The Arecaceae are a botanical family of perennial plants. Their growth form can be climbers, shrubs and stemless plants, all known as palms; those having a tree form are colloquially called palm trees. They are flowering a family in the monocot order Arecales. 181 genera with around 2600 species are known, most of them restricted to tropical and subtropical climates. Most palms are distinguished by their large, evergreen leaves, known as fronds, arranged at the top of an unbranched stem. However, palms exhibit an enormous diversity in physical characteristics and inhabit nearly every type of habitat within their range, from rainforests to deserts. Palms are among the most extensively cultivated plant families, they have been important to humans throughout much of history. Many common products and foods are derived from palms. In contemporary times, palms are widely used in landscaping, making them one of the most economically important plants. In many historical cultures, because of their importance as food, palms were symbols for such ideas as victory and fertility.
For inhabitants of cooler climates today, palms symbolize the vacations. Whether as shrubs, trees, or vines, palms have two methods of growth: solitary or clustered; the common representation is that of a solitary shoot ending in a crown of leaves. This monopodial character may be exhibited by prostrate and trunk-forming members; some common palms restricted to solitary growth include Roystonea. Palms may instead grow in sparse though dense clusters; the trunk develops an axillary bud at a leaf node near the base, from which a new shoot emerges. The new shoot, in turn, produces a clustering habit results. Sympodial genera include many of the rattans and Rhapis. Several palm genera have both solitary and clustering members. Palms which are solitary may grow in clusters and vice versa; these aberrations suggest. Palms have large, evergreen leaves that are either palmately or pinnately compound and spirally arranged at the top of the stem; the leaves have a tubular sheath at the base that splits open on one side at maturity.
The inflorescence is a spadix or spike surrounded by one or more bracts or spathes that become woody at maturity. The flowers are small and white, radially symmetric, can be either uni- or bisexual; the sepals and petals number three each, may be distinct or joined at the base. The stamens number six, with filaments that may be separate, attached to each other, or attached to the pistil at the base; the fruit is a single-seeded drupe but some genera may contain two or more seeds in each fruit. Like all monocots, palms do not have the ability to increase the width of a stem via the same kind of vascular cambium found in non-monocot woody plants; this explains the cylindrical shape of the trunk, seen in palms, unlike in ring-forming trees. However, many palms, like some other monocots, do have secondary growth, although because it does not arise from a single vascular cambium producing xylem inwards and phloem outwards, it is called "anomalous secondary growth"; the Arecaceae are notable among monocots for their height and for the size of their seeds and inflorescences.
Ceroxylon quindiuense, Colombia's national tree, is the tallest monocot in the world, reaching up to 60 m tall. The coco de mer has the largest seeds of 40 -- 50 cm in diameter and weighing 15 -- 30 kg each. Raffia palms have the largest leaves of any plant, up to 25 m long and 3 m wide; the Corypha species have the largest inflorescence of any plant, up to 7.5 m tall and containing millions of small flowers. Calamus stems. Most palms are native to subtropical climates. Palms can be found in a variety of different habitats, their diversity is highest in lowland forests. South America, the Caribbean, areas of the south Pacific and southern Asia are regions of concentration. Colombia may have the highest number of palm species in one country. There are some palms that are native to desert areas such as the Arabian peninsula and parts of northwestern Mexico. Only about 130 palm species grow beyond the tropics in humid lowland subtropical climates, in highlands in southern Asia, along the rim lands of the Mediterranean Sea.
The northernmost native palm is Chamaerops humilis, which reaches 44°N latitude along the coast of southern France. In the southern hemisphere, the southernmost palm is the Rhopalostylis sapida, which reaches 44°S on the Chatham Islands where an oceanic climate prevails. Cultivation of palms is possible north of subtropical climates, some higher latitude locals such as Ireland, Scotland and the Pacific Northwest feature a few palms in protected locations. Palms inhabit a variety of ecosystems. More than two-thirds of palm species live in humid moist forests, where some species grow tall enough to form part of the canopy and shorter ones form part of the understory; some species form pure stands in areas with poor drainage or regular flooding, including Raphia hookeri, common in coastal freshwater swamps in West Africa. Other palms live in tropical mountain habitats above 1000 m, such as those in the genus Ceroxylon native to the Andes. Palms may live in grasslands and scrublands associated with a water source, in desert oases such as the date palm.
A few palms are adapted to basic lime soils, while others are ada
The seventh day of the Jewish holiday of Sukkot, 21st day of Tishrei, is known as Hoshana Rabbah. This day is marked by a special synagogue service, the Hoshana Rabbah, in which seven circuits are made by the worshippers with their lulav and etrog, while the congregation recites Hoshanot, it is customary for the scrolls of the Torah to be removed from the ark during this procession. In a few communities a shofar is sounded after each circuit. Hoshana Rabbah is known as the last of the Days of Judgment; the Zohar says that while the judgment for the new year is sealed on Yom Kippur, it is not "delivered" until the end of Sukkot, during which time one can still alter their verdict and decree for the new year. An Aramaic blessing that Jews give each other on Hoshana Rabbah, פתקא טבא, which in Yiddish is "A guten kvitel", or "A good note", is a wish that the verdict will be positive. In this spirit, it is a custom in many congregations that the cantor wears a kittel as on the High Holidays. Since Hoshana Rabbah blends elements of the High Holy Days, Chol HaMoed, Yom Tov, in the Ashkenazic tradition, the cantor recites the service using High Holiday, Festival and Sabbath melodies interchangeably.
Among Sephardi Jews, prayers known as Selichot are recited before the regular morning service. In the different prayers of this day, Syrian Jews pray in the same maqam as on the high holidays. In Amsterdam and in a few places in England and elsewhere, the shofar is sounded in connection with the processions; the latter practice reflects the idea that Hoshana Rabbah is the end of the High Holy Day season, when the world is judged for the coming year. Because Hoshanah Rabbah is linked to the high holidays as well as being a joy filled day some Hasidic communities such as Satmar have the custom of having Birchat Cohanim/Priestly Blessing recited during the Mussaf service; some communities such as Bobov will only do this. However this practice is not done, it is customary to read the whole of Tehillim on Hoshana Rabbah eve. There is a custom to read the book of Deuteronomy on the night of Hoshana Rabbah; the reasons for many of the customs of the day are rooted in Kabbalah. The modern day observance of the rituals of Hoshana Rabbah are reminiscent of the practices that existed in the times of the Holy Temple in Jerusalem.
During Sukkot, the four species are taken in a circuit around the synagogue once daily. On Hoshana Rabbah, there are seven circuits. Making a circuit around the bimah on Sukkot while each person holds the four species in his hands has its origin in the Temple service, as recorded in the Mishnah: "It was customary to make one procession around the altar on each day of Sukkot, seven on the seventh day"; the priests carried the palm willows in their hands. The entire ceremony is to demonstrate gratitude for a blessed and fruitful year. Moreover, it serves to tear down the iron wall that separates us from our Father in Heaven, as the wall of Jericho was encompassed "and the wall fell down flat". Furthermore, the seven circuits correspond to the seven words in the verse Erhatz benikayon kappay, va'asovevah et mizbahakha Hashem - "I wash my hands in purity and circle around Your altar, O Lord"; each "hoshana" is done in honor of a prophet or king. Abraham Isaac Jacob Moses Aaron Joseph David Abudarham speaks of the custom of reading the Torah on the night of Hoshana Rabbah, out of which has grown the custom of reading Deuteronomy and passages from the Zohar.
In Orthodox Jewish circles, some men will stay up all night learning Torah. Sephardim have a tradition of staying up the entire night on the eve of this day. Throughout the night in the synagogues, Torah learning takes place as well as praying the Selichot prayers; the entire book of Deuteronomy is reviewed. The reason for this is because this book is considered by some as a "review" of the entire Torah, but because in the Torah portion cycle, the book of Deuteronomy is about to be completed the following days on Simchat Torah. In Hasidic communities that follow the customs of Rabbi Menachem Mendel of Rimanov, there is a public reading of the Book of Devarim from a Sefer Torah; this may be followed by a tish in honor of the festival. The entire book of Psalms is read, with Kabbalistic prayers being recited after each of the five sections. At the conclusion of a number of Piyyutim, five willow branches are beaten on the ground or other surface to symbolize the elimination of sin; this is symbolic as a prayer for rain and success in agriculture.
According to the Kabbalah, beating the ground with the five willow branches is done to "Sweeten the Five Severities". There is no blessing said for this ritual, but the Aramaic expression "chabit, chabit velah barich" is chanted. According to tradition, this custom was started in the times of Ezra; the Midrash notes that the Aravah represents the common folk and lacking exceptional deeds. Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook noted; the unusual custom to beat the willow on the ground symbolizes that the
Jews or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah. Jewish ethnicity and religion are interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish people, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance. Jews originated as an ethnic and religious group in the Middle East during the second millennium BCE, in the part of the Levant known as the Land of Israel; the Merneptah Stele appears to confirm the existence of a people of Israel somewhere in Canaan as far back as the 13th century BCE. The Israelites, as an outgrowth of the Canaanite population, consolidated their hold with the emergence of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah; some consider that these Canaanite sedentary Israelites melded with incoming nomadic groups known as'Hebrews'. Though few sources mention the exilic periods in detail, the experience of diaspora life, from the Ancient Egyptian rule over the Levant, to Assyrian captivity and exile, to Babylonian captivity and exile, to Seleucid Imperial rule, to the Roman occupation and exile, the historical relations between Jews and their homeland thereafter, became a major feature of Jewish history and memory.
Prior to World War II, the worldwide Jewish population reached a peak of 16.7 million, representing around 0.7% of the world population at that time. 6 million Jews were systematically murdered during the Holocaust. Since the population has risen again, as of 2016 was estimated at 14.4 million by the Berman Jewish DataBank, less than 0.2% of the total world population. The modern State of Israel is the only country, it defines itself as a Jewish and democratic state in the Basic Laws, Human Dignity and Liberty in particular, based on the Declaration of Independence. Israel's Law of Return grants the right of citizenship to Jews who have expressed their desire to settle in Israel. Despite their small percentage of the world's population, Jews have influenced and contributed to human progress in many fields, both and in modern times, including philosophy, literature, business, fine arts and architecture, music and cinema, science and technology, as well as religion. Jews have played a significant role in the development of Western Civilization.
The English word "Jew" continues Iewe. These terms derive from Old French giu, earlier juieu, which through elision had dropped the letter "d" from the Medieval Latin Iudaeus, like the New Testament Greek term Ioudaios, meant both "Jew" and "Judean" / "of Judea"; the Greek term was a loan from Aramaic Y'hūdāi, corresponding to Hebrew יְהוּדִי Yehudi the term for a member of the tribe of Judah or the people of the kingdom of Judah. According to the Hebrew Bible, the name of both the tribe and kingdom derive from Judah, the fourth son of Jacob. Genesis 29:35 and 49:8 connect the name "Judah" with the verb yada, meaning "praise", but scholars agree that the name of both the patriarch and the kingdom instead have a geographic origin—possibly referring to the gorges and ravines of the region; the Hebrew word for "Jew" is יְהוּדִי Yehudi, with the plural יְהוּדִים Yehudim. Endonyms in other Jewish languages include the Yiddish ייִד Yid; the etymological equivalent is in use in other languages, e.g. يَهُودِيّ yahūdī, al-yahūd, in Arabic, "Jude" in German, "judeu" in Portuguese, "Juif" /"Juive" in French, "jøde" in Danish and Norwegian, "judío/a" in Spanish, "jood" in Dutch, "żyd" in Polish etc. but derivations of the word "Hebrew" are in use to describe a Jew, e.g. in Italian, in Persian and Russian.
The German word "Jude" is pronounced, the corresponding adjective "jüdisch" is the origin of the word "Yiddish". According to The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, fourth edition, It is recognized that the attributive use of the noun Jew, in phrases such as Jew lawyer or Jew ethics, is both vulgar and offensive. In such contexts Jewish is the only acceptable possibility; some people, have become so wary of this construction that they have extended the stigma to any use of Jew as a noun, a practice that carries risks of its own. In a sentence such as There are now several Jews on the council, unobjectionable, the substitution of a circumlocution like Jewish people or persons of Jewish background may in itself cause offense for seeming to imply that Jew has a negative connotation when used as a noun. Judaism shares some of the characteristics of a nation, an ethnicity, a religion, a culture, making the definition of, a Jew vary depending on whether a religious or national approach to identity is used.
In modern secular usage Jews include three groups: people who were born to a Jewish family regardless of whether or not they follow the religion, those who have some Jewish ancestral background or lineage, people without any Jewish ancestral background or lineage who have formally converted to Judaism and therefore are followers of the religion. Historical definitions of Jewish identity have traditionally been based on halakhic definitions of matrilineal descent, halakhic conversions; these definitions of, a Jew date back to the codification of the Oral
The four species are four plants mentioned in the Torah as being relevant to the Jewish holiday of Sukkot. Rabbinic Jews tie together three types of branches and one type of fruit and wave them in a special ceremony each day of the Sukkot holiday, excluding Shabbat; the waving of the four plants is a mitzvah prescribed by the Torah, contains symbolic allusions to a Jew's service of God. In Karaite Judaism, the sukkah is constructed with branches from the four specified plants; the mitzvah of waving the four species derives from the Torah. In Leviticus, it states: Leviticus 23:40 And you shall take on the first day the fruit of splendid trees, branches of palm trees and boughs of leafy trees and willows of the brook, you shall rejoice before the LORD your God for seven days. English Standard Version In Leviticus 23:40 the Hebrew terms for the four plants are: ‘êṣ hāḏār, magnificent/beautiful trees təmārîm, palm trees ‘êṣ ‘āḇōṯ, thick/leafy trees ‘arḇê-nāḥal, willows of the brook/valleyIn Talmudic tradition, the four plants are identified as: etrog – the fruit of a citron tree lulav – a ripe, closed frond from a date palm tree hadass – boughs with leaves from the myrtle tree aravah – branches with leaves from the willow tree During the time of the Temple in Jerusalem, the waving ceremony was performed in the Holy Temple on all seven days of Sukkot, elsewhere only on the first day.
Following the destruction of the Temple, Rabbi Yohanan ben Zakkai ordered that the four species be waved everywhere on every day of Sukkot, as a memorial to the Temple. To prepare the species for the mitzvah, the lulav is first bound together with the hadass and aravah in the following manner: One lulav is placed in the center, two aravah branches are placed to the left, three hadass boughs are placed to the right; the bundle may be bound with strips from another palm frond, or be placed in a special holder, woven from palm fronds. Sephardic Jews place one aravah to the right of the lulav and the second aravah to its left, cover them with the three hadass boughs—one on the right, the second on the left, the third atop the lulav's spine, leaning to the right; the bundle is held together with rings made from strips of palm fronds. Many Hasidic Ashkenazi Jews follow this practice as well. In all cases, all of the species must be placed in the direction. In old Jewish Eastern European communities, the Jews lived in cities far from fields, which required substantial travel in order to purchase the four species.
Whole towns would have had to share them. The etrog was rare and thus expensive. In Northern African communities, in Morocco and Tangier, the communities were located closer to fields, but the etrog was still expensive. There, instead of one per city, there was one per family, but in both areas, the community would share their etrogs to some extent. Today, with improved transportation, farming techniques etc.. An etrog can cost anywhere from $3 to $500 depending on its quality. To recite the blessing over the lulav and etrog, the lulav is held in one hand and the etrog in the other. Right-handed users hold the etrog in the left; the customs for those who are left-handed differ for Sephardim. According to the Ashkenazi custom, the lulav is held in the left hand, according to the Sephardi custom, in the right hand. According to Sephardi custom, the blessing is said while holding only the lulav and the etrog is picked up once the blessing is completed. According to Ashkenazi custom, before the blessing is said, the etrog is turned upside-down, opposite the direction in which it grows.
The reason for these two customs is. Should all the species be held in the direction in which they grew, the mitzvah would be fulfilled before the blessing is recited. After reciting the blessing, "Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the universe, Who has sanctified us with His commandments, commanded us to take the lulav", the etrog is turned right side up, the user brings his or her two hands together so that the etrog touches the lulav bundle; the four species are pointed and shaken three times toward each of the four directions, plus up and down, to attest to God's mastery over all of creation. The waving ceremony can be performed in the synagogue, or in the privacy of one's home or sukkah, as long as it is daytime. Women and girls may choose to perform the mitzvah of waving the lulav and etrog, although they are not required by Halakha to do so; because women are not required to perform this mitzva, some are of the opinion that Sephardi women do not need to recite the blessing. The waving is performed again during morning prayer services in the synagogue, at several points during the recital of Hallel.
Additionally, in the synagogue, Hallel is followed by a further ceremony, in which the worshippers join in a processional around the sanctuary with their four species, while reciting special supplications (called hoshaanot, from the refrai
Simchat Beit HaShoeivah
Simchat Beit Hashoeivah or Simchas Beis Hashoeiva is a special celebration held by Jews during the Intermediate days of Sukkot. When the Temple in Jerusalem stood, a unique service was performed every morning throughout the Sukkot holiday: the Nisuch ha-Mayim or Water Libation Ceremony. According to the Talmud, Sukkot is the time of year; the water for the libation ceremony was drawn from the Pool of Siloam in the City of David and carried up the Jerusalem pilgrim road to the Temple. The joy that accompanied this procedure was palpable. Afterwards, every night in the outer Temple courtyard, tens of thousands of spectators would gather to watch the Simchat Beit HaShoeivah, as the most pious members of the community danced and sang songs of praise to God; the dancers would carry lit torches, were accompanied by the harps, lyres and trumpets of the Levites. According to the Mishnah, "He who has not seen the rejoicing at the Place of the Water-Drawing has never seen rejoicing in his life." Throughout Sukkot, the city of Jerusalem teemed with Jewish families who came on the holiday pilgrimage and joined together for feasting and Torah study.
A partition separating men and women was erected for this occasion. It was related of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel that when he was rejoicing with the joy of the Water-Drawing he would take eight burning torches in one hand and toss them upwards. Nowadays, this event is recalled via a Simchat Beit HaShoeivah gathering of music and refreshments; this event takes place in a central location such as a yeshiva, or place of study. Refreshments are served in the adjoining sukkah. Live bands accompany the dancers; the festivities begin late in the evening, can last long into the night. In Jerusalem, there is a Simchas Beis HaShoevah at many Hasidic main synagogues on most nights of Sukkos; the eastern part of Meah Shearim is busy, with large festivals being held at Karlin, Toldos Aharon, Toldos Avrohom Yitzchok and Breslov. The largest of these is the one at Toldos Aharon. Other places where festivities are held are the main synagogues of Dushinsky and Belz, as well as tens of smaller places around the city.
Simchas Beis Hashoeiva at Torah.org
Shemini Atzeret is a Jewish holiday. It is celebrated on the 22nd day of the Hebrew month of Tishrei in the Land of Israel, on the 22nd and 23rd outside the Land coinciding with late September or early October, it directly follows the Jewish festival of Sukkot, celebrated for seven days, thus Shemini Atzeret is the eighth day. It is a separate—yet connected—holy day devoted to the spiritual aspects of the festival of Sukkot. Part of its duality as a holy day is that it is considered to be both connected to Sukkot and a separate festival in its own right. Outside the Land of Israel, this is further complicated by the additional day added to all Biblical holidays except Yom Kippur; the first day of Shemini Atzeret therefore coincides with the eighth day of Sukkot outside the Land of Israel, leading to sometimes involved analysis as to which practices of each holiday are to apply. The celebration of Simchat Torah is the most distinctive feature of the holiday, but it is a rabbinical innovation. In the Land of Israel, the celebrations of Shemini Atzeret and Simchat Torah are combined on a single day, the names are used interchangeably.
In the Diaspora, the celebration of Simchat Torah is deferred to the second day of the holiday. Only the first day is referred to as Shemini Atzeret, while the second is called Simchat Torah. Karaite Jews and Samaritans observe Shemini Atzeret, as they do all Biblical holidays. However, it may occur on a different day from the conventional Jewish celebration, due to differences in calendar calculations. Karaites and Samaritans do not include the rabbinical innovation of Simchat Torah in their observance of the day. According to the Jewish Encyclopedia, atzeret is the name given to this day in four different locations in the Hebrew Bible, it is not mentioned in Deuteronomy 16, is found only in those parts of the Bible known as the Priestly Code. Like atzarah, atzeret denotes "day of assembly", from atzar = "to hold back" or "keep in". Owing, however, to the fact that both Shemini Atzeret and the seventh day of Pesaḥ are described as atzeret, the name was taken to mean "the closing festival"; when Shemini Atzeret is mentioned in the Torah, it is always mentioned in the context of the seven-day festival of Sukkot, the Feast of Tabernacles, which it follows.
For example, Sukkot is described in detail in Leviticus 23:33-43. Shemini Atzeret is mentioned there only in verses 36 and 39; the Hebrew word shemini means eighth. This refers to the date of Shemini Atzeret relative to Sukkot, it is therefore assumed that Shemini Atzeret is the eighth day of Sukkot. That characterization, however, is only accurate; the celebration of Sukkot is characterized by the use of the Four Species. However, the Torah specifies use of those objects for seven days only, not eight; the observance of Shemini Atzeret therefore differs in substantial ways from that of Sukkot. The Talmud describes Shemini Atzeret with the words "a holiday in its own right"; the Talmud describes six ways. Four of these relate principally to the Temple service. Two others remain relevant to modern celebration of the holiday. First, the blessing known as Shehecheyanu is recited on the night of Shemini Atzeret, just as it is on the first night of all other major Jewish holidays. Second, the holiday is referred to distinctively as "Shemini Atzeret" and not as "Sukkot" in the prayer service.
Below that discussion, the Talmud describes Shemini Atzeret as the "end holiday of the festival ". The context here is that the Sukkot obligations of recitation of Hallel last eight days; this is why one of Sukkot's liturgical aliases, "Time of Our Happiness", continues to be used to describe Shemini Atzeret in prayers. Shemini Atzeret is therefore "a holiday in its own right" and the "end holiday of ". Spiritually, Shemini Atzeret can be seen to "guard the seven days of Sukkot"; the Hebrew word atzeret is translated as "assembly", but shares a linguistic root with the word atzor, meaning "stop" or "tarry". Shemini Atzeret is characterized as a day when the Jewish people "tarries" to spend an additional day with God at the end of Sukkot. Rashi cites the parable of a king who invites his sons to dine with him for a number of days, but when the time comes for them to leave, he asks them to stay for another day, since it is difficult for him to part from them. According to this idea, Sukkot is a universal holiday, but Shemini Atzeret is only for the Jewish people.
Moreover, Shemini Atzeret is a modest holiday, just to celebrate special relationship with His beloved nation. A different, but related, interpretation is offered by Yaakov Zevi Mecklenburg, who translates atzeret as "retain": "During the holiday season, we have experienced a heightened religious fervor and a most devout spirit; this last day is devoted to a recapitulation of the message of these days, with the hope that it will be retained the rest of the year". The day prior to Shemini Atzeret is the last day of Sukkot. Called Hoshana Rabbah, it is different from the other days of Sukkot. While it is part of the intermediate Sukkot days known as Chol HaMoed, Hoshana Rabbah has extra prayers and rituals and is treated and practiced much more ser
Simchat Torah or Simhat Torah is a Jewish holiday that celebrates and marks the conclusion of the annual cycle of public Torah readings, the beginning of a new cycle. Simchat Torah is a component of the Biblical Jewish holiday of Shemini Atzeret, which follows after the festival of Sukkot in the month of Tishrei; the main celebrations of Simchat Torah take place in the synagogue during evening and morning services. In Orthodox as well as many Conservative congregations, this is the only time of year on which the Torah scrolls are taken out of the ark and read at night. In the morning, the last parashah of Deuteronomy and the first parashah of Genesis are read in the synagogue. On each occasion, when the ark is opened, the worshippers leave their seats to dance and sing with the Torah scrolls in a joyous celebration that can last for several hours; the morning service is uniquely characterized by the calling up of each member of the congregation for an aliyah. There is a special aliyah for all the children.
On the Hebrew calendar, the seven-day holiday of Sukkot in the autumn is followed by the holiday of Shemini Atzeret. In Orthodox and Conservative communities outside Israel, Shemini Atzeret is a two-day holiday and the Simchat Torah festivities are observed on the second day; the first day is referred to as "Shemini Atzeret" and the second day as "Simchat Torah", although both days are Shemini Atzeret according to Halakha, this is reflected in the liturgy. Many Hasidic communities have Hakafot on the eve of the first day of Shemini Atzeret as well. In Israel, Shemini Atzeret and Simchat Torah are celebrated on the same day. Reform congregations outside Israel, may do likewise. Many communities in Israel have Hakafot Shniyot on the evening following the holiday, the same day as Simchat Torah evening in the diaspora; the custom was started by the former Chief Rabbi of Rabbi Yedidya Frankel. The Simhat Torah festivities begin with the evening service. All the synagogue's Torah scrolls are removed from the ark and are carried around the sanctuary in a series of seven hakafot.
Although each hakafa need only encompass one circuit around the synagogue, the dancing and singing with the Torah continues much longer, may overflow from the synagogue onto the streets. In Orthodox and Conservative Jewish synagogues, each circuit is announced by a few melodious invocations imploring God to Hoshiah Na and ending with the refrain, Aneinu B'yom Koreinu. In Orthodox and Conservative synagogues, the hakafot are accompanied by traditional chants, including biblical and liturgical verses and songs about the Torah, the goodness of God, Messianic yearnings, prayers for the restoration of the House of David and the Temple in Jerusalem. Congregations may sing other, popular songs during the dancing. Children are given flags and other treats; the vigour of the dancing and degree of festive merriment varies with congregational temperament. In Orthodox synagogues, the dancing is carried out by men and boys. Women and older girls have their own dancing circles sometimes with the Torah scrolls, or look on from the other side of a mechitza, in accordance with the value of tzniut.
In Conservative and progressive congregations and women dance together. In some congregations, the Torah scrolls are carried out into the streets and the dancing may continue far into the evening. After the hakafot, many congregations recite a portion of the last parashah of the Torah, V'Zot HaBerachah in Deuteronomy; the part read is 33:1–34:12, but may vary by synagogue custom, although Deuteronomy is never read to the end in the evening. The morning service, like that of other Jewish holidays, includes a special holiday Amidah, the saying of Hallel, a holiday Mussaf service; when the ark is opened to take out the Torah for the Torah reading, all the scrolls are again removed from the ark and the congregation again starts the seven hakafot just like in the evening. In many congregations, one deviation from an otherwise ordinary holiday morning service is the performance of the Priestly Blessing as part of the Shacharit service, before the celebrations connected with the Torah reading begin, rather than as part of the Musaf service that follows.
This practice hearkens back to an old custom for the kiddush sponsored by the Hatan Torah to be held during the Simhat Torah service itself where hard liquor may be served. Since the Bible prohibits Kohanim from performing the priestly blessing while intoxicated, there is concern that Kohanim may imbibe alcoholic beverages during the Simhat Torah festivities, the blessing was moved to before the time when alcohol would be served. In some congregations, the Kohanim deliver their blessing as usual during the Musaf service of Simhat Torah. After the hakafot and the dancing, three scrolls of the Torah are read; the last parashah of the Torah, V'Zot HaBerachah, at the end of Deuteronomy, is read from the first scroll, followed by the first chapter of the Book of Genesis, read from the second scroll. It is a Jewish custom that a new beginning must follow a c