Iman in Islamic theology denotes a believer's faith in the metaphysical aspects of Islam. Its most simple definition is the belief in the six axioms of faith, known as arkān al-īmān; the term iman has been delineated in both the hadith. According to the Quran, iman must be accompanied by righteous deeds and the two together are necessary for entry into Paradise. In the hadith, iman in addition to Islam and ihsan form the three dimensions of the Islamic religion. There exists a debate both within and outside Islam on the link between faith and reason in religion, the relative importance of either. Several scholars contend that faith and reason spring from the same source and hence must be harmonious. In Arabic, pronounced means "faith", it is the verbal noun of آمَنَ "to believe." In a hadith, Muhammad defined iman as "a knowledge in the heart, a voicing with the tongue, an activity with the limbs." Faith is confidence in a truth, real. When people have confidence, they submit themselves to that truth.
It is not sufficient just to know the truth, but the recognition of the heart should be expressed by the tongue, the manifestation of the intelligence and at last to reflect this confidence in their activities. Hamiduddin Farahi, while explaining the meaning of imān in his exegesis, wrote: The root of imān is amn, it is used in various shades of meaning. One of its derivatives is mu'min, among the noble names of Allah because He gives peace to those who seek His refuge; this word is an ancient religious term. Hence the certitude which exists with humility and all the conditions and corollaries of adherence to a view is called imān and he who professes faith in Allah, in His signs and in His directives and submits himself to Him and is pleased with all His decisions is a mu'min. Faith breaks down into six axioms: Belief in the unicity of God. Belief in the existence of Angels. Belief in the existence of the books of which God is the author: The Quran being the last of them revealed to Muhammad, the Gospel is revealed to Jesus and the Torah to Moses.
Belief in the existence of Prophets: Muhammad being the last of them, Jesus the penultimate, Moses sent before them. Belief in the existence of the Day of Judgment Day: in that day, humanity will be divided into two groups: that of paradise and that of hell; these groups are themselves composed of subgroups. Belief in the existence of God's predestination, whether it involves good or bad. Of these, the first five are mentioned together in the Qur'an and by Muhammad, while including a corollary of belief in Allah – the good and evil of fate ordained by God – has referred to all six together in the following manner in the Hadith of Gabriel: "Iman is that you believe in God and His Angels and His Books and His Messengers and the Hereafter and the good and evil fate." Another similar narration ascribed to Muhammad is: Ibn Abbas narrates that the Angel Jibril once asked the Prophet: "Tell me what is Iman?" The Prophet replied: "Iman is to believe in Allah, the Day of Judgment, His Angels and Prophets and to believe in life after death.
Jibril asked him: "If I do all this will I be with Iman?" The Prophet said: "When you have done all of this, you will be having Iman." It is assumed that the essential iman consists of the first 3 items. In the Quran, iman is one of the 10 qualities which cause one to be the recipient of God's mercy and reward; the Quran states. The Qur'an states that nothing in this world should be dearer to a true believer than faith. Muhammad is reported to have said that he gained sweetness of faith, pleased to accept God as Lord, Islam as religion and Muhammad as prophet, he said that no one can be a true believer unless he loves the Prophet more than his children and relatives. At another instance, he has remarked that it is this love with God and Muhammad after which a person can be aware of the real taste of faith. Amin Ahsan Islahi, a notable exegete of the Qur'an has clarified the nature of this love:... it does not imply the passionate love one has for one's wife and other relatives, but it refers to the love on the basis of intellect and principles for some viewpoint and stance.
It is because of this love that a person, in every sphere of life, gives priority to this viewpoint and principle... So much so, if the demands of his wife and relatives clash with the demands of this viewpoint, he adheres to it and without any hesitation turns down the desires of his wife and children and the demands of his family and clan. Islahi and Maududi both have inferred that the Quranic comparison of a good word and a bad word in Chapter 14 is a comparison of faith and disbelief. Thus, the Qur'an is comparing faith to a tree whose roots are deep in the soil and branches spread in the vastness of the sky. Iman is the subject of a supplication uttered by Muhammad to God: O God! I have resigned myself to You and I have consigned my matter to you and have taken support from You fearing Your grandeur and moving towards You in anticipation. There is no refuge and shelter after running away from You, if there is, it is with You. Lord! I have professed faith in your Book which You have revealed and have professed faith in the Prophet you have sent as a Messenger.
The 77 Branches of Faith is a collection compiled by Imam Al-Bayhaqi in his work Shu`ab al-Iman. In it, he explains t
Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God, that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world's population, most known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs; the primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, the teachings and normative example of Muhammad. Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith, revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham and Jesus. Muslims consider the Quran in its original Arabic to be the final revelation of God. Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded paradise and unrighteous punished in hell. Religious concepts and practices include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, following Islamic law, which touches on every aspect of life and society, from banking and welfare to women and the environment.
The cities of Mecca and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites in Islam. Aside from the theological narrative, Islam is believed to have originated in the early 7th century CE in Mecca, by the 8th century the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east; the Islamic Golden Age refers to the period traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during the Abbasid Caliphate, when much of the Muslim world was experiencing a scientific and cultural flourishing. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates, such as the Ottoman Empire and conversion to Islam by missionary activities. Most Muslims are of one of two denominations. About 13 % of Muslims live in the largest Muslim-majority country. Sizeable Muslim communities are found in the Americas, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Europe, Mainland Southeast Asia, the Philippines, Russia. Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world. Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root S-L-M which forms a large class of words relating to concepts of wholeness, submission and peace.
In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God". Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, means "submission" or "surrender". Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb form, means "submitter" or "one who surrenders"; the word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal spiritual state: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He opens his heart to Islam." Other verses connect Islam and religion together: "Today, I have perfected your religion for you. Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that includes imān, ihsān. Islam was called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies; this term has fallen out of use and is sometimes said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims' religion, parallel to Buddha in Buddhism.
Some authors, continue to use the term Muhammadanism as a technical term for the religious system as opposed to the theological concept of Islam that exists within that system. Faith in the Islamic creed is represented as the six articles of faith, notably spelled out in the Hadith of Gabriel. Islam is seen as having the simplest doctrines of the major religions, its most fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawḥīd. God is described in chapter 112 of the Quran as: "He is God, the One and Only. Muslims repudiate polytheism and idolatry, called Shirk, reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and thus. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahmān, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahīm, meaning "The Merciful". Muslims believe that the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by God's sheer command, "Be, it is" and that the purpose of existence is to worship or to know God.
He is viewed as a personal god who responds whenever a person in distress calls him. There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God who states, "I am nearer to him than jugular vein." God consciousness is referred to as Taqwa. Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims and Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews to reference God, while ʾilāh is the term used for a deity or a god in general. Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish, "Khodā" in Persian or "Ḵẖudā" in Urdu. Belief in angels is fundamental
Ḥadīth in Islam are the record of the words and silent approval, traditionally attributed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Within Islam the authority of hadith as a source for religious law and moral guidance ranks second only to that of the Quran. Quranic verses enjoin Muslims to emulate Muhammad and obey his judgments, providing scriptural authority for hadith. While the number of verses pertaining to law in the Quran is few, hadiths give direction on everything from details of religious obligations, to the correct forms of salutations and the importance of benevolence to slaves, thus the "great bulk" of the rules of Sharia are derived from ahadith, rather than the Quran.Ḥadith is the Arabic word for speech, account, narrative. Unlike the Quran, not all Muslims believe. Hadiths were not written down by Muhammad's followers after his death but several generations when they were collected and compiled into a great corpus of Islamic literature. Different collections of hadith would come to differentiate the different branches of the Islamic faith.
A small minority of Muslims called. Because some ahadith include questionable and contradictory statements, the authentication of ahadith became a major field of study in Islam. In its classic form a hadith has two parts — the chain of narrators who have transmitted the report, the main text of the report. Individual hadith are classified by Muslim clerics and jurists into categories such as sahih, hasan or da'if. However, different groups and different scholars may classify a hadith differently. Among some scholars of Sunni Islam, the term hadith may include not only the supposed words, practices, etc. of Muhammad, but those of his companions. In Shia Islam, hadith is the embodiment of the sunnah, the words and actions of the Prophet and his family the Ahl al-Bayt. In Arabic, the noun ḥadīth means "report", "account", or "narrative", its Arabic plural is aḥādīth. Hadith refers to the speech of a person. In Islamic terminology, according to Juan Campo, the term hadith refers to reports of statements or actions of Muhammad, or of his tacit approval or criticism of something said or done in his presence.
Classical hadith specialist Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani says that the intended meaning of hadith in religious tradition is something attributed to Muhammad but, not found in the Quran. Scholar Patricia Crone includes reports by others than Muhammad in her definition of hadith: "short reports recording what an early figure, such as a companion of the prophet or Mohammed himself, said or did on a particular occasion, prefixed by a chain of transmitters", but she adds that "nowadays, hadith always means hadith from Mohammed himself."Other associated words possess similar meanings including: khabar refers to reports about Muhammad, but sometimes refers to traditions about his companions and their successors from the following generation. However, according to the Shia Islam Ahlul Bayt Digital Library Project, "... when there is no clear Qur’anic statement, nor is there a Hadith upon which Muslim schools have agreed.... Shi’a... refer to Ahlul-Bayt for deriving the Sunnah of Prophet." This means that in Shia Islam, the sunnah draws on the sayings and deeds of the Ahl al-Bayt, i.e. the Imams.
The word sunnah is used in reference to a normative custom of Muhammad or the early Muslim community. Joseph Schacht describes hadith as providing "the documentation" of the sunnah. Another source distinguishes between the two saying: Whereas the'Hadith' is an oral communication, derived from the Prophet or his teachings, the'Sunna' signifies the prevailing customs of a particular community or people.... A'Sunna' is a practice, passed on by a community from generation to generation en masse, whereas the Ahadith are reports collected by compilers centuries removed from the source.... A practice, contained within the Hadith may well be regarded as Sunna, but it is not necessary that a Sunna would have a supporting hadith sanctioning it; some sources limit hadith to verbal reports, with the deeds of Muhammad and reports about his companions being part of the sunnah, but not hadith. Joseph Schacht quotes a hadith by Muhammad, used "to justify reference" in Islamic law to the companions of Muhammad as religious authorities — "My companions are like lodestars."
According to Schacht, in the first generations after the death of Muhammad, use of hadith from Sahabah and Tabi‘un "was the rule", while use of hadith of Muhammad himself by Muslims was "the exception". Schacht credits Al-Shafi‘i — founder of the Shafi'i school of fiqh — with establishing the principle of the use of the ahadith of the Muhammad for Islami
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam, followed by nearly 90% of the world's Muslims. Its name comes from the word sunnah; the differences between Sunni and Shia Muslims arose from a disagreement over the succession to Muhammad and subsequently acquired broader political significance, as well as theological and juridical dimensions. According to Sunni traditions, Muhammad did not designate a successor and the Muslim community acted according to his sunnah in electing his father-in-law Abu Bakr as the first caliph; this contrasts with the Shia view, which holds that Muhammad announced at the event of Ghadir Khumm his son-in-law and cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor. Political tensions between Sunnis and Shias continued with varying intensity throughout Islamic history and they have been exacerbated in recent times by ethnic conflicts and the rise of Wahhabism; as of 2009, Sunni Muslims constituted 87–90% of the world's Muslim population. Sunni Islam is the world's largest religious denomination, followed by Catholicism.
Its adherents are referred to in Arabic as ahl as-sunnah wa ahl as-sunnah for short. In English, its doctrines and practices are sometimes called Sunnism, while adherents are known as Sunni Muslims, Sunnis and Ahlus Sunnah. Sunni Islam is sometimes referred to as "orthodox Islam". However, other scholars of Islam, such as John Burton believe that there is no such thing as "orthodox Islam"; the Quran, together with hadith and binding juristic consensus form the basis of all traditional jurisprudence within Sunni Islam. Sharia rulings are derived from these basic sources, in conjunction with analogical reasoning, consideration of public welfare and juristic discretion, using the principles of jurisprudence developed by the traditional legal schools. In matters of creed, the Sunni tradition upholds the six pillars of iman and comprises the Ash'ari and Maturidi schools of rationalistic theology as well as the textualist school known as traditionalist theology. Sunnī commonly referred to as Sunnīism, is a term derived from sunnah meaning "habit", "usual practice", "custom", "tradition".
The Muslim use of this term refers to living habits of the prophet Muhammad. In Arabic, this branch of Islam is referred to as ahl as-sunnah wa l-jamāʻah, "the people of the sunnah and the community", shortened to ahl as-sunnah. One common mistake is to assume that Sunni Islam represents a normative Islam that emerged during the period after Muhammad's death, that Sufism and Shi'ism developed out of Sunni Islam; this perception is due to the reliance on ideological sources that have been accepted as reliable historical works, because the vast majority of the population is Sunni. Both Sunnism and Shiaism are the end products of several centuries of competition between ideologies. Both sects used each other to further cement their own doctrines; the first four caliphs are known among Sunnis as the Rashidun or "Rightly-Guided Ones". Sunni recognition includes the aforementioned Abu Bakr as the first, Umar as the second, Uthman as the third, Ali as the fourth. Sunnis recognised different rulers as the caliph, though they did not include anyone in the list of the rightly guided ones or Rashidun after the murder of Ali, until the caliphate was constitutionally abolished in Turkey on 3 March 1924.
The seeds of metamorphosis of caliphate into kingship were sown, as the second caliph Umar had feared, as early as the regime of the third caliph Uthman, who appointed many of his kinsmen from his clan Banu Umayya, including Marwan and Walid bin Uqba on important government positions, becoming the main cause of turmoil resulting in his murder and the ensuing infighting during Ali's time and rebellion by Muawiya, another of Uthman's kinsman. This resulted in the establishment of firm dynastic rule of Banu Umayya after Husain, the younger son of Ali from Fatima, was killed at the Battle of Karbala; the rise to power of Banu Umayya, the Meccan tribe of elites who had vehemently opposed Muhammad under the leadership of Abu Sufyan, Muawiya's father, right up to the conquest of Mecca by Muhammad, as his successors with the accession of Uthman to caliphate, replaced the egalitarian society formed as a result of Muhammad's revolution to a society stratified between haves and have-nots as a result of nepotism, in the words of El-Hibri through "the use of religious charity revenues to subsidise family interests, which Uthman justified as "al-sila"."
Ali, during his rather brief regime after Uthman maintained austere life style and tried hard to bring back the egalitarian system and supremacy of law over the ruler idealised in Muhammad's message, but faced continued opposition, wars one after another by Aisha-Talhah-Zubair, by Muawiya and by the Kharjites. After he was murdered his followers elected Hasan ibn Ali his elder son from Fatima to succeed him. Hasan, shortly afterwards signed a treaty with Muawiaya relinquishing power in favour of the latter, with a condition inter alia, that one of the two who will outlive the other will be the caliph, that this caliph will not appoint a successor but will leave the matter of selection of the caliph to the public. Subsequently, Hasan was poisoned to death and Muawiya enjoyed unchallenged power. Not honouring his treaty with Hasan he however nominated his son Yazid to succeed him. Upon Muawiya's death, Yazid asked Husain the younger brother of Hasan, Ali's son and Muh
Muhammad was the founder of Islam. According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet, sent to present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached by Adam, Moses and other prophets, he is viewed as the final prophet of God in all the main branches of Islam, though some modern denominations diverge from this belief. Muhammad united Arabia into a single Muslim polity, with the Quran as well as his teachings and practices forming the basis of Islamic religious belief. Born 570 CE in the Arabian city of Mecca, Muhammad was orphaned at the age of six, he was raised under the care of his paternal grandfather Abd al-Muttalib, upon his death, by his uncle Abu Talib. In years he would periodically seclude himself in a mountain cave named Hira for several nights of prayer; when he was 40, Muhammad reported being visited by Gabriel in the cave, receiving his first revelation from God. Three years in 610, Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that "God is One", that complete "submission" to God is the right way of life, that he was a prophet and messenger of God, similar to the other prophets in Islam.
The followers of Muhammad were few in number, experienced hostility from Meccan polytheists. He sent some of his followers to Abyssinia in 615 to shield them from prosecution, before he and his followers migrated from Mecca to Medina in 622; this event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar known as the Hijri Calendar. In Medina, Muhammad united the tribes under the Constitution of Medina. In December 629, after eight years of intermittent fighting with Meccan tribes, Muhammad gathered an army of 10,000 Muslim converts and marched on the city of Mecca; the conquest went uncontested and Muhammad seized the city with little bloodshed. In 632, a few months after returning from the Farewell Pilgrimage, he died. By the time of his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam; the revelations, which Muhammad reported receiving until his death, form the verses of the Quran, regarded by Muslims as the verbatim "Word of God" and around which the religion is based. Besides the Quran, Muhammad's teachings and practices, found in the Hadith and sira literature, are upheld and used as sources of Islamic law.
The name Muhammad appears four times in the Quran. The Quran addresses Muhammad in the second person by various appellations. Muhammad is sometimes addressed by designations deriving from his state at the time of the address: thus he is referred to as the enwrapped in Quran 73:1 and the shrouded in Quran 74:1. In Sura Al-Ahzab 33:40 God singles out Muhammad as the "Seal of the prophets", or the last of the prophets; the Quran refers to Muhammad as Aḥmad "more praiseworthy". The name Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim, begins with the kunya Abū, which corresponds to the English, father of; the Quran is the central religious text of Islam. Muslims believe; the Quran, provides minimal assistance for Muhammad's chronological biography. Important sources regarding Muhammad's life may be found in the historic works by writers of the 2nd and 3rd centuries of the Muslim era; these include traditional Muslim biographies of Muhammad, which provide additional information about Muhammad's life.
The earliest surviving written sira is Ibn Ishaq's Life of God's Messenger written c. 767 CE. Although the work was lost, this sira was used at great length by Ibn Hisham and to a lesser extent by Al-Tabari. However, Ibn Hisham admits in the preface to his biography of Muhammad that he omitted matters from Ibn Ishaq's biography that "would distress certain people". Another early history source is the history of Muhammad's campaigns by al-Waqidi, the work of his secretary Ibn Sa'd al-Baghdadi. Many scholars accept these early biographies as authentic. Recent studies have led scholars to distinguish between traditions touching legal matters and purely historical events. In the legal group, traditions could have been subject to invention while historic events, aside from exceptional cases, may have been only subject to "tendential shaping". Other important sources include the hadith collections, accounts of the verbal and physical teachings and traditions of Muhammad. Hadiths were compiled several generations after his death by followers including Muhammad al-Bukhari, Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, Muhammad ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi, Abd ar-Rahman al-Nasai, Abu Dawood, Ibn Majah, Malik ibn Anas, al-Daraqutni.
Some Western academics cautiously view the hadith collections as accurate historical sources. Scholars such as Madelung do not reject the narrations which have been compiled in periods, but judge them in the context of history and on the basis of their compatibility with the events and figures. Muslim scholars on the other hand place a greater emph
Sahih Muslim is one of the Kutub al-Sittah in Sunni Islam. It is acclaimed by Sunni Muslims as well as Zaidi Shia Muslims, it is considered the second most authentic hadith collection after Sahih al-Bukhari. It was collected by Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj known as Imam Muslim. Sahih Muslim, together with Sahih al-Bukhari is termed as Sahihayn; the collector of the Sahih Muslim, Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, was born into a Persian family in 204 AH in Nishapur and died in 261 AH in the city of his birth. He traveled to gather his collection of ahadith, including to areas now in Iraq, the Arabian Peninsula and Egypt. Out of 300,000 hadith which he evaluated 4,000 were extracted for inclusion into his collection based on stringent acceptance criteria; each report in his collection was checked and the veracity of the chain of reporters was painstakingly established. Sunni Muslims consider it the second most authentic hadith collection, after Sahih al-Bukhari. Sahih Muslim is divided into 43 books. However, it is important to realize that Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj never claimed to collect all authentic traditions as his goal was to collect only traditions that all Muslims should agree on about accuracy.
According to Munthiri, there are a total of 2,200 hadiths in Sahih Muslim. According to Muhammad Amin, there are 1,400 authentic hadiths that are reported in other books the six major hadith collections. Many Muslims regard this collection as the second most authentic of the six major hadith collections, containing only sahih hadith, an honor it shares only with Sahih al-Bukhari, both being referred to as the Two Sahihs. Shia Muslims dismiss some of its contents as fabrications or untrustworthy due to the questionable reliability of some narrators. Despite the book's high stature, the consensus of scholars on that it is the second most valid categorized book of Hadith, after Sahih al-Bukhari, it is agreed upon that this does not mean that every element in it is true, in comparison to other Hadith books, but means that the book as a whole is valid; such as the preference of Sahih al-Bukhari to Sahih Muslim, which does not mean that every Hadith in Sahih al-Bukhari is more valid than every Hadith in Sahih Muslim, but that the total of what is contained Sahih al-Bukhari is more valid than the total of what is contained in Sahih Muslim, the validity of a certain Hadith form the two books of Hadith, over Hadith from other Sahih books, can not be inferred except after the correctness of that particular Hadith is shown.
Amin Ahsan Islahi, the noted Islamic scholar, has summarized some unique features of Sahih Muslim: Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj recorded only such narratives as were reported by two reliable successors from two Sahabah which subsequently travelled through two independent unbroken isnāds consisting of sound narrators. Muhammad al-Bukhari has not followed such a strict criterion. Scientific arrangement of themes and chapters; the author, for example, selects a proper place for the narrative and, next to it, puts all its versions. Muhammad al-Bukhari has not followed this method. Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj informs us. For example, he says: haddathanā fulān wa fulān wallafz lifulān, he mentions whether, in a particular hadīth, the narrators have differed over the wordings over a single letter of zero semantic significance. He informs the readers if narrators have differed over a specific quality, relation or any other fact about a narrator in the chain. Siyanah Sahih Muslim by Ibn al-Salah, of which only the beginning segment remains Al Minhaj Be Sharh Sahih Muslim by Al-Nawawi.
Fath al-Mulhim by Shabbir Ahmad Usmani. Takmilat Fath al-Mulhim by Muhammad Taqi Usmani. Summarized Sahih Muslim by Abd-al-Hamid Siddiqui; the text is used in the USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts. Sharh Sahih Muslim by Allama Ghulam Rasool Saeedi Tafsir al-gharib ma fi al-Sahihayn by Al-HumaydīTranslations of commentaries of Sahih Muslims are available in numerous languages including English, Bangla and Bosnian. Kutub al-Sittah Sahih al-Bukhari Jami al-Tirmidhi Sunan al-Sughra Either: Sunan ibn Majah, Muwatta Malik http://sunnah.com/muslim https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=66a9EKs0cu0 Life of Imam Muslim by Navaid Aziz https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PsMxmp3GSjY English translation with Arabic text English translation English translation with Arabic text pdf books English Translation of the Introduction to Sahih Muslim English translation with Arabic text English translation from Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement
Companions of the Prophet
Companions of the Prophet or aṣ-ṣaḥābah were followers of Mohammed who "saw or met the prophet during his lifetime and were physically in his presence". "Sahabah" is definite plural. Scholars accepted their testimony of the words and deeds of Muhammed, the occasions on which the Quran was revealed and other various important matters of Islamic history and practice; the testimony of the companions, as it was passed down through trusted chains of narrators, was the basis of the developing Islamic tradition. From the traditions of the life of Muhammad and his companions are drawn the Muslim way of life, the code of conduct it requires, the jurisprudence by which Muslim communities should be regulated; the two largest Islamic denominations, the Sunni and Shia, take different approaches in weighing the value of the companions' testimonies, have different hadith collections and, as a result, have different views about the Sahabah. In Islām, followers of Muḥammad are classified to categories including The muhajirūn pursue the Prophet from Mecca to Medina, the anṣar referred to Muslims living in Medinese, the badriyun called to fighters at the Battle of Badr.
Two important groups among the companions are called the Muhajirun or "exiles"—those who had faith in Muhammad when he began to preach in Mecca who fled with him when he was persecuted there—and the Ansar—people of Medina who welcomed Muhammad and his companions and stood as their protectors. Lists of prominent companions run to 50 or 60 names, being the people most associated with Muhammad. However, there were many others who had some contact with Muhammad, their names and biographies were recorded in religious reference texts such as Ibn Sa'd al-Baghdadi's early Kitāb at-Tabāqat al-Kabīr; the book entitled Istî'âb fî ma'rifat-il-Ashâb by Hafidh Yusuf bin Muhammad bin Qurtubi consists of 2,770 biographies of male and 381 biographies of female Sahabah. According to an observation in the book entitled Mawâhib-i-ladunniyya, an untold number of persons had converted to Islam by the time Muhammad died. There were 10,000 by the time Mecca was conquered and 70,000 during the Battle of Tabouk in 630.
Some Muslims assert that they were more than 200,000 in number: it is believed that 124,000 witnessed the Farewell Sermon Muhammad delivered after making his last pilgrimage to Mecca. The most widespread definition of a companion is someone who met Muhammad, believed in him and died as a Muslim; the Sunni scholar Al-Hâfidh Ibn Hajar said: “The most correct of what I have come across is that a Sahâbî is one who met the Prophet Muhammad - sallallâhu ’alayhi wa sallam - whilst believing in him, died as a Muslim. So, that includes the one who remained with him for a long or a short time, those who narrated from him and those who did not, those who saw him but did not sit with him and those who could not see him due to blindness". Anyone who died after rejecting Islam and becoming an apostate is not considered as a companion; those who saw him but held off believing in him until after his passing are not considered Sahaba but Tabi`in. Shia Muslims make no distinction between these. According to Sunni scholars, Muslims of the past should be considered companions if they had any contact with Muhammad, they were not liars or opposed to him and his teachings.
If they saw him, heard him, or were in his presence briefly, they are companions. All companions are assumed to be just; some Quranic references are important to Sunni Muslim views of the reverence due to all companions. As Shia Muslim believe as well as some sunni scholars like Javed Ahmad Ghamidi and Amin Ahsan Islahi state that not every individual who met or had accidentally seen Muhammad can be considered as a Companion. In their view, the Quran has outlined a high level of faith as one of the distinctive qualities of the Sahabah. Hence, they admit to this list only those individuals who had substantial contact with Muhammad, lived with him, took part in his campaigns and efforts at proselytizing. In other words, Companion is called to followers of prophet who be in a long-term relationship with him and support him in essential event up to their death. In view of such admonitions, Shias have different views on each Sahabi, depending on what he or she accomplished, they do not accept that the testimony of nearly all Sahabah is an authenticated part of the chain of narrators in a hadith and that not all the Sahaba were righteous just because they saw or were with Muhammad.
Shias further argue that the righteousness of Sahabah can be assessed by their loyalty towards Muhammad's family after his death and they accept hadith from the Imams of the Ahl al-Bayt, believing them to be cleansed from sin through their interpretation of the Quran and the hadith of the Cloak. Shia Muslims believe that some companions are accountable for the loss of caliphate by