began working on the design for the Paolo Soleri Amphitheater in Santa Fe, New Mexico. It was built for the IAIA on what is now the campus of the Santa Fe Indian School using large silt cast forms; the property is owned by the nineteen Native American Pueblos of New Mexico and is therefore not protected by local or state preservation laws. A landmark exhibition, "City in the Image of Man - The Architectural Visions of Paolo Soleri", organized in 1970 by the Corcoran Gallery of Art in Washington, DC, traveled extensively thereafter in the U. S. and Canada, breaking records for attendance. "Two Suns Arcology, A Concept for Future Cities" opened in 1976 at the Xerox Square Center in Rochester, New York. In 1989, "Paolo Soleri Habitats: Ecologic Minutiae", an exhibition of arcologies, space habitats, bridges, was presented at the New York Academy of Sciences. More "Soleri's Cities, Architecture for the Planet Earth and Beyond" was featured at the Scottsdale Center for the Arts in Scottsdale, AZ.
A Soleri bell appears in the film What the *Bleep* Do We Know? His work has been exhibited worldwide. In 1976, Paolo Soleri was a key participant at UN Habitat I, the first UN forum on human settlements, held it Vancouver, British Columbia, North America. Soleri appeared there together with Buckminster Fuller; the Paolo Soleri Archives, the collection of Soleri's drawings and writings, is located at Arcosanti. The Soleri Archives is managed by Sue Kirsch under the direction of Tomiaki Tamura, a Cosanti Board Trustee and Arcosanti's Director of Special Projects. Tomiaki Tamura resides at Arcosanti. An interview with Soleri was featured in the environmental documentary The 11th Hour. On 10 December 2010, the Soleri Plaza was completed; the structu
United Nations Economic and Social Council
The United Nations Economic and Social Council is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, responsible for coordinating the economic and social fields of the organisation in regards to the 15 specialised agencies, the eight functional commissions and the five regional commissions under its jurisdiction. The Council serves as the central forum for discussing international economic and social issues and formulating policy recommendations addressed to member states and the United Nations system. A number of non-governmental organisations have been granted consultative status to the Council to participate in the work of the United Nations, it holds one four-week session each year in July, since 1998, it has held an annual meeting in April with finance ministers heading key committees of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. The president of the Council is elected for a one-year term and chosen from the small- or mid-sized powers represented on the Council at the beginning pf each new session.
The presidency rotates among the United Nations Regional Groups to ensure equal representation. Ambassador Inga Rhonda King of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines was elected as the seventy-fourth President of the Economic and Social Council on 26 July 2018; the Council consists of 54 Members States, which are elected yearly by the General Assembly for overlapping three-year terms. Seats on the Council are allocated ensuring equitable geographic rotation among the United Nations regional groups, with 14 being allocated to the African Group, 11 to the Asia-Pacific Group, 6 to the Eastern European Group, 10 to the Latin American and Caribbean Group and 13 to the Western European and Others Group; the following are the current Member States of the Council: Participation on a continuing basis: Participation on an ad hoc basis: The following are the active functional commission of the Council: UN Commission for Social Development Commission on Narcotic Drugs Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Commission on Science and Technology for Development UN Commission on the Status of Women Commission on Population and Development UN Statistical Commission United Nations Forum on Forests The following commissions were disbanded by the Council and replaced by other bodies: Commission on Human Rights Disbanded in 2006 and replaced by the United Nations Human Rights Council, a subsidiary organ of the General Assembly.
Commission on Sustainable Development Disbanded in 2013 and replaced by the High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development, a joint subsidiary body of the General Assembly and ECOSOC. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe United Nations Economic Commission for Africa United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia The specialised agencies of the United Nations are autonomous organisations working within the United Nations System, meaning that while they report their activities to the Economic and Social Council, they are free to their own devices; each individual agency must negotiate with the Council as to what their relationship will look and work like. This leads to a system where different organisations maintain different types of relationships with the Council; some were created before the United Nations existed and were integrated into the system, others were created by the League of Nations and were integrated by its successor, while others were created by the United Nations itself to meet a emerging needs.
The following is a list of the specialized agencies reporting to the Council: Food and Agriculture Organization International Civil Aviation Organization International Fund for Agricultural Development International Labour Organization International Monetary Fund International Maritime Organization International Telecommunication Union United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization United Nations Industrial Development Organization United Nations World Tourism Organization Universal Postal Union World Bank Group International Bank for Reconstruction and Development International Development Association International Finance Corporation Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes World Health Organization World Intellectual Property Organization World Meteorological Organization Financing for Development, the Monterrey Consensus and Doha Declaration Development Cooperation Forum United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues Sessional and Standing Committees Expert, ad hoc and related bodies United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund United Nations Interagency Task Force on the Prevention and Control of NCDs International Federation for Family Development has general consultative status In a report issued in early July 2011, the UN called for spending nearly US$2 trillion on green technologies to prevent what it termed "a major planetary catastrophe", warning that "It is expanding energy use driven by fossil fuels, that explains why humanity is on the verge of breaching planetary sustainability boundaries through global warming, biodiversity loss, disturbance of the nitrogen-cycle balance and other measures of the sustainability of the earth's ecosystem".
UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon added: "Rather than viewing growth and sustainability as competing goals on a collision course, we must see them as complementary and mutually supportive imperatives". The report conclud
Margaret Mead was an American cultural anthropologist who featured as an author and speaker in the mass media during the 1960s and 1970s. She earned her bachelor's degree at Barnard College in New York City and her M. A. and Ph. D. degrees from Columbia University. Mead served as President of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1975. Mead was a communicator of anthropology in modern American and Western culture and was controversial as an academic, her reports detailing the attitudes towards sex in South Pacific and Southeast Asian traditional cultures influenced the 1960s sexual revolution. She was a proponent of broadening sexual conventions within a context of traditional Western religious life. Margaret Mead, the first of five children, was born in Philadelphia, but raised in nearby Doylestown, Pennsylvania, her father, Edward Sherwood Mead, was a professor of finance at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, her mother, Emily Mead, was a sociologist who studied Italian immigrants.
Her sister Katharine died at the age of nine months. This was a traumatic event for Mead, who had named the girl, thoughts of her lost sister permeated her daydreams for many years, her family moved so her early education was directed by her grandmother until, at age 11, she was enrolled by her family at Buckingham Friends School in Lahaska, Pennsylvania. Her family owned the Longland farm from 1912 to 1926. Born into a family of various religious outlooks, she searched for a form of religion that gave an expression of the faith that she had been formally acquainted with, Christianity. In doing so, she found the rituals of the Episcopal Church to fit the expression of religion she was seeking. Mead studied one year, 1919, at DePauw University transferred to Barnard College where she found anthropology mired in "the stupid underbrush of nineteenth century arguments."Mead earned her bachelor's degree from Barnard in 1923 began studying with professor Franz Boas and Dr. Ruth Benedict at Columbia University, earning her master's degree in 1924.
Mead set out in 1925 to do fieldwork in Samoa. In 1926, she joined the American Museum of New York City, as assistant curator, she received her Ph. D. from Columbia University in 1929. Before departing for Samoa, Mead had a short affair with the linguist Edward Sapir, a close friend of her instructor Ruth Benedict, but Sapir's conservative ideas about marriage and the woman's role were anathema to Mead, as Mead left to do field work in Samoa the two separated permanently. Mead received news of Sapir's remarriage while living in Samoa, where, on a beach, she burned their correspondence. Mead was married three times. After a six-year engagement, she married her first husband American Luther Cressman, a theology student at the time who became an anthropologist. Between 1925 and 1926 she was in Samoa returning wherefrom on the boat she met Reo Fortune, a New Zealander headed to Cambridge, England, to study psychology, they were married in 1928, after Mead's divorce from Cressman, Mead dismissively characterizing her union with her first husband as "my student marriage" in her 1972 autobiography Blackberry Winter, a sobriquet with which Cressman took vigorous issue.
Mead's third and longest-lasting marriage was to the British anthropologist Gregory Bateson, with whom she had a daughter, Mary Catherine Bateson, who would become an anthropologist. Mead's pediatrician was Benjamin Spock, whose subsequent writings on child rearing incorporated some of Mead's own practices and beliefs acquired from her ethnological field observations which she shared with him, she acknowledged that Gregory Bateson was the husband she loved the most. She was devastated when he left her, she remained his loving friend after, keeping his photograph by her bedside wherever she traveled, including beside her hospital deathbed. Mead had an exceptionally close relationship with Ruth Benedict, one of her instructors. In her memoir about her parents, With a Daughter's Eye, Mary Catherine Bateson implies that the relationship between Benedict and Mead was sexual. Mead never identified herself as lesbian or bisexual. In her writings she proposed that it is to be expected that an individual's sexual orientation may evolve throughout life.
She spent her last years in a close personal and professional collaboration with anthropologist Rhoda Metraux, with whom she lived from 1955 until her death in 1978. Letters between the two published in 2006 with the permission of Mead's daughter express a romantic relationship. Mead had two sisters and a brother, Elizabeth and Richard. Elizabeth Mead, an artist and teacher, married cartoonist William Steig, Priscilla Mead married author Leo Rosten. Mead's brother, was a professor. Mead was the aunt of Jeremy Steig. During World War II, Mead served as executive secretary of the National Research Council's Committee on Food Habits, she served as curator of ethnology at the American Museum of Natural History from 1946 to 1969. She was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1948, she taught at The New School and Columbia University, where she was an adjunct professor from 1954 to 1978 and was a professor of anthropology and chair of the Division of Social Sciences at Fordham University's Lincoln Center campus from 1968 to 1970, founding their anthropology department.
In 1970, she joined the faculty of the University of Rhode Island as a Distinguished Professor of Sociology and Anthropology. Following Ruth Benedict's example, Mead focused her research on problems of child reari
Richard Buckminster Fuller was an American architect, systems theorist, designer and futurist. Fuller published more than 30 books, coining or popularizing terms such as "Spaceship Earth", "Dymaxion" house/car, synergetic, "tensegrity", he developed numerous inventions architectural designs, popularized the known geodesic dome. Carbon molecules known as fullerenes were named by scientists for their structural and mathematical resemblance to geodesic spheres. Fuller was the second World President of Mensa from 1974 to 1983. Fuller was born on July 12, 1895, in Milton, the son of Richard Buckminster Fuller and Caroline Wolcott Andrews, grand-nephew of Margaret Fuller, an American journalist and women's rights advocate associated with the American transcendentalism movement; the unusual middle name, was an ancestral family name. As a child, Richard Buckminster Fuller tried numerous variations of his name, he used to sign his name differently each year in the guest register of his family summer vacation home at Bear Island, Maine.
He settled on R. Buckminster Fuller. Fuller spent much of his youth in Penobscot Bay off the coast of Maine, he attended Froebelian Kindergarten. He disagreed with the way geometry was taught in school, being unable to experience for himself that a chalk dot on the blackboard represented an "empty" mathematical point, or that a line could stretch off to infinity. To him these were illogical, led to his work on synergetics, he made items from materials he found in the woods, sometimes made his own tools. He experimented with designing a new apparatus for human propulsion of small boats. By age 12, he had invented a'push pull' system for propelling a rowboat by use of an inverted umbrella connected to the transom with a simple oar lock which allowed the user to face forward to point the boat toward its destination. In life, Fuller took exception to the term "invention". Years he decided that this sort of experience had provided him with not only an interest in design, but a habit of being familiar with and knowledgeable about the materials that his projects would require.
Fuller earned a machinist's certification, knew how to use the press brake, stretch press, other tools and equipment used in the sheet metal trade. Fuller attended Milton Academy in Massachusetts, after that began studying at Harvard College, where he was affiliated with Adams House, he was expelled from Harvard twice: first for spending all his money partying with a vaudeville troupe, after having been readmitted, for his "irresponsibility and lack of interest". By his own appraisal, he was a non-conforming misfit in the fraternity environment. Between his sessions at Harvard, Fuller worked in Canada as a mechanic in a textile mill, as a laborer in the meat-packing industry, he served in the U. S. Navy in World War I, as a shipboard radio operator, as an editor of a publication, as a crash rescue boat commander. After discharge, he worked again in the meat packing industry. In 1917, he married Anne Hewlett. During the early 1920s, he and his father-in-law developed the Stockade Building System for producing light-weight and fireproof housing—although the company would fail in 1927.
Buckminster Fuller recalled 1927 as a pivotal year of his life. His daughter Alexandra had died in 1922 of complications from polio and spinal meningitis just before her fourth birthday. Stanford historian, Barry Katz, found signs that around this time in his life Fuller was suffering from depression and anxiety. Fuller dwelled on his daughter's death, suspecting that it was connected with the Fullers' damp and drafty living conditions; this provided motivation for Fuller's involvement in Stockade Building Systems, a business which aimed to provide affordable, efficient housing. In 1927, at age 32, Fuller lost his job as president of Stockade; the Fuller family had no savings, the birth of their daughter Allegra in 1927 added to the financial challenges. Fuller drank and reflected upon the solution to his family's struggles on long walks around Chicago. During the autumn of 1927, Fuller contemplated suicide by drowning in Lake Michigan, so that his family could benefit from a life insurance payment.
Fuller said that he had experienced a profound incident which would provide direction and purpose for his life. He felt as though he was suspended several feet above the ground enclosed in a white sphere of light. A voice spoke directly to Fuller, declared: From now on you need never await temporal attestation to your thought. You think the truth. You do not have the right to eliminate yourself. You do not belong to you. You belong to Universe. Your significance will remain forever obscure to you, but you may assume that you are fulfilling your role if you apply yourself to converting your experiences to the highest advantage of others. Fuller stated, he chose to embark on "an experiment, to find what a single individual could contribute to changing the world and benefiting all humanity". Speaking to audiences in life, Fuller would recount the story of his Lake Michigan experience, its transformative impact on his life. Historians have been unable to identify direct evidence for this experience within the 1927 papers of Fuller's Chronofile archives, housed at Stanford University.
Stanford historian Barry Katz suggests that the suicide story may be a myth which Fuller constructed in life, to summarize this formative period of his career. In 1927 Fuller resolved to think independently which included a commitment
Joseph Philippe Pierre Yves Elliott Trudeau referred to by the initials PET, was a Canadian statesman who served as the 15th prime minister of Canada. He was the third longest-serving prime minister in Canadian history, having served for 15 years, 164 days. Trudeau rose to prominence as a lawyer and activist in Quebec politics. In the 1960s he entered federal politics by joining the Liberal Party of Canada, he was appointed as Lester B. Pearson's Parliamentary Secretary and became his Minister of Justice. Trudeau became a media sensation, inspiring "Trudeaumania", took charge of the Liberals in 1968. From the late 1960s until the mid-1980s, his personality dominated the political scene to an extent never before seen in Canadian political life. Despite his personal motto, "Reason before passion", his personality and political career aroused polarizing reactions throughout Canada. Admirers praise what they consider to be the force of Trudeau's intellect and his political acumen, maintaining national unity over the Quebec sovereignty movement, suppressing a Quebec terrorist crisis, fostering a pan-Canadian identity, in achieving sweeping institutional reform, including the implementation of official bilingualism, patriation of the Constitution, the establishment of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
Critics accuse him of arrogance, of economic mismanagement, of unduly centralizing Canadian decision-making to the detriment of the culture of Quebec and the economy of the Prairies. He retired from politics in 1984, John Turner succeeded him, his eldest son, Justin Trudeau, became the 23rd and current Prime Minister as a result of the 2015 federal election and is the first prime minister of Canada to be a descendant of a former prime minister. The Trudeau family can be traced to Marcillac-Lanville in France in the 16th century and to a Robert Truteau. In 1659 the first Trudeau to arrive in Canada was Étienne Trudeau or Truteau, a carpenter and home builder from La Rochelle. Pierre Trudeau was born at home at 5779 Durocher Avenue, Montreal, on October 18, 1919, to Charles-Émile "Charley" Trudeau, a French-Canadian businessman and lawyer, Grace Elliott, of mixed Scottish and French-Canadian descent, he had an older sister named Suzette and a younger brother named Charles Jr.. The family had become quite wealthy by the time Trudeau was in his teens, as his father sold his prosperous gas station business to Imperial Oil.
Trudeau attended the prestigious Collège Jean-de-Brébeuf. Trudeau's father died; this death hit him and the family hard emotionally. Trudeau remained close to his mother for the rest of her life. According to long-time friend and colleague Marc Lalonde, the clerically influenced dictatorships of António de Oliveira Salazar in Portugal, Francisco Franco in Spain, Marshal Philippe Pétain in Vichy France were seen as political role models by many youngsters educated at elite Jesuit schools in Quebec. Lalonde asserts that Trudeau's intellectual development as an "intellectual rebel, anti-establishment fighter on behalf of unions and promoter of religious freedom" came from his experiences after leaving Quebec to study in the United States and England, to travel to dozens of countries, his international experiences allowed him to break from Jesuit influence and study French progressive Catholic philosophers such as Jacques Maritain and Emmanuel Mounier as well as John Locke and David Hume. Trudeau earned his law degree at the Université de Montréal in 1943.
During his studies, he was conscripted into the Canadian Army as part of the National Resources Mobilization Act. When conscripted, he decided to join the Canadian Officers' Training Corps, he served with the other conscripts in Canada, since they were not assigned to overseas military service until after the Conscription Crisis of 1944 after the Invasion of Normandy that June. Before this, all Canadians serving overseas were volunteers, not conscripts. Trudeau said he was willing to fight during World War II, but he believed that to do so would be to turn his back on the population of Quebec that he believed had been betrayed by the government of William Lyon Mackenzie King. Trudeau reflected on his opposition to conscription and his doubts about the war in his Memoirs: "So there was a war? Tough... if you were a French Canadian in Montreal in the early 1940s, you did not automatically believe that this was a just war... we tended to think of this war as a settling of scores among the superpowers."In an Outremont by-election in 1942 he campaigned for the anticonscription candidate Jean Drapeau.
After the war Trudeau continued his studies, first taking a master's degree in political economy at Harvard University's Graduate School of Public Administration. He studied in Paris, France in 1947 at the Institut d'Études Politiques de Paris, he enrolled for a doctorate at the London School of Economics, but did not finish his dissertation. Trudeau was interested in Marxist ideas in the 1940s and his Harvard dissertation was on the topic of Communism and Christianity. Thanks to the great intellectual migration away from Europe's fascism, Harvard had become a major intellectual centre in which he profoundly changed. Despite this, Trudeau found himself an outsider – a French Catholic living for the first time outside of Quebec in the predominantly Protestant American Harvard
United Nations Human Settlements Programme
The United Nations Human Settlements Programme is the United Nations agency for human settlements and sustainable urban development. It was established in 1978 as an outcome of the First UN Conference on Human Settlements and Sustainable Urban Development held in Vancouver, Canada, in 1976. UN-Habitat maintains its headquarters at the United Nations Office at Kenya, it is mandated by the United Nations General Assembly to promote and environmentally sustainable towns and cities with the goal of providing adequate shelter for all. It is a member of the United Nations Development Group; the mandate of UN-Habitat derives from the Habitat Agenda, adopted by the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements in Istanbul, Turkey, in 1996. The twin goals of the Habitat Agenda are adequate shelter for all and the development of sustainable human settlements in an urbanizing world. Since January 2018 the Executive Director is Maimunah Mohd Sharif, who had served as the Mayor of Penang Island prior to her appointment in UN-Habitat by the Secretary-General of the United Nations, António Guterres.
The UN-Habitat mandate is derived from General Assembly resolution 3327, by which the Assembly established the United Nations Habitat and Human Settlements Foundation. The mandate of UN-Habitat is further derived from other internationally agreed development goals, including those contained in the United Nations Millennium Declaration, in particular the target on achieving a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum-dwellers by the year 2020. Through Assembly resolution 65/1, Member States committed themselves to continue working towards cities without slums, beyond current targets, by reducing slum populations and improving the lives of slum-dwellers. UN-Habitat works in more than 70 countries in five continents focusing on seven areas: Urban legislation and governance; the Governing Council of UN-Habitat is the intergovernmental decision-making body for the Programme. Every two years, the Governing Council examines the UN-Habitat's work and relationships with its partners.
It is a high-level forum of governments at the ministerial level during which policy guidelines and the organization's budget are established for the next two-year period. The Governing Council meets in Nairobi; the World Urban Forum is an international conference dedicated to urban issues, organized by UN-Habitat. It was established by the United Nations to examine one of the most pressing issues facing the world today: rapid urbanization and how to ensure a sustainable urban development, it is organized biennially in the years between the UN-Habitat governing councils. The World Urban Campaign is the world living platform on cities for sharing and learning on initiatives and policies driving positive change towards sustainable urbanization. Coordinated by UN-Habitat, it is a global coalition of public and civil society partners seeking to raise the urban agenda; the campaign is UN-Habitat's partners' platform for the preparation of the Third United Nations Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development held in 2016.
The United Nations has designated the first Monday of October every year as World Habitat Day. This is an occasion to reflect on the state of our towns and cities and the basic right of all to adequate shelter, it is intended to remind the world of its collective responsibility for the future of human habitat. The UN-Habitat Scroll of Honour Award is an award given by the United Nations Human Settlements Programme in recognition of work carried out in the field of human settlements development; the aim of the award is to honour individuals and institutions instrumental in improving the living conditions in urban centres around the world. The UN-Habitat World Habitat Award is presented in recognition of "projects that provide practical, solutions to current housing needs, with a particular focus on decent, affordable and sustainable housing". Established in 1985 by UN-Habitat in partnership with the Building and Social Housing Foundation, each year two awards are presented to recipients at the annual session of the Governing Council of UN-Habitat at the United Nations office in Nairobi.
The goal of the award is to identify and promote "good practice in housing projects that seek to further affordability and sustainability in housing globally". Institute for Housing and Urban Development Studies International Institute of Social Studies City development index Habitat I, Habitat II, Habitat III Right to housing Sustainable urbanism Sustainable Urban Development Network Urbanization Media related to United Nations Human Settlements Programme at Wikimedia Commons Official website BBC News Special Report – Urban Planet
Mary Teresa Bojaxhiu known as Mother Teresa and honoured in the Roman Catholic Church as Saint Teresa of Calcutta, was an Albanian-Indian Roman Catholic nun and missionary. She was born in Skopje part of the Kosovo Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire. After living in North Macedonia for eighteen years, she moved to Ireland and to India, where she lived for most of her life. In 1950, Teresa founded the Missionaries of Charity, a Roman Catholic religious congregation that had over 4,500 nuns and was active in 133 countries in 2012; the congregation manages homes for people who are dying of leprosy and tuberculosis. It runs soup kitchens, mobile clinics, children's and family counselling programmes, as well as orphanages and schools. Members take vows of chastity and obedience, profess a fourth vow—to give "wholehearted free service to the poorest of the poor."Teresa received a number of honours, including the 1962 Ramon Magsaysay Peace Prize and 1979 Nobel Peace Prize. She was canonised on 4 September 2016, the anniversary of her death is her feast day.
A controversial figure during her life and after her death, Teresa was admired by many for her charitable work. She was praised and criticised for her opposition to abortion, criticised for poor conditions in her houses for the dying, her authorised biography was written by Navin Chawla and published in 1992, she has been the subject of films and other books. On September 6, 2017, Teresa and St. Francis Xavier were named co-patrons of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Calcutta. Teresa was born Anjezë Gonxhe Bojaxhiu on 26 August 1910 into a Kosovar Albanian family in Skopje, Ottoman Empire, she was baptized in Skopje, the day after her birth. She considered 27 August, the day she was baptised, her "true birthday", she was the youngest child of Dranafile Bojaxhiu. Her father, involved in Albanian-community politics in Ottoman Macedonia, died in 1919 when she was eight years old, he may have been from Prizren and her mother may have been from a village near Gjakova. According to a biography by Joan Graff Clucas, Teresa was in her early years when she was fascinated by stories of the lives of missionaries and their service in Bengal.
Her resolve strengthened on 15 August 1928 as she prayed at the shrine of the Black Madonna of Vitina-Letnice, where she went on pilgrimages. Teresa left home in 1928 at age 18 to join the Sisters of Loreto at Loreto Abbey in Rathfarnham, Ireland, to learn English with the view of becoming a missionary, she never saw her sister again. Her family lived in Skopje until 1934, she arrived in India in 1929 and began her novitiate in Darjeeling, in the lower Himalayas, where she learned Bengali and taught at St. Teresa's School near her convent. Teresa took her first religious vows on 24 May 1931, she chose to be named after the patron saint of missionaries. Teresa took her solemn vows on 14 May 1937 while she was a teacher at the Loreto convent school in Entally, eastern Calcutta, she served there for nearly twenty years and was appointed its headmistress in 1944. Although Teresa enjoyed teaching at the school, she was disturbed by the poverty surrounding her in Calcutta; the Bengal famine of 1943 brought misery and death to the city, the August 1946 Direct Action Day began a period of Muslim-Hindu violence.
On 10 September 1946, Teresa experienced what she described as "the call within the call" when she travelled by train to the Loreto convent in Darjeeling from Calcutta for her annual retreat. "I was to help the poor while living among them. It was an order. To fail would have been to break the faith." Joseph Langford wrote, "Though no one knew it at the time, Sister Teresa had just become Mother Teresa". She began missionary work with the poor in 1948, replacing her traditional Loreto habit with a simple, white cotton sari with a blue border. Teresa adopted Indian citizenship, spent several months in Patna to receive basic medical training at Holy Family Hospital and ventured into the slums, she founded a school in Motijhil, before she began tending to the poor and hungry. At the beginning of 1949 Teresa was joined in her effort by a group of young women, she laid the foundation for a new religious community helping the "poorest among the poor", her efforts caught the attention of Indian officials, including the prime minister.
Teresa wrote in her diary. With no income, she begged for food and supplies and experienced doubt and the temptation to return to the comfort of convent life during these early months: Our Lord wants me to be a free nun covered with the poverty of the cross. Today, I learned a good lesson; the poverty of the poor must be so hard for them. While looking for a home I walked till my arms and legs ached. I thought how much they must ache in body and soul, looking for a home and health; the comfort of Loreto came to tempt me. "You have only to say the word and all that will be yours again", the Tempter kept on saying... Of free