A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established a permanent residence there to colonize the area. Settlers are from a sedentary culture, as opposed to nomads who share and rotate their settlements with little or no concept of individual land ownership. Settlements are built on land claimed or owned by another group. Many times settlers are backed by large countries, they sometimes leave in search of religious freedom. One can witness how settlers often occupied land residents to long-established peoples, designated as indigenous. In some cases, as colonialist mentalities and laws change, the legal ownership of some lands is contested by indigenous people, who either claim or seek restoration of traditional usage, land rights, native title and related forms of legal ownership or partial control; the word "settler" was not usually used in relation to a variety of peoples who became a part of settler societies, such as enslaved Africans, indentured labourers, or convicts. In the figurative usage, a "person who goes first or does something first" applies to the American English use of "pioneer" to refer to a settler—a person who has migrated to a less occupied area and established permanent residence there to colonize the area.
In United States history it refers to those people. In Canada, the Indian Act, passed in 1876, created a fundamental division between First Nations peoples and all others, who are termed Settlers; as the Indian Act is still in force, this distinction continues to present day with an existing Indigenous-Settler division, set in a settler-colonial context where it reproduces an inequitable racial structure. In this usage, pioneers are among the first to an area, whereas settlers can arrive after first settlement and join others in the process of human settlement; this correlates with the work of military pioneers who were tasked with construction of camps before the main body of troops would arrive at the designated campsite. In Imperial Russia, the government invited Russians or foreign nationals to settle in sparsely populated lands; these settlers were called "colonists". See, e.g. articles Slavo-Serbia, Volga German, Russians in Kazakhstan. Although they are thought of as traveling by sea—the dominant form of travel in the early modern era—significant waves of settlement could use long overland routes, such as the Great Trek by the Boer-Afrikaners in South Africa, or the Oregon Trail in the United States.
Anthropologists record tribal displacement of native settlers who drive another tribe from the lands it held, such as the settlement of lands in the area now called Carmel-by-the-Sea, California where Ohlone peoples settled in areas inhabited by the Esselen tribe. In the Middle East, there are a number of references to various squatter and specific policies referred as "settler". Among those: Iraq – the Arabization program of the Ba'ath Party in the late 1970s in North Iraq, which aimed at settling Arab populations instead of Kurds following the Second Iraqi-Kurdish War. Israel – Israelis who moved to areas captured during the Six-Day War in 1967 are termed Israeli settlers. In recent years Israeli settlers have been settling in Palestinian territory such as the Gaza Strip and West Bank. However, this has caused political unrest and many settlers are forcibly removed from their settlements by the Israeli government. Syria – In recent times, Arab settlers have moved in large numbers to ethnic minority areas, such as northeast Syria.
Women and children experience violence in these dangerous areas because of the conflict. Many natives face displacement. During 1948 Palestine war, in which Israel was created, over 750,000 Palestinians were displaced from their homes and not allowed to return. Oftentimes fences or walls are built preventing the natives from traveling back onto the land. Settlements can make it difficult for native people to continue their work. For example, if the settlers take part of the land which the olive trees grow on the natives no longer have access to those olive trees and their livelihood is compromised. Many are met with violence. Settlers in hypothetical societies, such as on other planets feature in science fiction or fantasy fiction and/or video games. Mascot for Texas Woman's University, more there called the "Pioneer." The reasons for the emigration of settlers vary, but they include the following factors and incentives: the desire to start a new and better life in a foreign land, personal financial hardship, cultural, ethnic, or religious persecution, political oppression, government incentive policies aimed at encouraging foreign settlement.
The colony concerned is sometimes controlled by the government of a settler's home country, emigration is sometimes approved by an imperial government
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. A confluence, where two or more bodies of water meet together refers to the joining of tributaries; the opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from and flows away from the main stream. Distributaries are most found in river deltas. "Right tributary" and "left tributary" are terms stating the orientation of the tributary relative to the flow of the main stem river. These terms are defined from the perspective of looking downstream. In the United States, where tributaries sometimes have the same name as the river into which they feed, they are called forks; these are designated by compass direction. For example, the American River receives flow from its North and South forks.
The Chicago River's North Branch has the East and Middle Fork. Forks are sometimes left. Here, the "handedness" is from the point of view of an observer facing upstream. For instance, Steer Creek has a left tributary, called Right Fork Steer Creek. Tributaries are sometimes listed starting with those nearest to the source of the river and ending with those nearest to the mouth of the river; the Strahler Stream Order examines the arrangement of tributaries in a hierarchy of first, second and higher orders, with the first-order tributary being the least in size. For example, a second-order tributary would be the result of two or more first-order tributaries combining to form the second-order tributary. Another method is to list tributaries from mouth to source, in the form of a tree structure, stored as a tree data structure. A gallery of major river basins with tributaries Estuary
A glacial period is an interval of time within an ice age, marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances. Interglacials, on the other hand, are periods of warmer climate between glacial periods; the last glacial period ended about 15,000 years ago. The Holocene epoch is the current interglacial. A time with no glaciers on Earth is considered a greenhouse climate state. Within the Quaternary, there have been a number of interglacials; the last glacial period was the most recent glacial period within the Quaternary Ice Age, occurring in the Pleistocene epoch, which began about 110,000 years ago and ended about 15,000 years ago. The glaciations that occurred during this glacial period covered many areas of the Northern Hemisphere and have different names, depending on their geographic distributions: Wisconsin, Midlandian, Würm, Dali, Taibai Luojishan, Tianchi Qomolangma, Llanquihue; the glacial advance reached its maximum extent about 18,000 BP. In Europe, the ice sheet reached Northern Germany.
In the last 650,000 years, there were, on average, seven cycles of glacial retreat. Since orbital variations are predictable, computer models that relate orbital variations to climate can predict future climate possibilities. Work by Berger and Loutre suggests; the amount of heat trapping gases emitted into Earth's Oceans and atmosphere will prevent the next glacial period, which otherwise would begin in around 1,000 years, more glacial cycles
The highest-ranking bishops in Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Catholic Church, the Church of the East are termed patriarchs. The word is derived from Greek πατριάρχης, meaning "chief or father of a family", a compound of πατριά, meaning "family", ἄρχειν, meaning "to rule". A patriarch was a man who exercised autocratic authority as a pater familias over an extended family; the system of such rule of families by senior males is termed patriarchy. A patriarch has been the logical choice to act as ethnarch of the community identified with his religious confession within a state or empire of a different creed; the term developed an ecclesiastical meaning, within the Christian Church. The office and the ecclesiastical circumscription of a Christian patriarch is termed a patriarchate. Abraham and Jacob are referred to as the three patriarchs of the people of Israel, the period during which they lived is termed the Patriarchal Age; the word patriarch acquired its religious meaning in the Septuagint version of the Bible.
In the Catholic Church, the bishop, head of a particular autonomous Church, known in canon law as a Church sui iuris, is ordinarily a patriarch, though this responsibility can be entrusted to a Major Archbishop, Metropolitan, or other prelate for a number of serious reasons. Since the Council of Nicaea, the bishop of Rome has been recognized as the first among patriarchs; that Council designated three bishops with this'supra-Metropolitan' title: Rome and Antioch. In the Pentarchy formulated by Justinian I, the emperor assigned as a patriarchate to the Bishop of Rome the whole of Christianized Europe, except for the region of Thrace, the areas near Constantinople, along the coast of the Black Sea, he included in this patriarchate the western part of North Africa. The jurisdictions of the other patriarchates extended over Roman Asia, the rest of Africa. Justinian's system was given formal ecclesiastical recognition by the Quinisext Council of 692, which the see of Rome has, not recognized. There were at the time bishops of other apostolic sees that operated with patriarchal authority beyond the borders of the Roman Empire, such as the Catholicos of Selucia-Ctesephon.
Today, the patriarchal heads of Catholic autonomous churches are: The Bishop of Rome, as head of the Latin Catholic Church The Armenian Catholic Patriarch of Cilicia and head of the Armenian Catholic Church, formed 1740, recognised 1742 The Chaldean Catholic Patriarch of Babylon and head of the Chaldean Catholic Church, formed 1552, recognised 1553 The Coptic Catholic Patriarch of Alexandria and head of the Coptic Catholic Church, established 1824 The Maronite Catholic Patriarch of Antioch and all the East and head of the Maronite Catholic Church, established 685 The Melkite Greek Catholic Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East, of Alexandria and of Jerusalem, head of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church. However, differences exist in the mode of accession. Whereas the election of a major archbishop has to be confirmed by the pope before he may take office, no papal confirmation is needed for a newly elected patriarch before he takes office. Rather, a newly-installed patriarch is required to petition the pope as soon as possible for the concession of what is called ecclesiastical communion.
Furthermore, patriarchs who are created cardinals form part of the order of cardinal bishops, whereas major archbishops are only created cardinal priests. Titular patriarchs do not have jurisdiction over other Metropolitan bishops; the title is granted purely as an honor for various historical reasons. They take precedence after the heads of autonomous churches in full communion, whether pope, patriarch, or major archbishop; the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, established 1099. The Patriarch of the East Indies a titular patriarchal see, united to Goa and Daman, established 1886; the Patriarch of Lisbon, established 1716. The Patriarch of Venice, established 1451; the Patriarch of Aquileia – with rival line of succession moved to Grado - dissolved in 1752. The Patriarch of Grado – in 1451 merged with the Bishopric of Castello and Venice to form the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Venice; the Patriarch of the West Indies – a titular patriarchal see, vacant since 1963. The Latin Patriarch of Antioch – title abolished in 1964.
The titular Latin Patriarch of Alexandria – title abolished in 1964. The Latin Patriarch of Constantinople – title abolished in 1964; the Latin Patriarchate of Ethiopia – 1555 to 1663, never effective, only held by Iberian Jesuits The pope can confer the rank of Patriarch withou
West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region in the Southern United States, considered to be a part of the Middle Atlantic States. It is bordered by Pennsylvania to the north, Maryland to the east and northeast, Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, Ohio to the northwest. West Virginia is the 41st largest state by area, is ranked 38th in population; the capital and largest city is Charleston. West Virginia became a state following the Wheeling Conventions of 1861, after the American Civil War had begun. Delegates from some Unionist counties of northwestern Virginia decided to break away from Virginia, although they included many secessionist counties in the new state. West Virginia was admitted to the Union on June 20, 1863, was a key border state during the war. West Virginia was the only state to form by separating from a Confederate state, the first to separate from any state since Maine separated from Massachusetts, was one of two states admitted to the Union during the American Civil War.
While a portion of its residents held slaves, most of the residents were yeomen farmers, the delegates provided for gradual abolition of slavery in the new state Constitution. The Census Bureau and the Association of American Geographers classify West Virginia as part of the Southern United States; however the Bureau of Labor Statistics classifies West Virginia as a part of the Mid-Atlantic. The northern panhandle extends adjacent to Pennsylvania and Ohio, with the West Virginia cities of Wheeling and Weirton just across the border from the Pittsburgh metropolitan area, while Bluefield is less than 70 miles from North Carolina. Huntington in the southwest is close to the states of Ohio and Kentucky, while Martinsburg and Harpers Ferry in the Eastern Panhandle region are considered part of the Washington metropolitan area, in between the states of Maryland and Virginia; the unique position of West Virginia means that it is included in several geographical regions, including the Mid-Atlantic, the Upland South, the Southeastern United States.
It is the only state, within the area served by the Appalachian Regional Commission. The state is noted for its mountains and rolling hills, its significant logging and coal mining industries, its political and labor history, it is known for a wide range of outdoor recreational opportunities, including skiing, whitewater rafting, hiking, mountain biking, rock climbing, hunting. Many ancient man-made earthen mounds from various prehistoric mound builder cultures survive in the areas of present-day Moundsville, South Charleston, Romney; the artifacts uncovered in these give evidence of village societies. They had a tribal trade system culture. In the 1670s during the Beaver Wars, the powerful Iroquois, five allied nations based in present-day New York and Pennsylvania, drove out other American Indian tribes from the region in order to reserve the upper Ohio Valley as a hunting ground. Siouan language tribes, such as the Moneton, had been recorded in the area. A century the area now identified as West Virginia was contested territory among Anglo-Americans as well, with the colonies of Pennsylvania and Virginia claiming territorial rights under their colonial charters to this area before the American Revolutionary War.
Some speculative land companies, such as the Vandalia Company, the Ohio Company and Indiana Company, tried to legitimize their claims to land in parts of West Virginia and present day Kentucky, but failed. This rivalry resulted in some settlers petitioning the Continental Congress to create a new territory called Westsylvania. With the federal settlement of the Pennsylvania and Virginia border dispute, creating Kentucky County, Kentuckians "were satisfied, the inhabitants of a large part of West Virginia were grateful."The Crown considered the area of West Virginia to be part of the British Virginia Colony from 1607 to 1776. The United States considered this area to be the western part of the state of Virginia from 1776 to 1863, before the formation of West Virginia, its residents were discontented for years with their position in Virginia, as the government was dominated by the planter elite of the Tidewater and Piedmont areas. The legislature had electoral malapportionment, based on the counting of slaves toward regional populations, the western white residents were underrepresented in the state legislature.
More subsistence and yeoman farmers lived in the west and they were less supportive of slavery, although many counties were divided on their support. The residents of this area became more divided after the planter elite of eastern Virginia voted to secede from the Union during the Civil War. Residents of the western and northern counties set up a separate government under Francis Pierpont in 1861, which they called the Restored Government. Most voted to separate from Virginia, the new state was admitted to the Union in 1863. In 1864 a state constitutional convention drafted a constitution, ratified by the legislature without putting it to popular vote. West Virginia abolished slavery by a gradual process and temporarily disenfranchised men who had held Confederate office or fought for the Confederacy. West Virginia's history has been profoundly affected by its mountainous terrain and vast river valleys, rich natural resources; these were all factors driving its economy and the lifestyles of its residents, who tended to live in many small isolated communities in the mountain valleys.
A 2010 analysis of
Jane Lew, West Virginia
Jane Lew is a town in Lewis County, West Virginia, United States. The population was 409 at the 2010 census; the community was named after the mother of the original owner of the town site. Jane Lew is located at 39°6′33″N 80°24′27″W, along Hackers Creek in northern Lewis County. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.25 square miles, of which, 0.24 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 409 people, 195 households, 111 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,704.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 213 housing units at an average density of 887.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.8% White, 0.2% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.2% of the population. There were 195 households of which 24.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.6% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 43.1% were non-families.
38.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 19% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.10 and the average family size was 2.72. The median age in the town was 41.8 years. 19.3% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 47.4% male and 52.6% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 406 people, 209 households, 117 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,635.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 220 housing units at an average density of 886.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.03% White, 0.25% Native American, 1.72% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.23% of the population. There were 209 households out of which 17.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.7% were married couples living together, 11.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 44.0% were non-families. 40.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 1.94 and the average family size was 2.58. In the town, the population was spread out with 15.0% under the age of 18, 7.9% from 18 to 24, 28.8% from 25 to 44, 24.6% from 45 to 64, 23.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females, there were 84.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.7 males. The median income for a household in the town was $23,571, the median income for a family was $30,000. Males had a median income of $29,464 versus $16,667 for females; the per capita income for the town was $16,540. About 5.3% of families and 7.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.9% of those under age 18 and 11.5% of those age 65 or over. The climate in this area is characterized by high temperatures and evenly distributed precipitation throughout the year. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Jane Lew has a Humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. Jane Lew used to have a high school in operation from 1912 until 1962, when it consolidated with another local school to make the Lewis County School District.
Jane Lew High won a state boys basketball championship in 1922