Transport in London
London has an extensive and developed transport network which includes both private and public services. Journeys made by transport systems account for 25% of Londons journeys while private services accounted for 41% of journeys. Londons public transport network serves as the hub for the United Kingdom in rail, air. Public transport services are dominated by the agency for transport in London. TfL controls the majority of transport, including the Underground, Tramlink, the Docklands Light Railway, London River Services. Other rail services are either franchised to train operating companies by the national Department for Transport, TfL controls most major roads in London, but not minor roads. In addition, there are several independent airports operating in London, including Heathrow, early public transport in London began with horse-drawn omnibus services in 1829, which were gradually replaced by the first motor omnibuses in 1902. Over the years the companies which began these services amalgamated with the London General Omnibus Company to form a unified bus service.
The Underground Group became part of the new London Passenger Transport Board in 1933, Underground trains, the London Transport name continued in use until 2000, although the political management of transport services changed several times. The LPTB oversaw transport from 1933 to 1947 until it was re-organised into the London Transport Executive, responsibility for London Transport was subsequently taken over to the London Transport Board, the Greater London Council and London Regional Transport. Following the privatisation of London bus services in 1986, bus services were spun off to a separate operation based on competitive tendering, Transport for London operates three different railway systems across London. The largest is the London Underground, a transit system operating on sub-surface lines. TfL operates the Docklands Light Railway, a light rail system in the east of the city. The London Underground and the DLR account for 40 percent of the journeys between Inner London and Outer London, making them the most highly used systems in all of London and these three systems extend to most points of London, creating a comprehensive and extensive system.
One major area missed by these systems is South London, which is dominated by a suburban rail network. Colloquially known as the Tube, the London Underground was the first rapid transit system in the world, more than 3 million passengers travel on the Underground every day, amounting to over 1 billion passenger journeys per year for the first time in 2006. The Underground serves North London much more extensively than South London and this is the result of a combination of unfavourable geology, historical competition from surface railways and the historical geography of London which was focused to the north of the River Thames. South London is served primarily by surface railways Carrying nearly 50% of Londons commuters, the Docklands Light Railway is an automated light rail system serving the Docklands area of east London
London Buses is the subsidiary of Transport for London that manages bus services within Greater London. Contracts are normally for five years, with two-year extensions available if performance criteria is met, operators provide staff to drive the buses, provide the buses to operate and adhere to set TfL guidelines. Operators are in return paid per mile that each bus runs, London Buses publishes a variety of bus maps. Some are traditional street maps of London marked with bus numbers, in 2002, TfL introduced the first spider maps. The arachnoid form of bus routes radiating from a centre earned them the nickname spider maps, the maps are displayed at most major bus stops, and can be downloaded in PDF format via the Internet from the TfL website. The legal identity of London Buses is London Bus Services Limited, East Thames Buses was the trading name of another wholly owned subsidiary of TfL called, rather confusingly, London Buses Limited. The operating units were sold off in 1994/95, and their purchasers make up the majority of companies awarded bus operating tenders from the current London Buses, after 1994/95, the LBL company lay dormant, passing from LRT to TfL.
It was resurrected when East Thames Buses was formed, separated by a wall from LBSL. The local bus network in London is one of the largest and most comprehensive in the world, over 8000 scheduled buses operate on over 700 different routes. Over the year this network carries over 1.8 billion passenger journeys, Buses in the London Buses network accept Travelcards, Oyster card products and contactless debit and credit cards. Cash fares have not been available since 6 July 2014, single journey fares used to be charged in relation to length of journey, but are now charged as single flat fares for any length of journey. Alternatively and monthly passes may be purchased and loaded onto an Oyster card, passengers using contactless payment cards are charged the same fares as on Oyster pay as you go. Unlike Oyster cards, contactless cards have a 7-day fare cap though it only operates on a Monday-Sunday basis. Under 11s can travel free on London buses and trams at any time unaccompanied by an adult, children aged 11 to 15 travel free on buses with an 11–15 Oyster photocard, without an Oyster card or Travelcard, they have to pay the full adult fare.
Visitors can have a special discount added to an ordinary Oyster card at TfLs Travel Information Centres, there are concessions for London residents aged 16 to 18. The Freedom Pass scheme allows Greater London residents over state pension age, people who have concessionary bus passes issued by English local authorities travel free on TfL bus services at any time. Each company has its own operating code, and every bus garage in London has its own garage code, London Buses in fact maintains a close control over both the age and specification of the vehicles. These have been known to tear and get dirty quickly, however there have been improvements with LED Backlights and the SmartBlind system installed on newer vehicles
Emirates Air Line (cable car)
The Emirates Air Line is a cable car link across the River Thames in London, England built by Doppelmayr with sponsorship from the airline Emirates. The service opened on 28 June 2012 and is operated by Transport for London, in addition to transport across the river, the service advertises a unique view of London. The duration of a single crossing is ten minutes, the cable car is based on monocable detachable gondola technology, a system which uses a single cable for both propulsion and support, used on the metrocable in Medellín, Colombia. The MDG system is cheaper and quicker to install than a more complex three-cable system which would allow larger-capacity cars. On 4 July 2010, Transport for London announced plans to develop a car crossing over the River Thames. It is the first urban cable car in the United Kingdom, designed by Wilkinson Eyre Architects, Expedition Engineering and Buro Happold, it crosses the river at a height up to 90 metres, higher than that of the nearby O2 Arena. The cable car provides a crossing every 15 seconds, with a capacity of 2,500 passengers per hour in each direction.
Passengers can pay for their journeys with pay-as-you-go Oyster cards.1 metres above high water springs. South of the river there is a 60-metre main support tower, when the project was announced, TfLs initial budget was £25 million, they announced this would be entirely funded by private finance. TfL planned to make up the shortfall by paying for the out of the London Rail budget, applying for funding from the European Regional Development Fund. €9. 7m of ERDF support, out of an estimated €65. 56m total budget, was agreed on 9 July 2012 In January 2011, News International was planning to sponsor the project, but withdrew its offer. In October 2011 it was announced that the Dubai-based airline Emirates would provide £36 million in a 10-year sponsorship deal which included branding of the car service with the airlines name. Construction began in August 2011 with Mace as the lead contractor, Mace built the cable car for £45 million and was to operate it for the first three years for a further £5.5 million.
TfL stated that the construction funding and Emirates sponsorship would cover £36 million of the cost. In 2011 the cable car was the most expensive cable system ever built, the public opening took place at noon on 28 June 2012. TfL reported that the total cost of the project was about £60 million and it estimates that the service can carry 2,500 people per hour. There are 36 passenger gondolas, of which 34 are in use at any one time, all passenger gondolas are ready for disabled persons using wheelchairs, including those ones with leg rest extensions. There are two engineers gondolas for use by maintenance staff, the Emirates Air Line route was introduced onto the London Tube map in June 2012
Tramlink is a light rail tram system serving Croydon and surrounding areas in South London, England. It began operation in 2000, the first tram system in London since 1952 and it is owned by London Trams, an arm of Transport for London, and operated by FirstGroup. The Tramlink is the fourth-busiest light rail network in the UK behind Manchester Metrolink and Wear Metro, in 1990 Croydon Council with London Regional Transport put the project to Parliament and the Croydon Tramlink Act 1994 resulted, which gave LRT the power to build and run Tramlink. In 1996 Tramtrack Croydon Limited won a 99-year Private Finance Initiative contract to design, operate, TCL was a partnership comprising FirstGroup, Bombardier Transportation, Sir Robert McAlpine and Amey, and Royal Bank of Scotland and 3i. TCL kept the revenue generated by Tramlink and LRT had to pay compensation to TCL for any changes to the fares, TCL subcontracted operations to CentreWest Buses. One of the leading to its creation was that the London Borough of Croydon has no London Underground service.
There are four routes, Route 1 – Elmers End to Croydon, Route 2 – Beckenham Junction to Croydon, Route 3 – New Addington to Wimbledon, and Route 4 – Therapia Lane to Elmers End. Route 2 runs parallel to the Crystal Palace to Beckenham Junction line of the Southern network between Birkbeck and Beckenham Junction – the National Rail track had been singled some years earlier. At Woodside the old station buildings stand disused, and the platforms have been replaced by accessible low platforms. From Woodside to near Sandilands and from near Sandilands almost to Lloyd Park, Tramlink follows the former Woodside and South Croydon Railway, including the Park Hill tunnels. The section of Route 3 between Wimbledon and West Croydon mostly follows the single-track British Rail route, closed on 31 May 1997 so that it could be converted for Tramlink, a partial obstruction near this point has necessitated the use of interlaced track. A Victorian footbridge beside Waddon New Road was dismantled to make way for the flyover over the West Croydon to Sutton railway line, the footbridge has been re-erected at Corfe Castle station on the Swanage Railway.
In March 2008, TfL announced that it had reached agreement to buy TCL for £98m, the purchase was finalised on 28 June 2008. The background to this purchase relates to the requirement that TfL compensates TCL for the consequences of any changes to the fares, in 2007 that payment was £4m, with an annual increase in rate. In October 2008 TfL introduced a new livery, using the blue and green of the routes on TfL maps, the colour of the cars was changed to green, and the brand name was changed from Croydon Tramlink to simply Tramlink. These refurbishments were completed in early 2009, the tram stops have low platforms,35 cm above rail level. They are unstaffed and have automated ticket machines, in general, access between the platforms involves crossing the tracks by pedestrian level crossing. There are 39 stops, most being 32.2 m long and they are virtually level with the doors and are all wider than 2 m
It is operated by MTR Corporation Ltd under contract to Transport for London, and forms part of the future Crossrail route from Shenfield to Reading and Heathrow Airport. TfL Rail took control of the Liverpool Street to Shenfield metro service in May 2015, in May 2018 Heathrow Connect services between Paddington and the airport and the Heathrow Express shuttle from Heathrow Central to Terminal 4 will come under TfL Rail operation. TfL Rail will be re-branded as the Elizabeth line in December 2018, between opening in May 2015 and the end of the 2015/2016 period TfL Rail carried over 38 million passengers. In July 2014 TfL awarded the contract to MTR, with a duration of eight years with an option to extend by a two years. The existing Class 315 trains were re-painted in the TfL Rail livery, every station is staffed from first train to last of the day. TfL Rail utilises the existing 20 miles 16 chains of track on the Great Eastern Main Line between Liverpool Street and Shenfield, during peak times, service frequency is increased and calling patterns vary, with some stations omitted on certain services.
On Sundays there are two trains per hour between Liverpool Street and Shenfield and two trains per hour between Liverpool Street and Gidea Park. TfL Rail operations commenced with the fleet of Class 315 rolling stock. These units will be replaced by 66 new Class 345 trains built by the Canadian firm Bombardier Transportation, the Class 315 trains will continue to be maintained at the existing Ilford depot. The Class 345 fleet will be maintained at a new depot at Old Oak Common
Epsom railway station
Epsom railway station serves the town of Epsom in Surrey. It is located off Waterloo Road and is less than two minutes walk from the High Street and it is not in the London Oyster card zone unlike Epsom Downs or Tattenham Corner stations. The station building was replaced in 2012/2013 with a new building with apartments above the station. Services are operated by South West Trains and Southern, Trains serve Central London, Clapham Junction, West Croydon, Leatherhead, Dorking and Horsham. The railway first reached the town in 1847 when an extension of the London and this station was initially named Epsom, subsequently renamed Epsom Town. In 1859 a joint venture between the LBSCR and the London and South Western Railway extended the LSWR from Wimbledon to Epsom, where it joined with the LBSCR, the lines were connected south of the LBSCR station and a new Epsom station was established on the present site. However competition between the companies remained and the new station was operated by the LSWR only, with the tracks configured so that LBSCR trains ran non-stop on the central tracks and these extensions provided greater connections for Epsom to much of the rest of Surrey.
After the First World War, the companies were merged into the Southern Railway. The former LBSCR station Epsom Town was closed in 1929, when Thameslink services started in 1988 by British Rail its secondary southern route ran to Epsom via Elephant & Castle, West Croydon and Sutton, continuing to Guildford. However the onset of rail privatisation made it difficult to maintain a line running across two other routes and services to Epsom were withdrawn in 1994. One of the proposals for the Thameslink 2000 project is to services from this station as part of a massive expansion of that network. For many years the southern ends of the platforms had a signal box above them. It was not listed, and despite extensive roof repairs it was demolished in March 1992, formerly there was a siding adjacent to platform 1 with a dock for the reception of race horses travelling by rail horse box. Had he touched this while in contact with the ground, he would have been fatally electrocuted, power had to be cut for approximately 15 minutes over a 3 miles stretch of track while Craswell was woken and taken to hospital.
Network Rail stated that the cost of the disruption exceeded £7,000, who was filmed by a police helicopter - the noise of which failed to wake him - was fined £560 and given 180 hours community service. Train 2D57, the 19,09 service from London Waterloo to Effingham Junction, the train was formed of two four-car class 455 electric multiple units. The leading bogie of the coach was derailed towards the left as it passed over a set of trailing points on a right-hand curve at about 17 miles per hour. The train came to a stop partially in Epsom station, there were no injuries, and there was only minor damage to the train and the track
The name and the accompanying double arrow symbol are the intellectual property of the Secretary of State for Transport. The National Rail logo was introduced by ATOC in 1999, and was used on the Great Britain public timetable for the first time in the edition valid from 26 September in that year. Rules for its use are set out in the Corporate Identity Style Guidelines published by the Rail Delivery Group, the NR title is sometimes described as a brand. As it was used by British Rail, the operator before franchising, its use maintains continuity and public familiarity. National Rail should not be confused with Network Rail, the two networks are generally coincident where passenger services are run. Most major Network Rail lines carry traffic and some lines are freight only. About twenty privately owned operating companies, each franchised for a defined term by government. The Rail Delivery Group is the association representing the TOCs and provides core services. It runs Rail Settlement Plan, which allocates ticket revenue to the various TOCs, and Rail Staff Travel and it does not compile the national timetable, which is the joint responsibility of the Office of Rail Regulation and Network Rail.
Since the privatisation of British Rail there is no longer a single approach to design on railways in Great Britain, the look and feel of signage and marketing material is largely the preserve of the individual TOCs. However, National Rail continues to use BRs famous double-arrow symbol and it has been incorporated in the National Rail logotype and is displayed on tickets, the National Rail website and other publicity. The trademark rights to the arrow symbol remain state-owned, being vested in the Secretary of State for Transport. The double arrow was already prescribed for indicating a railway station, the lettering used in the National Rail logotype is a modified form of the typeface Sassoon Bold. It is a misconception that Rail Alphabet was used for printed material. The British Rail typefaces of choice from 1965 were Helvetica and Univers, TOCs may use what they like, examples include Futura, Frutiger, and a modified version of Precious by London Midland. Several conurbations have their own metro or tram systems, most of which are not part of National Rail, LO now possesses some infrastructure in its own right, following the reopening of the former East London line of London Underground as the East London Railway of LO.
Heathrow Express and Eurostar are not part of the National Rail network despite sharing of stations, northern Ireland Railways were never part of British Rail, which was always confined to Great Britain, and therefore are not part of the National Rail network. National Rail services have a common ticketing structure inherited from British Rail, through tickets are available between any pair of stations on the network, and can be bought from any station ticket office
London Victoria station
Victoria station is a central London railway terminus and connected London Underground station in Victoria, in the City of Westminster. It is near to Victoria Street, which along with the area and it is in Travelcard Zone 1. From the main lines, trains can connect to the Catford Loop Line, Dartford Loop Line, Southern operates the majority of commuter and regional services to south London and parts of east Surrey, while Southeastern operates trains to south east London and Kent. Gatwick Express trains run direct from Victoria to Gatwick Airport, the Underground station is on the Circle and District lines between Sloane Square and St. Jamess Park, and the Victoria line between Pimlico and Green Park. With over 81 million passenger entries and exits in 2015/16, Victoria is the second-busiest station in London after Waterloo, combined with the Underground Station and interchanges in the national rail station, London Victoria handled about 170 million passengers in the 2015/2016 period. It is one of 19 stations managed by Network Rail, the area around the station is an important interchange for other forms of transport, a local bus station is in the forecourt and Victoria Coach Station is nearby.
Victoria Station came about in a fashion to help address this problem for the London Brighton and South Coast Railway. It consisted of two adjacent main line railway stations which, from the viewpoint of passengers, were unconnected, the London and Brighton Railway terminus at London Bridge provided reasonable access to the City of London but was most inconvenient for travellers to and from Westminster. As early as 1842 John Urpeth Rastrick had proposed that the railway should build a branch to serve the West End, but his proposal came to nothing. During the summer of 1857 a scheme for an independent Grosvenor Basin Terminus in the West End of London, the station was originally referred to as the Grosvenor Terminus but renamed Victoria as it was sited at the end of Victoria Street. Three other railway companies were seeking a terminus in Westminster, the Great Western, the London & North Western. The first two already had access to Battersea through their joint ownership of the West London Line with the LB&SCR.
The new line followed part of the route of the Grosvenor Canal with Victoria station on the canal basin. It required the construction of a new bridge over the Thames, originally known as Victoria Bridge and it was of mixed gauge to cater for GWR trains. The LB&SCR had hoped to amalgamate with the VS&PR, and introduced a Parliamentary Bill to allow it to do so in 1860 and this was opposed by the GWR and LC&DR and rejected. By way of compromise the LB&SCR was permitted to lease Victoria station from the VS&PR, Victoria station proved to be unexpectedly popular for both the main companies, and by 1862 there were frequent delays due to congestion at Stewarts Lane Junction. In March 1863 the LB&SCR and the LC&DR jointly funded a new route into Victoria, avoiding Stewarts Lane. The work was completed during 1867/8, the LB&SCR side of Victoria station opened on 1 October 1860, the temporary terminus in Battersea having closed the day before
Hackbridge is a suburb in the London Borough of Sutton, south-west London, about two miles north east of the town of Sutton itself. It is 9 miles south-west of Charing Cross, the London Borough of Sutton is working to make Hackbridge the UKs first truly sustainable suburb. There has been a scheme in Hackbridge which has a number of developments on many sites. These are mentioned as part of the Hackbridge Regeneration, a key part of this is a £150m plan to redevelop the one million square foot former Felnex industrial estate, which has now gained redevelopment approval from the Greater London Authority. Work was expected to begin as soon as detailed consent was obtained for the first phase, Hackbridge has already achieved success in its green agenda in the form of the BedZED eco-friendly housing development, around 500 yards north of Hackbridge railway station. Designed to create zero carbon emissions, it was the first large scale community to do so, BedZED utilises a number of innovative technologies to enable it to operate with zero energy use.
It has attracted wide interest over the past decade since it was built, key features of BedZED include, Zero energy—The project is designed to use only energy from renewable sources generated on site. There are 777 square metres of solar panels, high quality—The apartments are finished to a high standard to attract the urban professional. Energy efficient—The houses face south to take advantage of solar gain, are triple glazed, water efficient—Most rain water falling on the site is collected and reused. Location Hackbridge is located on the River Wandle in the London Borough of Sutton, the former Durand Close Council estate is being regenerated as a mixed tenure development by the Lavender Housing Partnership over the period 2003-2018. Churches The parish church of Hackbridge and Beddington Corner was built in 1931, burke-Downing, and it is located opposite BedZED on the London Road. Open Space Beddington Park, through which the River Wandle flows, is a quarter of a mile south of Hackbridge railway station and it is nearly 100 acres in size and is maintained by the London Borough of Sutton.
It was originally part of the Deer Park attached to Carew Manor, a country house built in the Tudor period. It is an area of open grassland with small clumps of trees, with an area of more formal gardens near the Grange restaurant, as well as the lake. The main lake in the south west of the park was originally a mill pond. There are many paths and a number of bridges, which cross the stream which feeds the lake, this is part of the River Wandle. Part of the park is managed as a wildlife site, nearest professional football club, Crystal Palace F. C. Nearest league football club, Carshalton Athletic play approximately 0.5 miles away from Hackbridge, Sutton United play very locally to Hackbridge