The Blue Nile is a river originating at Lake Tana in Ethiopia. With the White Nile, it is one of the two major tributaries of the Nile; the Blue Nile supplies about 80% of the water in the Nile during the rainy season. The Blue Nile is so-called because floods during the summer monsoon erode a vast amount of fertile soil from the Ethiopian Highlands and carry it downstream as silt, turning the water dark brown or black; the distance of the river from its source to its confluence has been variously reported as being between 1,460 kilometres and 1,600 kilometres. This uncertainty over the length might result from the fact that the river flows through a series of impenetrable gorges cut in the Ethiopian Highlands to a depth of some 1,500 metres —a depth comparable to that of the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River in the United States. According to materials published by the Central Statistical Agency, the Blue Nile has a total length of 1,450 kilometres, of which 800 kilometres are inside Ethiopia.
The Blue Nile flows south from Lake Tana and west across Ethiopia and northwest into Sudan. Within 30 km of its source at Lake Tana, the river enters a canyon about 400 km long; this gorge is a tremendous obstacle for travel and communication from the north half of Ethiopia to the southern half. The canyon was first referred to as the "Grand Canyon" by the British team that accomplished the first descent of the river from Lake Tana to near the end of the canyon in 1968. Subsequent river rafting parties called this the "Grand Canyon of the Nile"; the power of the Blue Nile may best be appreciated at the Blue Nile Falls, which are 45 metres high, located about 40 kilometres downstream of Lake Tana. Although there are several feeder streams that flow into Lake Tana, the sacred source of the river is considered to be a small spring at Gish Abay, situated at an altitude of 2,744 metres; this stream, known as the Gilgel Abay, flows north into Lake Tana. Other affluents of this lake include, in clockwise order from Gorgora, the Magech River, the Northern Gumara, the Reb River, the southern Gumara River, the Kilte.
Lake Tana's outflow flows some 30 kilometres before plunging over the Blue Nile Falls. The river loops across northwest Ethiopia through a series of deep valleys and canyons into Sudan, by which point it is only known as the Blue Nile. There are numerous tributaries of the Abay between the Sudanese border; those on its left bank, in downstream order, include the Wanqa River, the Bashilo River, the Walaqa River, the Wanchet River, the Jamma River, the Muger River, the Guder River, the Agwel River, the Nedi River, the Didessa River and the Dabus River. Those on the right side in downstream order, include the Handassa, Abaya, Tammi, Shita, Muga, Temcha, Katlan, Chamoga and the Beles. After flowing past Er Roseires inside Sudan, receiving the Dinder on its right bank at Dinder, the Blue Nile joins the White Nile at Khartoum and, as the Nile, flows through Egypt to the Mediterranean Sea at Alexandria; the flow of the Blue Nile reaches maximum volume in the rainy season, when it supplies 70-80% of the water of the Nile proper.
The Blue Nile was a major source of the flooding of the Nile that contributed to the fertility of the Nile Valley and the consequent rise of Ancient Egypt and Egyptian mythology. With the completion in 1970 of the Aswan Dam in Egypt, the Nile floods ended for lower Egypt; the Blue Nile is vital to the livelihood of Egypt. The Blue Nile, the most significant tributary of the Nile, contributes more than half of the Nile's streamflow. Though shorter than the White Nile, 59% of the water that reaches Egypt originates from the Blue Nile branch of the great river; the river is an important resource for Sudan, where the Roseires Dam and Sennar Dams produce 80% of the country's power. These dams help irrigate the Gezira Scheme, most famous for its high quality cotton; the region produces wheat and animal feed crops. In November 2012, Ethiopia began a six-year project for the construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, a 6000-megawatt hydroelectric dam on the river; the dam is expected to be a boost for the Ethiopian economy.
Sudan and Egypt, voiced their concern over a potential reduction in water available. The first European to have seen the Blue Nile in Ethiopia and the river's source was Pedro Páez, a Spanish Jesuit who reached the river's source 21 April 1613; the Portuguese João Bermudes, the self-described "Patriarch of Ethiopia," provided the first description of the Blue Nile Falls in his memoirs published in 1565, a number of Europeans who lived in Ethiopia in the late 15th century such as Pêro da Covilhã could have seen the river long before Páez, but not reached its places of source. The source of the Blue Nile was reached in 1629 by the Portuguese Jesuit missionary Jerónimo Lobo and in 1770 by James Bruce. Although a number of European explorers contemplated tracing the course of the Blue Nile from its confluence with the White Nile to Lake Tana, its gorge, which begins a few kilometres inside the Ethiopian border, has discouraged all attempts since Frédéric Cailliaud's attempt in 1821; the first serious attempt by a non-local to explore this reach of the river was undertaken by the American W.
W. Macmillan in 1902, assisted by the Norwegian explorer B. H. Jenssen. However, Jenssen's boats were blocked by t
The Kebra Nagast is a 14th-century account written in Ge'ez, an ancient South Semitic language that originated in modern-day Ethiopia and Eritrea. Wallis Budge, an English Egyptologist and philologist who worked for the British Museum created an English translation called The Glory of the Kings, it is considered to hold the genealogy of the Solomonic dynasty, which followed the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. It contains an account of how the Queen of Sheba met King Solomon and about how the Ark of the Covenant came to Ethiopia with Menelik I, it discusses the conversion of the Ethiopians from the worship of the Sun and stars to that of the "Lord God of Israel". As the Ethiopianist Edward Ullendorff explained in the 1967 Schweich Lectures, "The Kebra Nagast is not a literary work, but it is the repository of Ethiopian national and religious feelings."The Old Testament kingly pattern was dogmatically adopted in the Kebra Nagast, including Samuel's call to end the weaknesses of the twelve Judges, his establishment of one king with the people's consent, to unify the state against enemy attack.
By virtue of his personal strength, David made the throne more stable and unconditional, while Solomon brought about the zenith of virtue and power. Thus, during the Era of the Judges legitimate descent from Solomon and Sheba remained the crucial test of eligibility for imperial office; the Kebra Nagast is divided into 117 chapters, is a composite work. This account draws much of its material from the Hebrew Bible and the author spends most of these pages recounting tales and relating them to the historical events related to them; the document is presented in the form of a debate by the 318 "orthodox fathers" of the First Council of Nicaea. These fathers pose the question, "Of what doth the Glory of Kings consist?" One Gregory answers with a speech which ends with the statement that a copy of the Glory of God was made by Moses and kept in the Ark of the Covenant. After this, the archbishop Domitius reads from a book he had found in the church of "Sophia", which introduces what Hubbard calls "the centerpiece" of this work, the story of Makeda, King Solomon, Menelik I, how the Ark came to Ethiopia.
Although the author of the final redaction identified this Gregory with Gregory Thaumaturgus, who lived in the 3rd century before this Council, the time and the allusion to Gregory's imprisonment for 15 years by the king of Armenia make Gregory the Illuminator a better fit. Queen Makeda learns from Tamrin, a merchant based in her kingdom, about the wisdom of King Solomon, travels to Jerusalem to visit him, she is enthralled by his display of learning and knowledge, declares "From this moment I will not worship the sun, but will worship the Creator of the sun, the God of Israel". The night before she begins her journey home, Solomon tricks her into sleeping with him, gives her a ring so that their child may identify himself to Solomon. Following her departure, Solomon has a dream. On the journey home, she gives birth to Menelik. At the age of 22, Menelik travels to Jerusalem by way of Gaza, seeking Solomon's blessing, identifies himself to his father with the ring. Overjoyed by this reunion, Solomon tries to convince Menelik to stay and succeed him as king, but Menelik insists on returning to his mother in Ethiopia.
King Solomon settles for sending home with him a company formed from the first-born sons of the elders of his kingdom. This company of young men, upset over leaving Jerusalem smuggles the Ark from the Temple and out of Solomon's kingdom without Menelik's knowledge, he had asked of Solomon only for a single tassel from the covering over the Ark, Solomon had given him the entire cloth. During the journey home, Menelik learns the Ark is with him, Solomon discovers that it is gone from his kingdom; the king attempts to pursue Menelik, but through the Ark's mysterious power, his son with his entire entourage is miraculously flown home to Ethiopia before Solomon can leave his kingdom. King Solomon turns to solace from his wife, the daughter of the Pharaoh of Egypt, she seduces him into worshiping the idols of her land. After a question from the 318 bishops of the Council, Domitius continues with a paraphrase of Biblical history, he focuses on the central element of lineage and royal blood lines that were prevalent at the time.
He discusses the intermixing of the royal families in order to preserve their own power and to ensure that their blood line survives. He does this by using each chapter to describe a specific family line, such as chapter 72 and 73 discussing the family tree of Constantine or chapters 74 and 75 to describe two separate seeds of Shem. In chapter 90, we see a heavy emphasis on God's law and rules he sits forth for his believers to follow, which he presents by choosing the house of Jacob to reign as kings and to spread God's message; the author describes Menelik's arrival at Axum, where he is feasted and Makeda abdicates the throne in his favor. Menelik engages in a series of military campaigns with the Ark, "no man conquered him, on the contrary, whosoever attacked him was conquered". After chapter 94, the author takes a step back and describes a more global view of what he had been describing in previous chapters. After praising the king of Ethiopia, the king of Egypt, the book Domitius has found, which has established
Lake Hayq or Lake Haik is a freshwater lake of Ethiopia. It is located north of Dessie, in the Debub Wollo Zone of the Amhara Region; the town of Hayq is to the west of the lake. Lake Hayq is 6.7 km long and 6 km wide, with a surface area of 23 km². It is at an elevation of 2,030 meters above sea level, it is one of two lakes in the Tehuledere woreda. According to a local legend, the lake was created to avenge a pregnant woman, wronged by a princess. God was angered by this injustice, in his wrath turned all of the land surrounding the woman into the water forming a lake, destroying the princess along with her friends and family in the process. Where the pregnant woman was sitting became an island where Istifanos Monastery, founded in the middle of the 13th century by Iyasus Mo'a, is located. A former student of Iyasus Mo'a, Tekle Haymanot, went on to found the monastery of Debra Asbos in Shewa. Tekle Haymanot was one of five bright young religious students who became the "five lights of Christianity" for the south of Ethiopia.
Iyasus Mo'a played a role in Yekuno Amlak's overthrow of the Zagwe dynasty, helped restore the Solomonic dynasty. Upon Yekuno Amlak's ascension to the throne, Istifanos Church became Istifanos Monastery; the church was established around the 8th century during the Axumite era and was the first one in what was the Amhara province. The events surrounding its establishment, are not clear; some legends suggest that there was an Aksumite palace in Ambasselle opposite the modern Istifanos monastery, located on the opposite side of the Lake Hayq. Imam Ahmad Gragn looted and burned this church in November, 1531; the ruins of the church are still visible, the legend states that the kings and princes who lived in that palace established the church. The first known European to view the lake was Francisco Álvares, who passed near it 21 September 1520, he mentions the lake had hippopotamuses and catfish, the land around it was planted in lemons and citrons
Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region
Southern Nations and Peoples' Region is one of the nine ethnically based regional states of Ethiopia. It was formed from the merger of five kililoch, called Regions 7 to 11, following the regional council elections on 21 June 1992, its capital is Awasa. The SNNPR borders Kenya to the south, the Ilemi Triangle to the southwest, South Sudan to the west, the Ethiopian region of Gambela to the northwest, the Ethiopian region of Oromia to the north and east. Besides Awasa, the region's major cities and towns include Sodo, Arba Minch, Chencha, Irgalem, Mizan Teferi, Welkite, Durame and Worabe. Based on the 2007 Census conducted by the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia, the SNNPR has an estimated total population of 14,929,548, of whom 7,425,918 were men and 7,503,630 women. 13,433,991 or 89.98% of the population are estimated to be rural inhabitants, while 1,495,557 or 10.02% are urban. With an estimated area of 105,887.18 square kilometers, this region has an estimated density of 141 people per square kilometer.
For the entire region 3,110,995 households were counted, which results in an average for the region of 4.8 persons to a household, with urban households having on average 3.9 and rural households 4.9 people. The projected population for 2017 was 19,170,007. In the previous census, conducted in 1994, the region's population was reported to be 10,377,028 of whom 5,161,787 were men and 5,215,241 were women. At the time of the census, the rural population of the Region accounted for 93.2% of the total population. Semien Omo and Gurage were the three zones with the highest population; the population is concentrated in eastern and central part of the SNNPR while the western and southern part of the region is sparsely populated. The SNNPR Water Resources Bureau announced that as of the fiscal year ending in 2006, they had increased the area of the region that had access to drinkable water to 54% from 10–15% 15 years ago. In August 2008, the head of public relations for the Bureau, Abdulkerim Nesru, announced that 94 million birr had been spent to further increase the availability of drinkable water in the region from 58% in the previous year to 63.6%.
Priority was given to certain zones, such as Sidama and Gurage, as well as the Alaba special woreda and several resettlement areas. Values for other reported common indicators of the standard of living for the SNNPR as of 2005 include the following: 10.7% of the inhabitants fall into the lowest wealth quintile. The SNNPR, being an amalgam of the main homelands of numerous ethnicities, contains over 45 indigenous ethnic groups. All ethnicitiesThe ethnicities native to the SNNPR, with percentages of the population as reported in the 2007 national census and organized by linguistic grouping, include: The 2007 census reported that the predominantly spoken mother tongue languages include Sidama, Hadiya, Gurage languages, Gamo and Amharic. Other languages spoken in the State include Kambaata, Goffa and Dima; the 1994 census reported that the predominantly spoken languages include Sidamigna, Welayta, Hadiyigna and Kembatigna. Other languages spoken in the State include Gamoigna, Mello and Gedeo. Amharic is still the working language although most pupils get eight years of primary education in their home language and all secondary and further education is in English.
The CSA reported that for 2004–2005 100,338 tons of coffee were produced in the SNNPR, based on inspection records from the Ethiopian Coffee and Tea authority. This represents 44.2% of the total production in Ethiopia. Farmers in the Region had an estimated total 7,938,490 head of cattle, 3,270,200 sheep, 2,289,970 goats, 298,720 horses, 63,460 mules, 278,440 asses, 6,586,140 poultry of all species, 726,960 beehives. Enset is a major indigenous local crop in the SNNPR. Abate Kisho 1992–2001 Hailemariam Desalegn 12 November 2001 – March 2006 Shiferaw Shigute March 2006 – July 2013 Dessie Dalke July 2013 – present The following list of administrative zones and special woredas is based on information from the 2007 census. Bench Maji Dawro Gamo Gofa Gedeo Gurage Hadiya Keffa Keficho Shekicho Kembata Tembaro North Omo Sheka Sidama Silti South Omo Wolayita Alaba Amaro Basketo Burji Dirashe Konso Konta Yem
Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God, that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world's population, most known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs; the primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, the teachings and normative example of Muhammad. Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith, revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham and Jesus. Muslims consider the Quran in its original Arabic to be the final revelation of God. Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded paradise and unrighteous punished in hell. Religious concepts and practices include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, following Islamic law, which touches on every aspect of life and society, from banking and welfare to women and the environment.
The cities of Mecca and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites in Islam. Aside from the theological narrative, Islam is believed to have originated in the early 7th century CE in Mecca, by the 8th century the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east; the Islamic Golden Age refers to the period traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during the Abbasid Caliphate, when much of the Muslim world was experiencing a scientific and cultural flourishing. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates, such as the Ottoman Empire and conversion to Islam by missionary activities. Most Muslims are of one of two denominations. About 13 % of Muslims live in the largest Muslim-majority country. Sizeable Muslim communities are found in the Americas, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Europe, Mainland Southeast Asia, the Philippines, Russia. Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world. Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root S-L-M which forms a large class of words relating to concepts of wholeness, submission and peace.
In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God". Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, means "submission" or "surrender". Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb form, means "submitter" or "one who surrenders"; the word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal spiritual state: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He opens his heart to Islam." Other verses connect Islam and religion together: "Today, I have perfected your religion for you. Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that includes imān, ihsān. Islam was called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies; this term has fallen out of use and is sometimes said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims' religion, parallel to Buddha in Buddhism.
Some authors, continue to use the term Muhammadanism as a technical term for the religious system as opposed to the theological concept of Islam that exists within that system. Faith in the Islamic creed is represented as the six articles of faith, notably spelled out in the Hadith of Gabriel. Islam is seen as having the simplest doctrines of the major religions, its most fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawḥīd. God is described in chapter 112 of the Quran as: "He is God, the One and Only. Muslims repudiate polytheism and idolatry, called Shirk, reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and thus. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahmān, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahīm, meaning "The Merciful". Muslims believe that the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by God's sheer command, "Be, it is" and that the purpose of existence is to worship or to know God.
He is viewed as a personal god who responds whenever a person in distress calls him. There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God who states, "I am nearer to him than jugular vein." God consciousness is referred to as Taqwa. Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims and Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews to reference God, while ʾilāh is the term used for a deity or a god in general. Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish, "Khodā" in Persian or "Ḵẖudā" in Urdu. Belief in angels is fundamental
The Adal Sultanate, or Kingdom of Adal, was a Muslim Somali kingdom and sultanate located in the Horn of Africa. It was founded by Sabr ad-Din II after the fall of the Sultanate of Ifat; the kingdom flourished from around 1415 to 1577. The sultanate and state were established by the local inhabitants of Zeila. At its height, the polity controlled most of the territory in the Horn region east of the Ethiopian Empire; the Adal Empire maintained a robust political relationship with the Ottoman Empire. Adal is believed to be an abbreviation of Havilah. Eidal or Aw Abdal, was the Emir of Harar in the eleventh century. In the thirteenth century, Arab writer Al Dimashqi refers to the Adal Sultanate's capital, Zeila, by its Somali name "Awdal"; the modern Awdal region, part of the Adal Sultanate, bears the kingdom's name. The Kingdom of Adal was centered around its capital, it was established by the local Somali tribes in the early 9th century. Zeila attracted merchants from around the world. Zeila is an ancient city and it was one of the earliest cities in the world to embrace Islam.
In the late 9th century, Al-Yaqubi, an Armenian Muslim scholar and traveller, wrote that the Kingdom of Adal was a small wealthy kingdom and that Zeila served as the headquarters for the kingdom, which dated back to the beginning of the century. Islam was introduced to the Horn region early on from the Arabian peninsula, shortly after the hijra. Zeila's two-mihrab Masjid al-Qiblatayn dates to about the 7th century, is the oldest mosque in Africa. In the late 9th century, Al-Yaqubi wrote that Muslims were living along the northern Somali seaboard; the polity was governed by local Somali dynasties established by the Adelites. Adal's history from this founding period forth would be characterized by a succession of battles with neighbouring Abyssinia. Yusuf bin Ahmad al-Kawneyn was born in Zeila during the Adal Kingdom period. Al-Kawneyn is a Somali Muslim saint, he is believed to be the founder and ancestor of the royal family known as the Walashma Dynasty, which governed both the Ifat Sultanate and the Adal Sultanate during the Middle Ages.
According to the 16th-century explorer Leo Africanus, the Adal Sultanate's realm encompassed the geographical area between the Bab el Mandeb and Cape Guardafui. It was therefore flanked to the west by the Abyssinian Empire. Adal is mentioned by name in the 14th century in the context of the battles between the Muslims of the Somali and Afar seaboard and the Abyssinian King Amda Seyon I's Christian troops. Adal had its capital in the port city of Zeila, situated in the northwestern Awdal region; the polity at the time was an Emirate in the larger Ifat Sultanate ruled by the Walashma dynasty. In 1332, the King of Adal was slain in a military campaign aimed at halting Amda Seyon's march toward Zeila; when the last Sultan of Ifat, Sa'ad ad-Din II, was killed by Dawit I of Ethiopia at the port city of Zeila in 1410, his children escaped to Yemen, before returning in 1415. In the early 15th century, Adal's capital was moved further inland to the town of Dakkar, where Sabr ad-Din II, the eldest son of Sa'ad ad-Din II, established a new Adal administration after his return from Yemen.
During this period, Adal emerged as a center of Muslim resistance against the expanding Christian Abyssinian kingdom. Adal would thereafter govern all of the territory ruled by the Ifat Sultanate, as well as the land further east all the way to Cape Guardafui, according to Leo Africanus. After 1468, a new breed of rulers emerged on the Adal political scene; the dissidents opposed Walashma rule owing to a treaty that Sultan Muhammad ibn Badlay had signed with Emperor Baeda Maryam of Ethiopia, wherein Badlay agreed to submit yearly tribute. This was done to achieve peace in the region. Adal's Emirs, who administered the provinces, interpreted the agreement as a betrayal of their independence and a retreat from the polity's longstanding policy of resistance to Abyssinian incursions; the main leader of this opposition was the Emir of the Sultanate's richest province. As such, he was expected to pay the highest share of the annual tribute to be given to the Abyssinian Emperor. Emir Laday Usman subsequently marched to Dakkar and seized power in 1471.
However, Usman did not dismiss the Sultan from office, but instead gave him a ceremonial position while retaining the real power for himself. Adal now came under the leadership of a powerful Emir who governed from the palace of a nominal Sultan. Adalite armies under the leadership of rulers such as Sabr ad-Din II, Mansur ad-Din, Jamal ad-Din II, Shams ad-Din and general Mahfuz subsequently continued the struggle against Abyssinian expansionism. Emir Mahfuz, who would fight with successive emperors, caused the death of Emperor Na'od in 1508, but he was in turn killed by the forces of Emperor Dawit II in 1517. After the death of Mahfuz, a civil war started for the office of Highest Emir of Adal. Five Emirs came to power in only two years, but at last, a matured and powerful leader called. When Garad Abogne was in power he was defeated and killed by Sultan Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad, In 1554, under his initiative, Harar became the capital of Adal; this time not only the young Emirs revolted, but the whole country of Adal rose against Sultan Abu Bakr, because Garad Abogne was loved by the people of the sultanate.
Many people went to join the force of a young imam called Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi, who claimed revenge for Garad Abogne. Al-Ghazi assumed power in Adal in 1527, however he did no
Damot was a medieval kingdom in what is now Ethiopia, neighbor to the Ethiopian Empire. Located south of the Abay and west of the Muger River, under the pressure of Oromo attacks the rulers were forced to resettle north of the Abay in southern Gojjam between 1574 and 1606; the kings, who bore the title Motalami, resided in a town which, according to the hagiography of Tekle Haymanot, was called Malbarde. Their territory extended east beyond the Muger as far as the Jamma. Bouanga, Ayda. Le Damot dans l'histoire de l'Ethiopie: recompositions religieuses, politiques et historiographiques. Université Panthéon-Sorbonn. Bouanga, Ayda. "Le royaume du Damot: enquête sur une puissance politique et économique de la Corne de l'Afrique". Annales d'Ethiopie. 29: 27–58. Doi:10.3406/ethio.2014.155