The Edo period or Tokugawa period is the period between 1603 and 1868 in the history of Japan, when Japanese society was under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate and the country's 300 regional daimyō. The period was characterized by economic growth, strict social order, isolationist foreign policies, a stable population, "no more wars", popular enjoyment of arts and culture; the shogunate was established in Edo on March 24, 1603, by Tokugawa Ieyasu. The period came to an end with the Meiji Restoration on May 1868, after the fall of Edo. A revolution took place from the time of the Kamakura shogunate, which existed with the Tennō's court, to the Tokugawa, when the samurai became the unchallenged rulers in what historian Edwin O. Reischauer called a "centralized feudal" form of shogunate. Instrumental in the rise of the new-existing bakufu was Tokugawa Ieyasu, the main beneficiary of the achievements of Oda Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Powerful, Ieyasu profited by his transfer to the rich Kantō area.
He maintained two million koku of land, a new headquarters at Edo, a strategically situated castle town, had an additional two million koku of land and thirty-eight vassals under his control. After Hideyoshi's death, Ieyasu moved to seize control from the Toyotomi clan. Ieyasu's victory over the western daimyō at the Battle of Sekigahara gave him control of all Japan, he abolished numerous enemy daimyō houses, reduced others, such as that of the Toyotomi, redistributed the spoils of war to his family and allies. Ieyasu still failed to achieve complete control of the western daimyō, but his assumption of the title of shōgun helped consolidate the alliance system. After further strengthening his power base, Ieyasu installed his son Hidetada as shōgun and himself as retired shōgun in 1605; the Toyotomi were still a significant threat, Ieyasu devoted the next decade to their eradication. In 1615, the Tokugawa army destroyed the Toyotomi stronghold at Osaka; the Tokugawa period brought 250 years of stability to Japan.
The political system evolved into what historians call bakuhan, a combination of the terms bakufu and han to describe the government and society of the period. In the bakuhan, the shōgun had national authority and the daimyō had regional authority; this represented a new unity in the feudal structure, which featured an large bureaucracy to administer the mixture of centralized and decentralized authorities. The Tokugawa became more powerful during their first century of rule: land redistribution gave them nearly seven million koku, control of the most important cities, a land assessment system reaping great revenues; the feudal hierarchy was completed by the various classes of daimyō. Closest to the Tokugawa house were the shinpan, or "related houses", they were twenty-three daimyō on the borders of Tokugawa lands. The shinpan held honorary titles and advisory posts in the bakufu; the second class of the hierarchy were the fudai, or "house daimyō", rewarded with lands close to the Tokugawa holdings for their faithful service.
By the 18th century, 145 fudai controlled the greatest assessed at 250,000 koku. Members of the fudai class staffed most of the major bakufu offices. Ninety-seven han formed the tozama, former opponents or new allies; the tozama were located on the peripheries of the archipelago and collectively controlled nearly ten million koku of productive land. Because the tozama were least trusted of the daimyō, they were the most cautiously managed and generously treated, although they were excluded from central government positions; the Tokugawa shogunate not only consolidated their control over a reunified Japan, they had unprecedented power over the emperor, the court, all daimyō and the religious orders. The emperor was held up as the ultimate source of political sanction for the shōgun, who ostensibly was the vassal of the imperial family; the Tokugawa helped the imperial family recapture its old glory by rebuilding its palaces and granting it new lands. To ensure a close tie between the imperial clan and the Tokugawa family, Ieyasu's granddaughter was made an imperial consort in 1619.
A code of laws was established to regulate the daimyō houses. The code encompassed private conduct, dress, types of weapons and numbers of troops allowed. Although the daimyō were not taxed per se, they were levied for contributions for military and logistical support and for such public works projects as castles, roads and palaces; the various regulations and levies not only strengthened the Tokugawa but depleted the wealth of the daimyō, thus weakening their threat to the central administration. The han, once military-centered domains, became mere local administrative units; the daimyō did have full administrative control over their territory and their complex systems of retainers and commoners. Loyalty was exacted from religious foundations greatly weakened by Nobunaga and Hideyoshi, through a variety of control mechanisms. Like Hideyoshi, Ieyasu encouraged foreign trade but was suspicious of outsiders, he wanted to make Edo a major port, but once he learned that the Europeans favored ports in Kyūshū and that China had rejected his plans for official trade, he moved to control existing trade
The shōrō, shurō or kanetsuki-dō is the bell tower of a Buddhist temple in Japan, housing the temple's bonshō. It can be found at some Shinto shrines which used to be shrines, as for example Nikkō Tōshō-gū. Two main types exist, the older hakamagoshi, which has walls, the more recent fukihanachi or fukinuki, which does not. During the Nara period after the arrival of Buddhism in Japan bell towers were 3 x 2 bay, 2 storied buildings. A typical temple garan had two, one to the left and one to the right of the kyōzō, the sūtra repository. An extant example of this style is Hōryū-ji's Sai-in Shōrō in Nara. During the following Heian period was developed a new style called hakamagoshi which consisted of a 2 storied, hourglass-shaped building with the bell hanging from the second story; the earliest extant example is Hōryū-ji's Tō-in Shōrō. During the 13th century the fukihanachi type was created at Tōdai-ji by making all structural parts visible; the bell tower in this case consists of a 1-ken wide, 1-ken high structure with no walls and having the bell at its center.
Sometimes the four pillars have an inward inclination called uchikorobi. After the Nara period, in which temple layout was rigidly prescribed after the Chinese fashion, the position of the bell tower stopped being prescribed and began to change temple by temple. Roofs are either gabled or hip-and-gable
Japanese Buddhist architecture
Japanese Buddhist architecture is the architecture of Buddhist temples in Japan, consisting of locally developed variants of architectural styles born in China. After Buddhism arrived the continent via Three Kingdoms of Korea in the 6th century, an effort was made to reproduce original buildings as faithfully as possible, but local versions of continental styles were developed both to meet Japanese tastes and to solve problems posed by local weather, more rainy and humid than in China; the first Buddhist sects were Nara's six Nanto Rokushū, followed during the Heian period by Kyoto's Shingon and Tendai. During the Kamakura period, in Kamakura were born the Jōdo and the native Japanese sect Nichiren-shū. At the same time Zen Buddhism arrived from China influencing all other sects in many ways, including architecture; the social composition of Buddhism's followers changed radically with time. In the beginning it was the elite's religion, but it spread from the noble to warriors, merchants and to the population at large.
On the technical side, new woodworking tools like the framed pit saw and the plane allowed new architectonic solutions. Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines share their basic characteristics and differ only in details that the non-specialist may not notice; this similarity is because the sharp division between Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines is recent, dating to the Meiji period's policy of separation of Buddhism and Shinto of 1868. Before the Meiji Restoration it was common for a Buddhist temple to be built inside or next to a shrine, or for a shrine to include Buddhist sub-temples. If a shrine housed a Buddhist temple, it was called a jingū-ji. Analogously, temples all over Japan used to adopt tutelary kami (chinju and built shrines within their precincts to house them. After the forcible separation of temples and shrines ordered by the new government, the connection between the two religions was severed, but continued nonetheless in practice and is still visible today. Buddhist architecture in Japan during the country's whole history has absorbed much of the best available natural and human resources.
Between the 8th and the 16th centuries, it led the development of new structural and ornamental features. For these reasons, its history is vital to the understanding of not only Buddhist architecture itself, but of Japanese art in general. Buddhist architecture in Japan is not native, but was imported from China and other Asian cultures over the centuries with such constancy that the building styles of all Six Dynasties are represented, its history is as a consequence dominated by Chinese and other Asian techniques and styles on one side, by Japanese original variations on those themes on the other. Due to the variety of climates in Japan and the millennium encompassed between the first cultural import and the last, the result is heterogeneous, but several universal features can nonetheless be found. First of all is the choice of materials, always wood in various forms for all structures. Unlike both Western and some Chinese architecture, the use of stone is avoided except for certain specific uses, for example temple podia and pagoda foundations.
The general structure is always the same: columns and lintels support a large and curved roof, while the walls are paper-thin movable and in any case non-carrying. Arches and barrel roofs are absent. Gable and eave curves are gentler than in columnar entasis limited; the roof is the most visually impressive component constituting half the size of the whole edifice. The curved eaves extend far beyond the walls, covering verandas, their weight must therefore be supported by complex bracket systems called tokyō; these oversize eaves give the interior a characteristic dimness, which contributes to the temple's atmosphere. The interior of the building consists of a single room at the center called moya, from which sometimes depart other less important spaces, for example corridors called hisashi. Inner space divisions are fluid, room size can be modified through the use of screens or movable paper walls; the large, single space offered by the main hall can therefore be altered according to the need.
The separation between inside and outside is itself in some measure not absolute as entire walls can be removed, opening the temple to visitors. Verandas appear to be part of the building to an outsider, but part of the external world to those in the temple. Structures are therefore made to a certain extent part of their environment; the use of construction modules keeps proportions between different parts of the edifice constant, preserving its overall harmony. In cases as that of Nikkō Tōshō-gū, where every available space is decorated, ornamentation tends to follow, therefore emphasize rather than hide, basic structures. Being shared by both sacred and profane architecture, these architectonic features made it easy converting a lay building into a temple; this happened for example at Hōryū-ji, where a noblewoman's mansion was transformed into a religious building. Buddhism is not a Japanese native religion, its architecture arrived from the continent via Korea together with the first Buddhists in the 6th century.
Adopted in the wake of the Battle of Shigisan in 587, after that date Buddhist temples began to be constructed. Because of the hostility of supporters of local kami beliefs towards Buddhism, no temple of that period survives, so we don't know what they were like
Zenshūyo is a Japanese Buddhist architectural style derived from Chinese Song Dynasty architecture. Named after the Zen sect of Buddhism which brought it to Japan, it emerged in the late 12th or early 13th century. Together with Wayō and Daibutsuyō, it is one of the three most significant styles developed by Japanese Buddhism on the basis of Chinese models; until World War II, this style was called karayō but, like the Daibutsuyō style, it was re-christened by Ōta Hirotarō, a 20th-century scholar. Its most typical features are a more or less linear layout of the garan, paneled doors hanging from hinges, intercolumnar tokyō, cusped windows, tail rafters, ornaments called kibana, decorative pent roofs. Kōzan-ji's butsuden in Shimonoseki, Zenpuku-in's shaka-dō in Kainan and Anraku-ji's pagoda in Ueda, all dating to the Kamakura period, are considered the three most important Zenshūyō buildings. Kōzan-ji's butsuden is the oldest extant building in the Zenshūyō style in Japan. At the end of the 12th century, more or less while in Nara Chōgen was rebuilding Tōdai-ji, in the process was creating the architectural style that would be called Daibutsuyō, two monks were introducing Zen to Japan.
First was Eisai. Having the support of shōgun Minamoto no Yoriie, he was able to found temples in both Kamakura and Kyoto. A little Dōgen introduced the Sōtō school to Japan. Unlike Eisai, he declined the support of Kamakura's regent Hōjō Tokiyori and open his head temple, Eihei-ji, within the forests of today's Fukui prefecture; the success of the Zen sects, which were embraced by the warrior caste, meant that they were able to introduce to the country a new architectural style, like the Daibutsuyō derived from Song Dynasty architecture, but different in spirit. After arriving in Japan the style started to evolve in response to local tastes. Among its innovations is the roof, covered in wood shingles rather than tiles, as in China. Zen temple buildings have a so-called "hidden roof" structure, consisting in two roofs, the true one and a second underneath it; the second, false roof hides the first, making it possible to obtain sloping roofs and shallow eaves. The invention of the hidden roof in the 10th century allowed the inclination of the roof's underside to be different from that of the exterior, thus making Japanese temples feel different from their Chinese counterparts.
The Zen sect was successful, therefore imitated. Many of its innovations were therefore adopted by other Buddhist schools. Zenshūyō's characteristics are decorative pent roofs and pronouncedly curved main roofs, cusped windows, earthen floors and paneled doors. Wood structures are light, design light and orderly. All buildings have either stone or earthen floors. Other important characteristics are: More or less fixed garan composition and layoutZen's discipline is strict and its rules many and complex; as a consequence, the Zen garan has a typical elongated and bilaterally symmetrical layout where each building's shape, position and use are predetermined. To the contrary, older schools like Tendai and Shingon use more irregular building dispositions which take into account terrain characteristics; the typical Zen garan, of which Kenchō-ji's is a good example, begins with a gate followed by another, larger one, the main hall, the lecture hall, the chief abbot's residence all aligned more or less on a north to south axis, with the bath house and the sūtra repository to its east, the monks' hall to its west.
Use of penetrating tie beamsDuring the Heian period temples were built using only non-penetrating tie beams made to fit around columns and pillars nailed. The daibutsuyō style and the zenshūyō style replaced them with penetrating tie-beams, which pierced the column, were therefore much more effective against earthquakes; the nageshi was however retained as a purely decorative element. Tokyō between postsWhile other styles put roof-supporting brackets only above columns, Zen temples have them between columns. TōrihijikiEach bracket step has its own tōrihijiki or tōshihijiki, a long horizontal beam parallel to the wall and inserted into the bracket step, it strengthens the structure while at the same time supporting the roof rafters. OdarukiA tokyō's third step is supported by a so-called tail rafter, a cantilever set between the second and the third step; the name refers to its typical shape, similar to a tail protruding from the bracket. KibanaAnother Zenshūyō feature is the kobushibana or kibana, a nose-like decoration with a spiraling motif carved on a rafter after the last protruding bracket.
Fan-shaped roof raftersRoof rafters radiate outwards from a single central point. Paneled doorsDoors called sankarado are made of separate panels and do not slide, but are fixed to the tie beams by heavy hinges called waraza. Above the door's panels runs a transom. Sōmon and sanmonThe entrance to a Zen temple is straddled by two symbolic gates, the sōmon and the more important sanmon. MokoshiTypical of the style is the main hall, which has just one story but seems to have two because of the presence of a roofed corridor called mokoshi. Having the width of one bay, it makes the three-bay, one-story building look like a two-storey, five-bay building. Cusped windowsZen temple
Kyōzō in Japanese Buddhist architecture is a repository for sūtras and chronicles of the temple history. It is called kyōko, kyō-dō, or zōden. In ancient times the kyōzō was placed opposite the belfry on the east–west axis of the temple; the earliest extant kyōzō is at Hōryū-ji, it is a two-storied structure. An example of one-storied kyōzō is at Tōshōdai-ji in Nara. A kyōzō's usual size is 3 x 3 ken. Mahayana Buddhism is one of the sects within Buddhism and one way to create written sutras or sermons. Unlike Judeo-Christian religions, including Islam, Buddhism does not revere those written words, or sutras, as the Christians, the Muslims, or the Jews do; the title of this article is Circumambulatory Reading: Revolving Sutra Libraries and Buddhist Scrolls and circumambulation, or walking around while taking it in, is prevalent in Buddhism because the wheel is the international sign of Buddhism. Revolving sutra libraries were invented in China and were brought to Japan. Revolving sutra libraries were created for the same reason, if a temple visitor revolved that library, they would amass the same esteem as if they had read the entire sutra.
All storage buildings are equipped with shelving to store the containers that hold the rolled sūtras. Some temples have circular revolving shelves for sūtra storage: a central pillar revolves, like a vertical axle, octahedral tubes are attached to it. A revolving sūtra storage case is called rinzō. Revolving shelves are convenient because they allow priests and monks to select the needed sūtra quickly. In some kyōzō the faithful were permitted to push the shelves around the pillar while praying—it was believed that they could receive religious edification without reading the sūtras; some scripture houses are National Treasures of Japan: The kyōzō of Tōshōdai-ji The kyōzō of Hōryū-ji The kyōzō of Ankoku-ji
Kasuga-zukuri is a traditional Shinto shrine architectural style which takes its name from Kasuga Taisha's honden. It is characterized by the use of a building just 1x1 ken in size with the entrance on the gabled end covered by a veranda. In Kasuga Taisha's case, the honden is just 1.9 m x 2.6 m. Supporting structures are painted vermilion, while the plank walls are white, it has a tsumairi structure. The roof is gabled, decorated with purely ornamental poles called chigi or katsuogi, covered with cypress bark. After the nagare-zukuri style, this is the most common Shinto shrine style. While the first is common all over Japan, shrines with a kasuga-zukuri honden are found in the Kansai region around Nara. If a diagonal rafter is added to support the portico, the style is called sumigi-iri kasugazukuri. While superficially different, the kasuga-zukuri shares an ancestry with the most popular style in Japan, the nagare-zukuri; the two for example share pillars set over a double-cross-shaped foundation and a roof which extends over the main entrance, covering a veranda.
The foundation's configuration is typical not of permanent, but of temporary shrines, built to be periodically moved. This shows that, for example, both the nagare-zukuri Kamo Shrine and Kasuga Taisha used to be dedicated to a mountain cult, that they had to be moved to follow the movements of the kami; the styles both have a veranda in front of the main entrance, a detail which makes it they both evolved from a simple gabled roof