Hackney Downs railway station
Hackney Downs is a London Overground and National Rail station in West Hackney and serves the old common land of Hackney Downs in Lower Clapton in the London Borough of Hackney, it is on the Lea Valley Lines and West Anglia Main Line. It is 2 miles 78 chains down the line from London Liverpool Street and has a direct passenger link to Hackney Central station, providing interchange with the North London Line of the Overground network On the London Overground, Lea Valley Line the station is between London Fields and either Clapton or Rectory Road. Main line trains, operated by Greater Anglia, call at Hackney Downs between Liverpool Street and Tottenham Hale, its three-letter station code is HAC and it is in Travelcard zone 2. The station was named Hackney Downs Junction until 1896; the station was opened on 27 May 1872 when the Great Eastern Railway opened the first part of its new line from Enfield Town to Stoke Newington. This was an exercise to provide new routes to the expanding suburbs of northeast London and to give a faster journey time to Enfield, whose trains at that time were routed via Stratford and Angel Road.
Just under a month another line opened linking Hackney Downs to Coppermill Junction just south of Tottenham Hale on what was the main line to Cambridge. This new route offered a reduction in journey time for Cambridge and Shern Street station in Walthamstow on the Chingford line services but relieved congestion at Stratford railway station; the route to Edmonton opened on 1 August 1872 and the Chingford line was opened in November 1873. When the station opened it had two centre roads; the station layout was changed in 1894 when the line between Bethnal Green and Hackney Downs was increased from two tracks to four tracks. The layout had two signal boxes. After the Railways Act 1921 the country's railways were grouped into four companies, with effect from 1 January 1923. At Hackney Downs the London & North Eastern Railway took over operations of the GER services; the semaphore signalling was replaced by single searchlight signals which were able to display three-aspects through different a changeable lens arrangement, in 1935.
It was in 1935 that electrification of the lines through Hackney was suggested, although many years were to pass before these plans came to fruition. The 1935 re-signalling saw the closure of Hackney Downs South signal box with the North signal box becoming plain Hackney Downs. On nationalisation in 1948 responsibility for operating the station fell to British Railways; the lines through Hackney were electrified in the late 1950s with electric services commencing operation on 21 November 1960. The original 1872 signal box was replaced by a new signal box located on platforms 2 and 3 in May of the same year; the ticket hall was rebuilt in the early 1980s along with changes to the roofs on the platforms. The island platform's wooden roof was replaced with steel sheeting on the existing frames whilst the side platforms were left unaltered other than the removal of their "dog-tooth" fascia boards. To coincide with the closure of Broad Street station in 1986 a new line linking the North London Line to the Slow Lines just south of Hackney Downs was opened to allow operation of Watford - Liverpool Street services.
This occupied the site of the former Graham Road GER goods depot, accessed from the North London line. Passenger services ceased; the line is little used in 2017. The signal box, installed in 1960 when the line was electrified, closed in May 2001 when signalling on the line was centralised at Liverpool Street. Ticket barriers were installed in 2011. A pedestrian link between Hackney Downs and Hackney Central stations was opened in 2015 by LOROL; until Hackney Central's closure in 1944, a passenger connection had linked the two stations. However, when Hackney Central re-opened in 1985, the footway was not reinstated and passengers transferring between the two stations were obliged to leave one and walk along the street to the other, until the link was rebuilt; the Lea Valley Lines were operated by Abellio Greater Anglia as part of the East Anglia franchise. In 2015 they transferred to London Overground operation; some West Anglia Main Line services continue to call at Hackney Downs. The typical off-peak service of trains per hour is as follows: London Buses routes 30, 56 and 276 serve the station.
Media related to Hackney Downs railway station at Wikimedia CommonsTrain times and station information for Hackney Downs railway station from National Rail
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Dalston is a district of London Borough of Hackney in London, England and is 4 miles north-east of Charing Cross. Dalston began as a hamlet on either side of Dalston Lane; as the area urbanised, the term came to apply to surrounding areas including Kingsland and Shacklewell. Prime Minister Tony Blair, who lived in Mapledene Road from 1980–86, described Dalston as being on "the wrong side of Kingsland Road", contrasting the area with more fashionable districts. Gentrification has led to a rapid increase in the price of property, with current prices 8% above the London average; the process of change was accelerated by the East London line extension, now part of London Overground, the reopening of Dalston Junction railway station, part of London's successful bid to host the 2012 Olympics. Dalston has never been an administrative unit, for this reason the boundaries are not defined. There are popularly understood boundaries in the south and west, but its northern and eastern extent is not delineated.
This is a common situation in London's neighbourhoods which merge and change over time. There is an electoral Ward of the same name. Dalston's boundaries are described with more or less precision below: South: Dalston takes Hackney's southern border with Shoreditch. Albion Drive forms much of this boundary. West: The Roman A10 road marks most of Dalston's western margin; the exception is that both sides of Kingsland High St. are included - here Dalston takes Hackney's western boundary as it crosses the A10 to take in a small area bounded by Boleyn Road and the Crossway. This area includes Dalston Kingsland Railway Station; the western boundary corresponds with the western side of the E8 postal area with which Dalston is associated – though the postal area takes in parts of central Hackney and Haggerston that are not described as belonging to Dalston. North: There is not a tradition of a clear northern boundary with West Hackney. Dalston's close association with the E8 postal area means that its ‘sphere of self-identification' does not extend far, if at all, beyond the postcode boundary, no further north than Farleigh Road.
East: Between Downs Road and Amhurst Road, the physical barrier of the railway embankment marks the postcode boundary with Lower Clapton. There is little tradition of a boundary with the central Hackney area except that it is sometimes said that Dalston extends as far as the park at London Fields; the name Dalston is thought to have derived from Deorlaf's tun in much the same way as nearby Hoxton was named after the farm of "Hoch". The first written record available is from 1294; the village was one of four small villages within the Parish of Hackney that were grouped for assessment purposes, together having only as many houses as the village of Hackney. John Rocque's map of 1746 shows the village of Kingsland centred on the crossroads at what is now Dalston Junction and the small village of Dalston further east along Dalston Lane. Another clear feature is Roman Ermine Street which now forms most of the western boundary of this area. Ermine Street now has the road number A10 and goes by a number of names, including Kingsland Road as it travels through London.
Around AD 1280 a leper hospital was founded in Dalston by the citizens of London and in AD 1549 it was attached to the chapel of St Bartholomew as an outhouse. During the 18th and 19th centuries the area changed from an agricultural and rural landscape to an urban one. By 1849, it was described as a increased suburban village, with some handsome old houses, by 1859 the village had exceeded its neighbour and, with the railways and continuous building, the village of Kingsland disappeared. During the 1930s, 1940s and 1960s the area's large Jewish and other minority populations made it a target for provocative rallies by Oswald Mosley and the various organisations he founded; these were opposed by many local people, together with organisations such as the 43 Group and this led to a number of violent confrontations, notably in the Ridley Road area. In July 2017 a violent riot broke out on Dalston road, which had started as a manifestation against police violence. Protesters barricaded the spot where a man, who died at the Royal London Hospital, had been arrested.
The rioters caused property damage. St. Mark's Church: St. Mark’s is a large Victorian church built in the period 1864–66 to a design by Chester Cheston, it is reputedly the largest parish church in London, larger than Southwark Cathedral, capable of hosting congregations of 1800-2000 people and its great size has earned it the nickname, the “Cathedral of the East End””. The residential area around the church is of high architectural quality and has accordingly been designated the “St. Mark’s Conservation Area”. Rio Cinema: The Rio Cinema is a Grade II listed independent Art Deco cinema, it is a popular single-screen cinema located on Kingsland High Street, with a history stretching back over 100 years. German Hospital: The German Hospital, locally known as'The German', is a group of attractive Victorian red brick buildings that were home to a hospital from 1845-1987; the hospital was founded to cater for London's large German-speaking community. It became an ordinary NHS facility before its facilities were merged and moved to Homerton University Hospital.
Dalston is known for music and its nightlife. Its biggest festival to date began in Dalston Music Festival. Centred on Gillett Square and 8 clubs i
Stoke Newington is an area occupying the north-west part of the London Borough of Hackney in north-east London, England. It is 5 miles north-east of Charing Cross. Stoke Newington Church Street was the site of the original hamlet of Stoke Newington, which in turn gave its name to Stoke Newington the ancient parish; the historic core on Church Street retains the distinct London village character which led Nikolaus Pevsner to write in 1953 that he found it hard to see the district as being in London at all. Stoke Newington is nicknamed "Stokey" by many residents; the modern London Borough of Hackney was formed in 1965 by the merger of three former Metropolitan Boroughs and the smaller authorities of Stoke Newington and Shoreditch. These Metropolitan Boroughs had been in existence since 1899 but their names and boundaries were closely based on parishes dating back to the Middle Ages. Unlike many London districts, such as nearby Stamford Hill and Dalston, Stoke Newington has longstanding fixed boundaries.
The informal perception of Stoke Newington has blurred over time, to stretch east of the Roman A10 to overlap areas of the former Ancient Parish and subsequent Metropolitan Borough of Hackney. The Metropolitan Borough adopted the Ancient Parish's boundaries, including the eastern boundary which followed the A10 road, though there were minor rationalisations, notably the transfer of areas of Hornsey. Stoke Newington's northern and western boundaries have become the north-west borders of the modern London Borough; the eastern boundary was formed by the A10 road where it goes by the name Stoke Newington High Street and Stoke Newington Road, further south. These boundaries included the sites of the small hamlet of Stoke Newington and part of Newington Green, however it excluded the open space known since the early 20th century as Stoke Newington Common, Stoke Newington railway station was built close to, but just outside this area. More Stoke Newington has come to be viewed by many as extending east of the A10 to overlap the AP\MB of Hackney to include West Hackney, an ill-defined area of the N16 postal area which includes Stoke Newington railway station, Rectory Road railway station and Stoke Newington Common.
As a consequence Stoke Newington, like nearby Stamford Hill, has become associated with the N16 postcode, though a significant part of western Stoke Newington is covered by the N4 postcode district. In the north of the district is the extensive West Reservoir, now a non-working facility, but open for leisure and surrounded by green space. At the entrance is the Castle Climbing Centre, once the main Water Board pumping station, it was designed, by William Chadwell Mylne. To the south of these facilities is Clissold Park, which contains a small menagerie and Clissold Mansion, a Grade II listed building, built in the 1790s for Jonathan Hoare, a local Quaker and brother of Samuel Hoare. East from here and past the two Church of England parish churches, both called St Mary's, is Abney Park Cemetery, one of the most splendid and enlightened of Victorian London cemeteries, it is the main London burial ground for 19th-century non-conformist ministers and William Booth, founder of the Salvation Army, is buried here.
It is now a nature reserve. Abney Park was scheduled in 2009 as one of Britain's historic parks and gardens at risk from neglect and decay. Across the high street to the east is the fragmented Stoke Newington Common, which has had an extensive and diverse programme of tree planting. From the 16th century onwards, Stoke Newington has played a prominent role in assuring a water supply to sustain London's rapid growth. Hugh Myddleton's New River still makes a contribution to London's water, it used to terminate at the New River Head in Finsbury, but since 1946 its main flow has ended at Stoke Newington reservoirs. A slow ornamental trickle flows past the West Reservoir, goes underground for a stretch on Green Lanes, reappears for a time in Clissold Park, disappears underground again on its way to Canonbury; the river bank, the New River Path, can be walked for some distance to the north through Haringey and on to its source near Hertford, though not all sections are open. Stoke Newington East and West Reservoirs, to the north of Clissold Park, are quite substantial for urban facilities.
Stoke Newington Reservoirs were constructed in 1833 to purify the New River water and to act as a water reserve. The West Reservoir is now a leisure facility, offering sailing and other water sports, plus Royal Yachting Association-approved sailing courses. On its western edge stands the former filter house, now set out as a visitor centre with a café; the pumping station at the reservoir gates, converted to a climbing centre in 1995 was designed in a distinctive castellated style by Robert Billings under the supervision of William Chadwell Mylne and built in 1854–56. Besides the water board facilities and the New River, Clissold Park contains two large ornamental lakes, a home to many water birds and a population of terrapins; these lakes—purportedly the remains of clay pits dug for the bricks used in the building of Clissold House—are all, left to mark the course of the Hackney Brook, one of London's lost rivers, which once flowed from west to east across Stoke Newington on its way to the River Lea.
In flood at this point, the brook was known to span 10 metres. The two lakes are not fed from the brook, which has disappeared into the maze of sewers under London, but from the mains supply—the New
Hackney Central is a sub-district of Hackney in the London Borough of Hackney in London, England and is four miles northeast of Charing Cross. The Hackney Central area is focused on Mare Street and the retail areas to the north of it including Narrow Way and surrounding local area around Hackney Downs railway station; as such it extends north from Regent's Canal, takes in most of Broadway Market and London Fields, follows each side of Mare Street till it terminates in the vicinity of Hackney Central railway station. The area includes the central retail area which extends from Hackney Downs station in the west to the Hackney Walk Outlet Village, on Morning Lane and goes in between Wick Road and Cassland Road till meeting Hackney Wick, to the east. Hackney Central is the area; this was a place that flourished from the Tudor period, when principal members of the Court had their houses in the surrounding area, King Henry VIII of England had a palace. Hackney Central remained a popular resort for Londoners until the end of the Georgian era, when this suburb of London began to be built up.
Railways and factories brought an end to Hackney's rural atmosphere during the Victorian era, its fortunes declined. The industries of nearby Homerton and the Lee Valley have disappeared, leaving the NHS and local council as the largest employers. Successive waves of immigrants, both from abroad and within the United Kingdom, make modern Hackney a culturally vibrant part of inner London, with both the benefits and challenges that this brings. Extensive post-World War II redevelopment replaced much of the housing stock, but the Georgian housing and Victorian terraces that remain have become popular again. In 1727 Daniel Defoe said of the villages of Hackney All these, except the Wyck-house, are within a few years so encreas'd in buildings, so inhabited, that there is no comparison to be made between their present and past state: Every separate hamlet is encreas'd, some of them more than treble as big as formerly; this town is so remarkable for the retreat of wealthy citizens, that there is at this time near a hundred coaches kept in it.
In Roman times Ermine Street passed to the west of. The land was covered with open oak and hazel woodlands, with marshland around the rivers and streams that crossed the area. Hackney lay in the Catevallauni tribal territory; the name Hackney derives from a 5th or 6th century Saxon settlement known as Haca's ey – or raised ground in marshland. The settlement was near Hackney Brook, was on the higher ground around the St Augustine's Tower. Hackney is not mentioned by name in the Norman Domesday Book. Little remains of early Hackney, except the Tudor St Augustine's Tower, which survives as Hackney's oldest building; the churchyard, Hackney Brook, the surrounding villages prevented Hackney's expansion, by 1605 the village had a lower rateable value than the other divisions of the parish. In Tudor times there were a number of fine houses along Church Street, but many Tudor courtiers lived in nearby Homerton. On the site of Brooke House college, in Clopton was sited one of Henry VIII's palaces, where his daughter Mary took the Oath of Supremacy.
Her guardian was Henry's Principal Secretary of State Ralph Sadleir, a resident of Bryck Place, Homerton. A further cluster of houses existed in medieval times; the Loddiges family founded their extensive plant nursery business on open ground to the north-east of here in the 18th century. By 1724, while still consisting of a single street, there is an unbroken line of buildings, except by the churchyard and by the brook, with large gardens behind for the finer houses and inns; the 16th-century church, despite galleries being installed, became too small for the needs of the parish, parliament was petitioned in 1790 for a modern larger church to be built. This began in 1791 on a field to the north east of the old church, but was bedeviled by builders' bankruptcies and not completed until 1812–13 when the tower and porches were added. Further disaster struck in a fire of 1955. In the churchyard stands the tomb of Francis Beaufort, deviser of the Beaufort wind force scale; the Loddiges family has a tomb in the churchyard and memorials within the church.
The parish burial register records the death of "Anthony, a poore old negro, aged 105" in 1630. This is all, known of Anthony, the first recorded black resident of Hackney; the villages of Hackney, Lower Clapton and Homerton remained separated by fields into the 19th century. The fine houses remained, with large gardens behind. Artisans and labourers lived in cottages established in these gardens. There was not the will, for major rebuilding in the village. By 1800, St Thomas' Square, a Georgian square was laid out on the southern end of Mare Street. By the 20th century, these buildings were replaced with public housing. An early 18th-century mansion, now the New Landsdown Club, but once the headquarters of Elizabeth Fry's British Ladies' Society for Promoting the Reformation of Female Prisoners remains at 195 Mare Street, it is Grade II* listed, but in poor condition and on the English Heritage register of buildings at risk. In neighbouri
Labour Party (UK)
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom, described as an alliance of social democrats, democratic socialists and trade unionists. The party's platform emphasises greater state intervention, social justice and strengthening workers' rights; the Labour Party was founded in 1900, having grown out of the trade union movement and socialist parties of the nineteenth century. It overtook the Liberal Party to become the main opposition to the Conservative Party in the early 1920s, forming two minority governments under Ramsay MacDonald in the 1920s and early 1930s. Labour served in the wartime coalition of 1940-1945, after which Clement Attlee's Labour government established the National Health Service and expanded the welfare state from 1945 to 1951. Under Harold Wilson and James Callaghan, Labour again governed from 1964 to 1970 and 1974 to 1979. In the 1990s Tony Blair took Labour closer to the centre as part of his "New Labour" project, which governed the UK under Blair and Gordon Brown from 1997 to 2010.
After Corbyn took over in 2015, the party has moved leftward. Labour is the Official Opposition in the Parliament of the United Kingdom, having won the second-largest number of seats in the 2017 general election; the Labour Party is the largest party in the Welsh Assembly, forming the main party in the current Welsh government. The party is the third largest in the Scottish Parliament. Labour is a member of the Party of European Socialists and Progressive Alliance, holds observer status in the Socialist International, sits with the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats in the European Parliament; the party includes semi-autonomous Scottish and Welsh branches and supports the Social Democratic and Labour Party in Northern Ireland. As of 2017, Labour had the largest membership of any party in Western Europe; the Labour Party originated in the late 19th century, meeting the demand for a new political party to represent the interests and needs of the urban working class, a demographic which had increased in number, many of whom only gained suffrage with the passage of the Representation of the People Act 1884.
Some members of the trades union movement became interested in moving into the political field, after further extensions of the voting franchise in 1867 and 1885, the Liberal Party endorsed some trade-union sponsored candidates. The first Lib–Lab candidate to stand was George Odger in the Southwark by-election of 1870. In addition, several small socialist groups had formed around this time, with the intention of linking the movement to political policies. Among these were the Independent Labour Party, the intellectual and middle-class Fabian Society, the Marxist Social Democratic Federation and the Scottish Labour Party. At the 1895 general election, the Independent Labour Party put up 28 candidates but won only 44,325 votes. Keir Hardie, the leader of the party, believed that to obtain success in parliamentary elections, it would be necessary to join with other left-wing groups. Hardie's roots as a lay preacher contributed to an ethos in the party which led to the comment by 1950s General Secretary Morgan Phillips that "Socialism in Britain owed more to Methodism than Marx".
In 1899, a Doncaster member of the Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants, Thomas R. Steels, proposed in his union branch that the Trade Union Congress call a special conference to bring together all left-wing organisations and form them into a single body that would sponsor Parliamentary candidates; the motion was passed at all stages by the TUC, the proposed conference was held at the Memorial Hall on Farringdon Street on 26 and 27 February 1900. The meeting was attended by a broad spectrum of working-class and left-wing organisations—trades unions represented about one third of the membership of the TUC delegates. After a debate, the 129 delegates passed Hardie's motion to establish "a distinct Labour group in Parliament, who shall have their own whips, agree upon their policy, which must embrace a readiness to cooperate with any party which for the time being may be engaged in promoting legislation in the direct interests of labour." This created an association called the Labour Representation Committee, meant to co-ordinate attempts to support MPs sponsored by trade unions and represent the working-class population.
It had no single leader, in the absence of one, the Independent Labour Party nominee Ramsay MacDonald was elected as Secretary. He had the difficult task of keeping the various strands of opinions in the LRC united; the October 1900 "Khaki election" came too soon for the new party to campaign effectively. Only 15 candidatures were sponsored. Support for the LRC was boosted by the 1901 Taff Vale Case, a dispute between strikers and a railway company that ended with the union being ordered to pay £23,000 damages for a strike; the judgement made strikes illegal since employers could recoup the cost of lost business from the unions. The apparent acquiescence of the Conservative Government of Arthur Balfour to industrial and business interests intensified support for the LRC against a government that appeared to have little concern for the industrial proletariat and its problems. In the 1906 election, the LRC won 29 seats—helped by a secret 1903 pact between Ramsay MacDonald and Liberal Chief Whip Herbert Gladstone that aimed to avoid splitting the opposition vote between Labour and Liberal candidates in the interest of removing the Conservatives from office.
In their first meeting after the election the group's Members of Parliament decided to adop
London Ambulance Service
The London Ambulance Service is a NHS trust responsible for operating ambulances and answering and responding to urgent and emergency medical situations within the London region of England. The service responds to 999 and 111 phone calls, providing triage and advice to enable an appropriate level of response, it is one of the busiest ambulance services in the world, the busiest in the United Kingdom, providing care to more than 8.6 million people, who live and work in London. The service is under the leadership of chief executive Garrett Emmerson; the service employs around 4,500 staff. It is one of 10 ambulance trusts in England providing emergency medical services, is part of the National Health Service, receiving direct government funding for its role. There is no charge to patients for use of the service, as every person in the UK has the right to the attendance of an ambulance in an emergency; the LAS responded to over 1.8 million calls for assistance, over 1 million incidents in 2015/16.
Incidents rose by 20,000 in 2015/16. All 999 calls from the public are answered at one of the two Emergency Operations Centres in Waterloo or Bow who dispatch and allocate the appropriate resources. To assist, the service's command and control system is linked electronically with the equivalent system for London's Metropolitan Police; this means that police updates regarding specific jobs will be updated directly on the computer-aided dispatch log, to be viewed by the EOC, the resources allocated to the job. In 1818, a Parliamentary Select Committee had recommended that provision be made for carrying infectious patients in London "which would prevent the use of coaches or sedan chairs" but nothing was done. In 1866, a Hospital Carriage Fund provided six carriages to hospitals in the metropolitan area, for the use of patients suffering from smallpox or other infectious diseases, provided that they pay for the hire of the horses; the first permanent ambulance service in London was established by the Metropolitan Asylums Board in 1879, when a new Poor Law Act empowered them "to provide and maintain carriages suitable for the conveyance of persons suffering from any infectious disorder".
The first became operational at The South Eastern Fever Hospital, Deptford, in October 1883. In all, six hospitals operated horse-drawn "land ambulances", putting the whole of London within three miles of one of them; each ambulance station included accommodation for a married superintendent and around 20 drivers, horse keepers and attendants, laundry staff and domestic cleaners. A fleet of four paddle steamer "river ambulances" transported smallpox patients along the River Thames to Deptford, where they could be quarantined on hospital ships, departing from three special wharves at Rotherhithe and Fulham. At Deptford, in order to transfer patients between the hospitals at Joyce Green and Long Reach near Gravesend, a horse-drawn ambulance tramway was constructed in 1897 and extended in 1904. In 1902, the MAB introduced a steam in 1904, their first motor ambulance; the last horse-drawn ambulances were used on 14 September 1912. Although the MAB was supposed to be transporting only infectious patients, it also carried accident victims and emergency medical cases.
The Metropolitan Ambulance Act, 1909, empowered the London County Council to establish an emergency ambulance service, but this was not established until February 1915 and was under the control of the chief of the London Fire Brigade. In 1915, the MAB Ambulance Section were the first public body to employ women drivers, due to the number of men who had volunteered for military service. By July 1916 the London County Council Ambulance Corps was staffed by women. By 1930, the MAB was the largest user of civil ambulance services in the world, however the Local Government Act 1929 meant that work of the MAB was taken over by the London County Council, which took charge of the modern fleet of 107 MAB motor ambulances, together with 46 ambulances which were run by local Poor law unions. Taken with the 21 ambulances operated by the LCC, this provided a comprehensive service for all kinds of illness and accident, under the direction of the Medical Officer of Health for the County of London; the LCC took control of the River Ambulance Service, but it was disbanded in 1932.
During World War II, the London Auxiliary Ambulance Service was operated by over 10,000 auxiliaries women, from all walks of life. They ran services from 139 Auxiliary Stations across London. A plaque at one of the last to close, Station 39 in Weymouth Mews, near Portland Place, commemorates their wartime service. In 1948 the National Health Service Act made it a requirement for ambulances to be available for anyone who needed them; the present-day London Ambulance Service was formed in 1965 by the amalgamation of nine existing services in the new county of Greater London, in 1974, after a reorganisation of the NHS, the LAS was transferred from the control of local government to the South West Thames Regional Health Authority. On 1 April 1996, the LAS left the control of the South West Thames Regional Health Authority and became an NHS trust. In late 2017 LAS adopted the Ambulance Response Program which altered the targets for response times to reflect patient outcomes by removing hidden waiting times after a successful trial by the Yorkshire Ambulance Service, West Midlands Ambulance Service and South Western Ambulance Service.
As an NHS Trust, the LAS has a Trust Board consisting of 12 members. The board includes; the chief executive and Chief