A kettle, sometimes called a tea kettle or teakettle, is a type of pot, specialized for boiling water, with a lid and handle, or a small kitchen appliance of similar shape that functions in a self-contained manner. Kettles can be heated either by placing on a stove, or by their own internal electric heating element in the appliance versions; the word kettle originates from Old Norse ketill "cauldron". The Old English spelling was cetel with initial che- like'cherry', Middle English was chetel, both come from Germanic *katilaz, borrowed from Latin catillus, diminutive form of catinus "deep vessel for serving or cooking food", which in various contexts is translated as "bowl", "deep dish", or "funnel". A modern stovetop kettle is a metal vessel, with a flat bottom, used to heat water on a stovetop or hob, they have a handle on top, a spout, a lid. Some have a steam whistle that indicates when the water has reached boiling point. Kettles are made with stainless steel, but can be made from copper or other metals.
In countries with 240 V mains electricity, electric kettles are used to boil water without the necessity of a stove top. The heating element is fully enclosed, with a power rating of 2–3 kW; this means that the current draw for an electric kettle is upwards 10 A, a sizeable proportion of the current available for a typical home: the main fuse of most homes varies between 20 and 100 A. For this reason electric kettles, while available, are much less popular in countries with 110 V mains electricity, where electric sockets are current limited to providing around 1.5 kWs. In modern designs, once the water has reached boiling point, the kettle automatically deactivates, preventing the water from boiling away and damaging the heating element. A more upright design, the "jug"-style electrical kettle, can be more economical to use, since one cup of water will keep the element covered. In the United States, an electric kettle may sometimes be referred to as a hot pot. Electric kettles were introduced as an alternative to stove top kettles in the latter part of the 19th century.
In 1893 the Crompton and Co. firm in the United Kingdom started featuring electric kettles in their catalogue. However, these first electric kettles were quite primitive as the heating element couldn't be immersed in the water. Instead, a separate compartment underneath the water storage area in the kettle was used to house the electric heating element; the design was inefficient relative to the conventional stove-top kettles of the time. In 1922, the problem was solved by Leslie Large, an engineer working at Bulpitt & Sons of Birmingham who designed an element of wire wound around a core and sheathed in a metal tube; as this element could be immersed directly into the water it made the new electric kettle much more efficient than stovetop kettles. In 1955, the newly founded British company Russell Hobbs brought out its stainless steel K1 model as the first automatic kettle. A thermostat, triggered by the rising steam as the water would come to boil, would flex, thereby cutting off the current.
A cauldron is a large kettle hung over an open fire on an arc-shaped hanger called a bail. A fish kettle is a long slim metal cooking vessel with a tight fitting lid to enable cooking of whole large fish such as salmon. A kettle grill is a dome shaped resembling a cauldron. A kettle drum is a kettle shaped drum. Boiling vessel, water heating system in British tanks Kelly Kettle, specialized types of kettles for outdoor use, intended to use fuel more efficiently Samovar, a type of urn used for boiling water and making tea in Russia and other parts of eastern Europe Tea culture Teapot, a vessel with spout and handle, for brewing and serving tea Teasmade, an English appliance that combined a kettle and a teapot to make tea automatically by a clock Tetsubin, a cast iron Japanese pot with a spout Windermere kettle Stevenson, Seth. "A Watched Pot". Slate. Copeland, Paul L.. Engineering Studies: The Definitive Guide. Allawah, New South Wales: Anno Domini. ISBN 9780646394596
Birmingham is the second-most populous city in the United Kingdom, after London, the most populous city in the English Midlands. It is the most populous metropolitan district in the United Kingdom, with an estimated 1,137,123 inhabitants, is considered the social, cultural and commercial centre of the Midlands, it is the main local government of the West Midlands conurbation, the third most populated urban area in the United Kingdom, with a population of 2,897,303 in 2017. The wider Birmingham metropolitan area is the second largest in the United Kingdom with a population of over 4.3 million. It is referred to as the United Kingdom's "second city". A market town in the medieval period, Birmingham grew in the 18th-century Midlands Enlightenment and subsequent Industrial Revolution, which saw advances in science and economic development, producing a series of innovations that laid many of the foundations of modern industrial society. By 1791 it was being hailed as "the first manufacturing town in the world".
Birmingham's distinctive economic profile, with thousands of small workshops practising a wide variety of specialised and skilled trades, encouraged exceptional levels of creativity and innovation and provided an economic base for prosperity, to last into the final quarter of the 20th century. The Watt steam engine was invented in Birmingham; the resulting high level of social mobility fostered a culture of political radicalism which, under leaders from Thomas Attwood to Joseph Chamberlain, was to give it a political influence unparalleled in Britain outside London, a pivotal role in the development of British democracy. From the summer of 1940 to the spring of 1943, Birmingham was bombed by the German Luftwaffe in what is known as the Birmingham Blitz; the damage done to the city's infrastructure, in addition to a deliberate policy of demolition and new building by planners, led to extensive urban regeneration in subsequent decades. Birmingham's economy is now dominated by the service sector.
The city is a major international commercial centre, ranked as a beta- world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Its metropolitan economy is the second largest in the United Kingdom with a GDP of $121.1bn, its six universities make it the largest centre of higher education in the country outside London. Birmingham's major cultural institutions – the City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra, the Birmingham Royal Ballet, the Birmingham Repertory Theatre, the Library of Birmingham and the Barber Institute of Fine Arts – enjoy international reputations, the city has vibrant and influential grassroots art, music and culinary scenes. Birmingham is the fourth-most. People from Birmingham are called Brummies, a term derived from the city's nickname of "Brum", which originates from the city's old name, which in turn is thought to have derived from "Bromwich-ham"; the Brummie accent and dialect are distinctive. Birmingham's early history is that of a marginal area; the main centres of population and wealth in the pre-industrial English Midlands lay in the fertile and accessible river valleys of the Trent, the Severn and the Avon.
The area of modern Birmingham lay in between, on the upland Birmingham Plateau and within the densely wooded and sparsely populated Forest of Arden. There is evidence of early human activity in the Birmingham area dating back to around 8000 BC, with stone age artefacts suggesting seasonal settlements, overnight hunting parties and woodland activities such as tree felling; the many burnt mounds that can still be seen around the city indicate that modern humans first intensively settled and cultivated the area during the bronze age, when a substantial but short-lived influx of population occurred between 1700 BC and 1000 BC caused by conflict or immigration in the surrounding area. During the 1st-century Roman conquest of Britain, the forested country of the Birmingham Plateau formed a barrier to the advancing Roman legions, who built the large Metchley Fort in the area of modern-day Edgbaston in AD 48, made it the focus of a network of Roman roads. Birmingham as a settlement dates from the Anglo-Saxon era.
The city's name comes from the Old English Beormingahām, meaning the home or settlement of the Beormingas – indicating that Birmingham was established in the 6th or early 7th century as the primary settlement of an Anglian tribal grouping and regio of that name. Despite this early importance, by the time of the Domesday Book of 1086 the manor of Birmingham was one of the poorest and least populated in Warwickshire, valued at only 20 shillings, with the area of the modern city divided between the counties of Warwickshire and Worcestershire; the development of Birmingham into a significant urban and commercial centre began in 1166, when the Lord of the Manor Peter de Bermingham obtained a charter to hold a market at his castle, followed this with the creation of a planned market town and seigneurial borough within his demesne or manorial estate, around the site that became the Bull Ring. This established Birmingham as the primary commercial centre for the Birmingham Plateau at a time when the area's economy was expanding with population growth nationally leading to the clearance and settlement of marginal land.
Within a century of the charter Birmingham had grown into a prosperous urban centre of merchants and craftsmen. By 1327 it was the third-largest town in Warwickshire, a position it would retain for the next 200 years; the principal governing institutions of medieval Birmingham – including the Guild of the Ho
A safety bicycle is a type of bicycle that became popular beginning in the late 1880s as an alternative to the penny-farthing and is now the most common type of bicycle. Early bicycles of this style were known as safety bicycles because they were noted for, marketed as, being safer than the high wheelers they were replacing. Though modern bicycles use a similar design, the term is used today and may be considered obsolete; the term safety bicycle was used in the 1880s for any alternative to the penny-farthing. The front and rear wheel were not the same size. Historians began to use the term in a more restricted way, for the design, a direct ancestor to most modern bicycles."Diamond frame" is sometimes used as a term for safety bicycles though this technically only refers to a certain type of safety bicycle. The retronym "upright bicycle" is used to distinguish the style from recumbent bicycles; the first bicycle to be called a "safety" was designed by the English engineer Harry John Lawson in 1876, although other bicycles which fit the description had been developed earlier, such as by Thomas Humber in 1868.
Unlike with penny-farthings, the rider's feet were within reach of the ground, making it easier to stop. The pedals powered the rear wheel; the original treadle bicycle model used treadles to transfer power to the rear wheel, while the 1879 model used a chain drive, an important new technology that had only been used on tricycles. Lawson's safety failed to catch on due to its increased cost and complexity compared to the penny-farthing. One other variation that appeared at about the same time is the dwarf, exemplified by the Kangaroo, with a chain-driven front wheel. By 1885, the safety bicycles cataloged in Henry Sturmey's Indispensable Handbook to the Safety Bicycle included seven with lever front-drives, 44 with geared front-drives, only nine with chain rear-drives. In that same year, John Kemp Starley came out with the first commercially successful safety bicycle he named the Rover; the first modern bicycle, it was heavier and more expensive than penny-farthings, but lighter and cheaper than tricycles of the day.
In its original form it used indirect steering direct steering was adopted and the bicycle proved to be a hit. The Overman Wheel Company, founded 1882, was the first manufacturer of safety bicycles in the United States, in their factory complex in Chicopee, Massachusetts. Following their creation in England, Overman rushed a safety bicycle to production before the end of 1887. Overman was known for making all-steel bicycles with no cast metal parts; the Overman Victor bicycle was said to be of higher quality and lower weight than other bicycles of its time. By 1893, the Overman factory made the complete bicycle, including tyres, rims, etc; the safety bicycle was a big improvement on the previous penny-farthing design. The chain drive, coupling a large front sprocket to a small rear sprocket to multiply the revolutions of the pedals, allowed for much smaller wheels, replaced the need for the large, directly pedaled front wheel of the penny-farthing; the smaller wheel gave a harsher ride. With the centre of mass low and between the wheels, rather than high and over the front hub, the safety bicycle diminished the danger of "taking a header" or long fall over the handlebars.
This made braking more effective and cycling the reserve of spry, daring young men and therefore much more popular for women. Compared with the tricycles of the time, popular with riders less willing to take risks, the safety bicycles were lighter, mechanically more simple, less expensive, its popularity soon grew to be more than the penny farthings and tricycles combined, caused the bike boom of the 1890s. Safeties are now characterized by having two wheels of identical – or nearly identical – size, a chain-driven rear wheel; the most popular form of the safety bicycle frame, consisting of two triangles, is known as a diamond frame. A similar but different frame used in safety bicycles is the step-through frame. Despite the enormous variety of modern bicycles, recumbent bicycles are the only major variety of bicycle which do not use this same basic design. Dan Albone Bicycle frame History of the bicycle Recumbent bicycle List of motorcycles of 1900 to 1909 Rover safety bicycle thought of as the icon of safety bicycles
Norton Motorcycle Company
The Norton Motorcycle Company is a British motorcycle marque from Birmingham, UK. It was founded in 1898 as a manufacturer of "fittings and parts for the two-wheel trade". By 1902 the company had begun manufacturing motorcycles with bought-in engines. In 1908 a Norton-built engine was added to the range; this began a long series of production of single and twin-cylinder motorcycles, a long history of racing involvement. Production of the military Model 16 H and Big 4 sidevalve motorcycles was Norton's contribution to the WWII war effort 100,000 being manufactured; when major shareholders started to leave Norton in 1953 the company declined and Associated Motor Cycles bought the shares. Although motorcycle sales went through a recession in the 1950s, Norton Motors Ltd was only a small manufacturer, Norton sales flourished. A series of Norton Dominator Twins of 500 cc 600 cc 650 cc and the 750 cc Norton Atlas kept sales buoyant with sales to the United States. In 1968 the new 750 cc Norton Commando Model appeared, with the engine/gearbox/swingarm unit isolastically insulated from the frame with a series of rubber mountings.
This kept the vibrations from the rider. The Commando was a best seller, voted #1 Motorcycle of the Year a number of times in Britain. 850 cc models appeared for 1973. For 1975 an electric start arrived in the 850 Mk3; the largest UK motorcycle manufacturer at the time was BSA-Triumph, comprising Birmingham Small Arms Company in Birmingham, Triumph Motorcycles in Meriden. BSA-Triumph faced difficulties caused by poor management, outdated union practices, old-fashioned motorcycle designs and antiquated factory conditions. A merger with Norton Motorcycles was proposed; the Triumph factory Meriden was the least modern. Poore was CEO of Manganese Bronze Holdings, a company more concerned with asset stripping than with motorcycle production. Subsequent political manoeuvrings led to the downfall of NVT, as taxpayer-assisted wranglings over amalgamations and sell-offs all but killed the once extensive UK motorcycle industry. In late 2008 Stuart Garner, a UK businessman, bought the rights to Norton from some US concerns and relaunched Norton in its Midlands home at Donington Park where it will develop the 961cc Norton Commando, a new range of Norton motorcycles.
The original company was formed by James Lansdowne Norton at 320, Bradford Street, Birmingham, in 1898. In 1902 Norton began building motorcycles with Swiss engines. In 1907 a Norton ridden by Rem Fowler won the twin-cylinder class in the first Isle of Man TT race, beginning a sporting tradition that went on until the 1960s; the first Norton engines were made in 1907, with production models available from 1908. These were the 3.5 hp and the'Big 4', beginning a line of side-valve single-cylinder engines which continued with few changes until the late 1950s. The first Norton logo was a simple, art nouveau design, with the name spelled in capitals. However, a new logo appeared on the front of the catalogue for 1914, a joint effort by James Norton and his daughter Ethel, it became known as the "curly N" logo, with only the initial letter as a capital, was used by the company thereafter, first appearing on actual motorcycles in 1915. Ethel Norton did some testing of her father's motorcycles. In 1913 the business declined, R. T.
Shelley & Co. the main creditors and saved it. Norton Motors Ltd was formed shortly afterwards under joint directorship of James Norton and Bob Shelley. Shelley's brother-in-law was tuner Dan O'Donovan, he managed to set a significant number of records on the Norton by 1914 when the war broke out - and as competition motorcycling was suspended during the hosilities, these records still stood when production restarted after the war. 1914 Dan O'Donovan records set in April 1914: Under 500 cc flying km 81.06 mph, flying mile 78.60 mph - 490 cc Norton Under 750 cc flying km and flying mile see above Under 500 cc with sidecar flying km 65.65 mph, flying mile 62.07 mph - 490 cc Norton Under 750 cc with sidecar flying km and flying mile see aboveOn 17 July 1914 O'Donovan took the flying 5 mile record at 75.88 mph, the standing start 10 mile record at 73.29 mph, again on the 490 cc Norton. Norton continued production of their 3.5 hp and Big 4 singles well into the war period, though in November 1916 the Ministry of Munitions issued an order that no further work on motor cycles or cars would be allowed from 15 November 1916 without a permit.
By this time most motor cycle companies were either producing munitions, or devoted to the export trade. Norton were involved in exporting and earlier that year had announced a new'Colonial Model' of their 633cc Big 4; this featured an increase in ground clearance from 4.25" to 6.5", by altering the frame, larger tank, greater clearance on mudguards, a sturdy rear carrier. The engine was unaltered, transmission was via a Sturmey-Archer 3-speed gearbox. In February 1918 Motor Cycle reported on a visit to Norton Motors. Mr Norton had stated that he expected three post-war models, the 3.5 hp 490 cc TT with belt drive, two utility mounts, one with detuned TT engine, the other being the Big Four for heavy solo or sidecar work, both of these with three-speed Sturmey-Archer countershaft gearbox and all chain drive. It was stated that he had been experimenting with aluminium pistons, a
Manufacturing in the United Kingdom
The United Kingdom, where the Industrial Revolution began in the late 18th century, has a long history of manufacturing, which contributed to Britain's early economic growth. During the second half of the 20th century, there was a steady decline in the importance of manufacturing and the economy of the United Kingdom shifted toward services. Manufacturing, remains important for overseas trade and accounted for 44% of goods exports in 2014. In June 2010, manufacturing in the United Kingdom accounted for 8.2% of the workforce and 12% of the country's national output. The East Midlands and West Midlands were the regions with the highest proportion of employees in manufacturing. London had the lowest at 2.8%. Manufacturing in the United Kingdom expanded on an unprecedented scale in the 19th century. Innovation in Britain led to revolutionary changes in manufacturing, the development of factory systems, growth of transportation by railway and steam ship that spread around the world, its growth was driven by international trading relationships Britain developed with Asia and the Americas, as well as entrepreneurialism, work ethic and the availability of natural resources such as coal.
The main sectors were textiles and steel making and ship building. Between 1809 and 1839, exports tripled from £25 million to £76 million, while imports nearly doubled from £28 million to £52 million during the same period. In many industrial sectors, Britain was the largest manufacturer in the world and the most technologically advanced. In the part of the 19th century, a second phase developed, sometimes known as the Second Industrial Revolution. Germany and the United States, which made use of the American system of manufacturing, caught up and overtook Britain as the world's largest manufacturers in the early 20th century. Nonetheless, Britain remained one of the largest industrial producers. By the middle of the century, in 1948, manufacturing made up 48% of the UK economy. In the post-war decades, manufacturing began to lose its competitive advantage and heavy industry experienced a relative decline. By 2013, the percentage of manufacturing in the economy had fallen to 13%, replaced by services which had risen from 46% to 79% over the same period.
This trend is common in all mature Western economies. Heavy industry, employing many thousands of people and producing large volumes of low-value goods has either become efficient or has been replaced by smaller industrial units producing high-value goods. Although the manufacturing sector's share of both employment and the UK's GDP has fallen since the 1960s, data from the OECD shows that manufacturing output in terms of both production and value has increased since 1945. A 2009 report from PricewaterhouseCoopers, citing data from the UK Office for National Statistics, stated that manufacturing output has increased in 35 of the 50 years between 1958 and 2007, output in 2007 was at record levels double that in 1958. Manufacturing employment fell faster in the UK since 1998; this started with manufacturing productivity flatlining from 1993 to 1997 and a rise in pound sterling. PricewaterhouseCoopers presumed that British manufacturing was less able to adapt to new production immune from Asian competition.
Since 1993, the UK invested less in R&D and adaptation than its OECD competitors. However, manufacturing remains an important sector of the modern British economy and the UK is one of the most attractive countries in the world for direct foreign industrial investment in 2003; the Blue Book 2006 reports that this sector added a gross value of £147,469 million to the UK economy in 2004. Engineering and allied industries comprise the single largest sector, contributing 30.8% of total Gross Value Added in manufacturing in 2003. Within this sector, transport equipment was the largest contributor, with 8 global car manufacturers being present in the UK; these include British makers now owned by overseas companies such MINI, Rolls-Royce, Jaguar Land Rover and Vauxhall Motors and plants making vehicles under foreign ownership and branding such as Honda and Toyota with a number of smaller, specialist manufacturers including Aston Martin and Morgan and commercial vehicle manufacturers including Leyland Trucks, Alexander Dennis, JCB, the main global manufacturing plant for the Ford Transit, London Electric Vehicle Company and Case-New Holland being present.
The British motor industry comprises numerous components for the sector, such as Ford's diesel engine plant in Dagenham, which produces half of Ford's diesel engines globally. Triumph Motorcycles Ltd is the only wholly British owned major transport manufacturer. A range of companies like Brush Traction and Hunslet manufacture railway locomotives and other related components. Associated with this sector are the defence equipment industries; the UK manufactures a broad range of equipment, with the sector being dominated by BAE Systems, which manufactures civil and defence aerospace and marine equipment. Commercial shipbuilders include Harland and Wolff, Cammell Laird, Barclay Cur
Clews Competition Motorcycles
Clews Competition Machines or CCM for short, is a British motorcycle manufacturer based in Bolton, England. CCM was born out of the collapse of BSA's Competition Department in 1971; the firm has specialised in producing single-cylinder four-stoke dirt bikes. Alan Clews, founder of CCM, was a successful Scrambles rider in the late 1960s, he wanted a lighter, more nimble and modern motocross bike, like the BSA factory engined 500 cc works specials. When the BSA Competition Department went out of business, he saw his opportunity and bought all the works parts that were available. Clews started building motocross bikes in his garage. Having no access to BSA works engines, Clews made his own extensive improvements to the standard BSA B50 500 cc engine, obtained by breaking up B50 MX bikes, his reputation grew as a builder of four-stroke motocross bikes that were capable of competing with the dominant two-stroke bikes. In the mid-1970s, the CCM racing team achieved respectable results in the 500 cc Motocross World Championship, with rider John Banks placing in the top five several times.
Powered by BSA engines, the firm used Rotax engines during the 1980s and 1990s when production reached a peak of 3,500 annually. Between 1983 and 1985, over 4,000 CCM motorcycles were licensed to export bikes to North America badged as Can-Am motorcycles. In 1984, the firm secured a contract to produce the Rotax-engined Armstrong MT500 bikes for the British Army, through overseas sales won a Queen's Export Award; the MT500 began as the Italian SWM XN Tornado, to which Armstrong acquired the rights in 1984 when SWM liquidated, Armstrong modified it for military use. Harley-Davidson bought the production rights to the MT-500 in 1987 when NATO chose the machine, created a 350 cc version that reduced weight, added an electric start, upgrading pollution standards, named the Harley-Davidson MT350E; the CCM company was acquired by the Robson family in 1998. In 2004, the company ceased operations and its assets were bought back by the original owner, Alan Clews. In 2005 the company launched the R35 Supermoto and the FT35 flat tracker.
The firm returned to world champion competition, fielding a team in the 2009 FIM Motocross World Championship with riders Tom Church, Jason Dougan and Ray Rowson. 2010 saw CCM working with the military once again, with a contract of 1500 motorcycles, however CCM weren't just content with military sales, they went on to secure their first ACU British Indoor Motocross Championship with Tom Church on board a CCM. In 2013 CCM announced plans for a GP450 machine to meet a market demand for a road legal middleweight adventure bike. A prototype was made available to journalists for testing in 2014, the first bikes rolled off the production line in November 2014; the GP450 is light at 125 kg, around 100 kg lighter than the class leader, the BMW R1200GS. The GP450 has a frame of "Bond-Lite" aluminium; the bought-in engine is a BMW 450cc 4-stroke single, detuned from 51 hp to 41 hp. Used in the discontinued BMW GP450X, the 450cc engine is now built by Kymco in Taiwan; the CCM has received favourable views which comment on its lightness, the engine's responsiveness, the excellent handling both on- and off-road.
The price of the GP450 whilst high for a 450cc bike, offers good value for money for a hand-built machine with high quality components. The small factory team of 11 workers is producing eight bikes per week. Due to the Euro 4 emissions standards the GP450 was phased out since the engine was not compliant with this regulation. A group of CCM employees set about designing a new machine, to be hand welded from T45 carbon steel and covered with a clear lacquer enabling the welds to be seen; the first prototype was unveiled in late 4 further models were added to the range. Http://www.ccm-motorcycles.com/ www.ccm-motorcycles.com http://www.sparesccm.com/ www.sparesccm.com