SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Hadrian's Villa

Hadrian's Villa is a large Roman archaeological complex at Tivoli, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site, it is the property of the Republic of Italy, has been directed and run by the Polo Museale del Lazio since December 2014; the villa was constructed at Tibur as a retreat from Rome for Roman Emperor Hadrian during the second and third decades of the 2nd century AD. Hadrian is said to have disliked the palace on the Palatine Hill in Rome, leading to the construction of the retreat, it was traditional that the Roman emperor had constructed a villa as a place to relax from everyday life. Previous emperors and Romans with wealth, such as Trajan, had constructed villas. Many villas were self-sustaining with small farms and did not need to import food; the picturesque landscape around Tibur had made the area a popular choice for villas and rural retreats. It was reputedly popular with people from the Spanish peninsula who were residents in the city of Rome; this may have contributed to Hadrian's choice of the property – although born in Rome, his parents came from Spain and he may have been familiar with the area during his early life.

There may have been a connection through his wife Vibia Sabina, the niece of the Emperor Trajan. Sabina's family held large landholdings and it is speculated the Tibur property may have been one of them. A villa from the Republican era formed the basis for Hadrian's establishment. During the years of his reign, Hadrian governed the empire from the villa. Hadrian started using the villa as his official residence around AD 128. A large court therefore lived there permanently and large numbers of visitors and bureaucrats would have to have been entertained and temporarily housed on site; the postal service kept it in contact with Rome 29 kilometres away, where the various government departments were located. It isn't known if Hadrian's wife lived at the villa either on a temporary or permanent basis – his relations with her were rather strained or distant due to his ambiguous sexuality. Hadrian's parents had died when he was young, he and his sister were adopted by Trajan, it is possible that Hadrian's court at the villa was predominately male but it's that his childhood nurse Germana, to whom he had formed a deep attachment, was accommodated there.

After Hadrian, the villa was used by his various successors. Zenobia, the deposed queen of Palmyra lived here in the 270s. During the decline of the Roman Empire in the 4th century, the villa fell into disuse and was ruined as valuable statues and marble were taken away; the facility was used as a warehouse by both sides during the destructive Gothic War between the Ostrogoths and Byzantines. Remains of lime kilns have been found, where marble from the complex was burned to extract lime for building material. In the 16th century, Cardinal Ippolito II d'Este had much of the remaining marble and statues in Hadrian's Villa removed to decorate his own Villa d'Este located nearby. Since that period excavations have sporadically turned up more fragments and sculptures, some of which have been kept in situ or housed on site in the display buildings. Hadrian's Villa is a vast area of land with many pools, baths and classical Greek and Roman architecture set in what would have been a mixture of landscaped gardens, wilderness areas and cultivated farmlands.

The buildings are constructed in travertine, lime and tufa. The complex contains over 30 buildings, covering at least a square kilometre, of which much is still unexcavated. Villas were sited on hilltops, but with its fountains and gardens, Hadrian's villa required abundant sources water, supplied by aqueducts feeding Rome, including the Aqua Anio Vetus, Aqua Anio Novus, Aqua Marcia, Aqua Claudia. To avail themselves of those sources, the villa had to be located on land lower than the aqueduct; the complex of the villa contains many structures from different cultures. For example, the villa has a small Nile river running through it that relates back to the Egyptian Nile river; the villa had Poikilos, which are Greek figures that were seen in ancient Greece. Within all the structures in the villa, there is a grotto called Hades. All these structures relate back to; the architecture goes beyond the mere naming of its structures naming after places and monuments seen by Hadrian on his extensive travels across the empire.

Certain buildings attempt to recreate specific features of landscapes or architecture that had personal significance for the emperor. Thus, the area known as the Canopus, named after the Egyptian city where Antinoos drowned, features a long, stately reflecting pool, representing the Nile, lined with copies of famous works of sculpture including the caryatids of the Erechtheion, a statue depicting the Egyptian dwarf and fertility god, Bes and a crocodile; the Pecile is modeled after the Stoa Poikile in Athens, a city favored by Hadrian. The structures mix traditional Greek and innovative Roman elements; the island enclosure uses the classical Ionic order, albeit in a novel way. Hadrian's Pecile located inside the Villa was a huge garden surrounded by a swimming pool and an arcade; the pool's dimensions measure 232

Croton–Harmon station

The Croton–Harmon station is a train station in Croton-on-Hudson, New York. It serves the Metro-North Railroad's Hudson Line and all Amtrak lines running along the Empire Corridor, it is the main transfer point between the Hudson Line's local and express service and marks the endpoint of third rail electrification on the route. It is 32.5 miles from Grand Central Terminal. Travel times to Grand Central range from 42 minutes to 71 minutes. Croton-Harmon is the northern limit of electrification on the Hudson Line. All electric multiple unit trains terminate here. Trains coming to and from the northern terminus at Poughkeepsie are powered by dual-mode GE P32AC-DM locomotives. Metro-North used to host an open house of the maintenance facilities every October; the last Open House was in 2008, with the event suspended indefinitely due to renovations of the Harmon shops. Amtrak passengers can travel between this station and New York Penn Station on all Empire routes except the New York City section of the Lake Shore Limited, which stops here only to discharge passengers southbound and to receive passengers northbound.

During the days of the New York Central Railroad, the station and shops were known as Harmon. Trains continuing north of Harmon, including the flagship 20th Century Limited would exchange their electric locomotive for a steam or diesel locomotive to continue the journey to points north and west; the Village of Croton-on-Hudson operates the station parking lot. A great number of spots are reserved for long-term permit holders and village residents. There is ample parking for daily use; the station is accessed via the Croton Point Avenue exit from US 9. As of August 2006, daily commuter ridership was 3368 and there are 1903 parking spots; the station has three high-level island platforms each 10 cars long. Some Hudson Line trains stop on Tracks 1 and 2. Media related to Croton–Harmon station at Wikimedia Commons Croton-Harmon, NY – Amtrak Metro-North Railroad - Croton-Harmon List of upcoming Metro-North train arrival and departure times and track assignments from MTA The Subway Nut - Croton-Harmon Station from Croton Point Avenue from Google Maps Street View Entrance from Google Maps Street View Croton-Harmon, NY Railroad History: New York Central Railroad Harmon Shops "Harmon Open House 2001," by Ron Yee

Suman Singh

Suman Singh was born in Dhangahi, Kailali District, Nepal, in Far-Western Region. She did his schooling at Dhangadhi. In his college days, she was interested in sports. SHe was selected in SAAF boxing championship, when she was in class 11. At that time she was inspired by his senior players and his brother to become an actor but he did not take that seriously. During his sister's marriage ceremony, he was surprised when some of the people related to Nepali Film Industry offered him to work in Nepali movies as an actor, he started his acting career with a telefilm "Kathmandu" during the end of 2001 which came to be a hit. In the course of the Telefilm, popular Nepali comedian actor Jeetu Nepal asked him to work in the movies and he introduced him to Nepali Film Director Tulsi Ghimire. After the successful Nepali Tele Film Sindoor which Starred Aaryan Sigdel, Garima Panta, Hemanta Budhathoki & Ranju Lamichane, broadcast in Nepal Television & he was appreciated for his performance & horror Tele Film Jhajhalko which Starred Nandita KC, broadcast in Nepal 1 In 51 episode & a successful Tele Film.

He starred in his first movie "Dukha" was released on 26 September 2003 in a supporting role. He was involved in international project of UNICIEF which gave him more traction in his career, he is now the popular leading actor of Nepali film industry, appreciated for his loving and respecting nature to everyone. His popularity took another height after he contributed financial and medical aid to the earthquake victims in Nepal, his released Nepali movie is "Chadai Aau Hai" released on 14 August 2015. He has worked in more than 90 movies till date. Suman Singh has worked with several actresses in his career; some of them are as follows: Rajesh Hamal Dilip Rayamajhi Nikhil Upreti Biraj Bhatta Jiwan Luitel Sunil Thapa Jharana Thapa Niruta Singh Rekha Thapa Usha Poudel Sushma Karki