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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Habituation

Habituation is a form of non-associative learning in which an innate response to a stimulus decreases after repeated or prolonged presentations of that stimulus. Responses that habituate include those that involve the intact organism or those that involve only components of the organism; the broad ubiquity of habituation across all biologic phyla has resulted in it being called "the simplest, most universal form of learning...as fundamental a characteristic of life as DNA." Functionally-speaking, by diminishing the response to an inconsequential stimulus, habituation is thought to free-up cognitive resources to other stimuli that are associated with biologically important events. For example, organisms may habituate to repeated sudden loud noises when they learn these have no consequences. A progressive decline of a behavior in a habituation procedure may reflect nonspecific effects such as fatigue, which must be ruled out when the interest is in habituation. Habituation is clinically relevant, as a number of neuropsychiatric conditions, including autism, schizophrenia and Tourette's, show reductions in habituation to a variety of stimulus-types both simple and complex.

There is an additional connotation to the term habituation which applies to psychological dependency on drugs, is included in several online dictionaries. A team of specialist from the World Health Organization assembled in 1957 to address the problem of drug addiction and adopted the term "drug habituation" to distinguish some drug-use behaviors from drug addiction. According to the WHO lexicon of alcohol and drug terms, habituation is defined as "becoming accustomed to any behavior or condition, including psychoactive substance use". By 1964 the America Surgeon's General report on smoking and health included four features that characterize drug habituation according to WHO: 1) "a desire to continue taking the drug for the sense of improved well-being which it engenders"; however in 1964, a committee from the World Health Organization once again convened and decided the definitions of drug habituation and drug addiction were insufficient, replacing the two terms with "drug dependence". Substance dependence is the preferred term today when describing drug-related disorders, whereas the use of the term drug habituation has declined substantially.

This is not to be confused with true habituation to drugs, wherein repeated doses have an diminished effect, as is seen in addicts or persons taking painkillers frequently. Habituation as a form of non-associative learning can be distinguished from other behavioral changes by considering the characteristics of habituation that have been identified over several decades of research; the characteristics first described by Thompson and Spencer have been updated and include the following:Repeated presentation of a stimulus will cause a decrease in reaction to the stimulus. Habituation is proclaimed to be a form of implicit learning, the case with continually repeated stimuli; this characteristic is consistent with the definition of habituation as a procedure, but to confirm habituation as a process, additional characteristics must be demonstrated. Observed is spontaneous recovery; that is, a habituated response to a stimulus recovers when a significant amount of time passes between stimulus presentations.

"Potentiation of habituation" is observed. In this phenomenon, the decrease in responding that follows spontaneous recovery becomes more rapid with each test of spontaneous recovery. Noted was that an increase in the frequency of stimulus presentation will increase the rate of habituation. Furthermore, continued exposure to the stimulus after the habituated response has plateaued may have additional effects on subsequent tests of behavior such as delaying spontaneous recovery; the concepts of stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination will be observed. Habituation to an original stimulus will occur to other stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus; the more similar the new stimulus is to the original stimulus, the greater the habituation that will be observed. When a subject shows habituation to a new stimulus, similar to the original stimulus but not to a stimulus, different from the original stimulus the subject is showing stimulus discrimination.. Stimulus discrimination can be used to rule out sensory adaptation and fatigue as an alternative explanation of the habituation process.

Another observation mentioned is when a single introduction of a different stimulus late in the habituation procedure when responding to the eliciting stimulus has declined can cause an increase in the habituated response. This increase in responding is temporary and is called "dishabituation" and always occurs to the original eliciting stimulus. Researchers use evidence of dishabituation to rule out sensory adaptation and fatigue as alternative explanations of the habituation process. Habituation of dishabituation ca

Gheorghe Mihoc

Gheorghe Mihoc was a Romanian statistician. He was born in the son of a worker. In 1908, his father moved the family to Bucharest. Here he attended the Gheorghe Şincai high school, he enrolled at the University of Bucharest, Faculty of Sciences, was awarded his degree in mathematics in June 1928. He went to Italy and studied statistics and actuarial studies at the University of Rome. In 1930 he was appointed professor in the School of Statistics, Actuarial Studies, Calculation, established that year; the school was headed by Octav Onicescu. There Mihoc taught courses in actuarial mathematics from 1930 to 1948. On April 28, 1934, he earned his Doctorate in Mathematics from the University of Bucharest, in front of a commission consisting of Dimitrie Pompeiu, as chairman, Anton Davidoglu, Octav Onicescu; the subject of his thesis was On the general properties of interdependent statistical variables. From 1937, Mihoc went to the University of Bucharest as assistant to Octav Onicescu, first at mechanics at algebra and probabilities calculation.

That same year he taught general mathematics with the students from the preparation year of the Polytechnic University of Bucharest. Between 1942 and 1946 he was conference lecturer of general mathematics at the Faculty of physics-chemistry of Bucharest University. In 1946 he was appointed professor at the Commercial academy from Bucharest, for financial mathematics. In 1948, after the reform of education in all degrees, he was appointed head of the department of probability calculation and mathematical statistics at the Faculty of mathematics and physics of Bucharest University as professor head of department of applied mathematics. From the autumn of 1962 he was again professor, head of the department of probability calculation and mathematical statistics; as statistician and actuar, Gheorghe Mihoc was employed on April 15, 1929 at the Central house of social insurance. He worked here as director at the directorate of insurance, as director of the directorate of pensions, as director of the Office of studies and actuariat.

He was administrator at the House of pensions of the writers and administrator at the House of pensions of the composers and sculptors. In 1945 he was appointed chief actuary of the Central house of social insurance. Gheorghe Mihoc was dean of the Faculty of mathematics and physics of the Bucharest University from 1951 until 1960, from 1960 to 1963 he was prorector of the Bucharest University. In July 1963 he was appointed rector, he was a corresponding member of the Academy from 1955 until 1963, on March 20 he became titular member at the section of mathematical sciences. In April 1964 he was appointed director of the Statistical Centre of the Academy, he was member in the old "Mathematical gazette" and member in the board of C. R. C. C. S. In November 1964 Mihoc was awarded the title of Honorary Professor. Being reputed as specialist in probability calculation, he was invited to different countries to give lectures in this field

8th Mixed Artillery Brigade

From 1 November 2010 it current name is the 8th LAROM Brigade "Alexandru Ioan Cuza". The 8th LAROM Brigade "Alexandru Ioan Cuza" is a Multiple Rocket Launcher brigade of the Romanian Land Forces, it was formed 1 July 1916, was named after the Romanian Domnitor and politician Alexandru Ioan Cuza. The Brigade has its headquarters in Focşani; the high professionalism of the personnel in this unit is the reason why a large number of soldiers in the brigade were, or still are present in various theaters of operations, such as Bosnia and Herzegovina and Iraq. Since October 2004, there are no more conscripts in the structures subordinated to the Brigade. During World War I and World War II, the 8th Mixed Artillery Brigade was designated as the 2nd Heavy Artillery Brigade with its main subordinated units being the 1st and 5th Heavy Artillery Regiments; the 1st regiment participated in the Battle of Mărăşeşti, while the 5th regiment took part of the Battle of Turtucaia. During World War II, both the 1st and 5th regiments made part of the Romanian forces invading Odessa, the 5th regiment cannons were the first Romanian Army's cannons to hit Odessa.

The 1st regiment was involved in the Battle of Stalingrad, the Battle of Budapest. 8th LAROM Brigade "Alexandru Ioan Cuza" - Focşani 81st LAROM Battalion "Maior Gheorghe Şonţu" - Focşani 83rd Multiple Rocket Launcher Battalion "Bogdan I" - Bârlad 96th Multiple Rocket Launcher Battalion "Mircea Voievod" - Ploieşti 84th Data Acquisition Battalion "Mărăşti" - Focşani 85th Logistics Support Battalion "General Mihail Cerchez" - Bârlad LAROM multiple rocket launchers.

27 Aquilae

27 Aquilae is a star in the equatorial constellation of Aquila. 27 Aquilae is its Flamsteed designation though it bears the Bayer designation d Aquilae. It has an apparent visual magnitude of 5.49, faintly visible to the naked eye. Based upon parallax measurements made during the Hipparcos mission, this star is at a distance of 440 light-years from Earth, give or take a 20 light-year margin of error. At this distance, the brightness of the star is diminished from extinction caused by interstellar gas and dust; the spectrum of 27 Aquilae fits a stellar classification of B9 III, with the luminosity class of III indicating this is an evolved giant star. As it lies within the field of view of the CoRoT satellite, close observation have been made of its luminosity; the star shows a multiperiodic variability with at least six pulsation frequencies discovered. It has a high rate of rotation with a projected rotational velocity of 55 km/s; the outer atmosphere is radiating energy into space at an effective temperature of around 11,500 K, giving it the blue-white hue of a B-type star

Bobojon Ghafurov

Bobojon Ghafurov or Babadzan Gafurovich Gafurov was a Tajik historian and the author of several books published in Russian and Tajik, including History of Tajikistan and The Tajiks. Ghafurov, the son of poet Roziya Ozod, was born in the village of Isfisar near Khujand in Tajikistan, he received his PhD from the Institute of History of the USSR Academy of Sciences in Moscow in 1941 with a dissertation on "History of the Isma’ili Sect". Ghafurov's book The Tajiks is influential in modern Tajikistan. Instead of accepting that Tajiks were Uzbeks who "forgot their language", as Uzbek nationalists argue, The Tajiks argues that Uzbeks were Turkified from the original Iranian population of Central Asia. From 1944 to 1946, he was the Second Secretary and, from August 1946 to 24 May 1956, he was the First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Tajikistan. From 1956 to the end of his life, Ghafurov served as the Director of the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union, the Editor of the Asia and Africa journal."

The town of Ghafurov and Ghafurov district, in the Sughd Province of Tajikistan, are named after him. Tajik banknotes - includes picture of 50 Somoni note with Ghafurov's face

Curran Steels

Curran Steels was a manufacturing company in Cardiff, founded as the Edward Curran Engineering Co and known locally as Curran's. The factory was located on the east bank of the River Taff, near to Cardiff Docks, it was served by the Riverside branch railway. The Edward Curran Engineering Co. was founded in Cardiff in 1903 by Edward Curran, whose father Charles was an Irish stonemason who had settled in Cardiff a thriving coal port. Edward Curran was a stonemason; the company opened a foundry in Hurman street, Butetown, in or adjacent to the site of the former Bute Shipbuilding and Engineering Works. The firm specialised in producing furnaces for annealing metals, one of, built for Mountstuart Dry Docks in Cardiff in 1909. Before the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, Curran's supplied several annealing furnaces to the Royal Arsenal in Woolwich, had built a major munitions factory in Ward End, Birmingham. In 1915 Curran's converted a building next to their iron foundry into a plant for manufacturing shell casings.

Production of 4 1⁄2-inch brass howitzer shell casings started in 1916, continuing until the end of the war with over seven million 4​1⁄2‑inch shell casings produced. After the First World War the business diversified and it products included enamelled metalware, including cups and plates; these were manufactured using the staff and equipment used for shell casing production, Curran's maintained their capability to manufacture munitions. By the 1930s Curran's was the only British company with significant munitions manufacturing capability, it took a leading role in the British re-armament before the Second World War. During the war Curran's continued to produce munitions; the factory was damaged several times in German Bombing raids. After the Second World War the factory resumed the production of enamelware. In 1961 they started production of pressed steel baths, acrylic baths in 1972. In 1973 the company was acquired by the Building Products division of Reed International, adding Curran's steel and acrylic bath products to the toilets and washbasins of Twyford, which Reed had acquired in 1971.

In 1985 Caradon Ltd acquired Reed International's Building Products division, including Curran. Curran's factory in Cardiff closed in 2005; the buildings were demolished and the site used for housing. Dame Shirley Bassey worked packing chamber pots in Curran's packing department in 1951, before her career as a singer