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Hadron

In particle physics, a hadron is a subatomic composite particle made of two or more quarks held together by the strong force in a similar way as molecules are held together by the electromagnetic force. Most of the mass of ordinary matter comes from the proton and the neutron. Hadrons are categorized into two families: baryons, made of an odd number of quarks – three quarks – and mesons, made of an number of quarks—usually one quark and one antiquark. Protons and neutrons are examples of baryons. "Exotic" hadrons, containing more than three valence quarks, have been discovered in recent years. A tetraquark state, named the Z−, was discovered in 2007 by the Belle Collaboration and confirmed as a resonance in 2014 by the LHCb collaboration. Two pentaquark states, named P+c and P+c, were discovered in 2015 by the LHCb collaboration. There are several more exotic hadron candidates, other colour-singlet quark combinations that may exist. All "free" hadrons and antihadrons are believed to be unstable and decay into other particles.

The only known exception relates to free protons, which are stable, or at least, take immense amounts of time to decay. Free neutrons are decay with a half-life of about 611 seconds, their respective antiparticles are expected to follow the same pattern, but they are difficult to capture and study, because they annihilate on contact with ordinary matter. "Bound" protons and neutrons, contained within an atomic nucleus, are considered stable. Experimentally, hadron physics is studied by colliding protons or nuclei of heavy elements such as lead or gold, detecting the debris in the produced particle showers. In the natural environment, mesons such as pions are produced by the collisions of cosmic rays with the atmosphere; the term "hadron" was introduced by Lev B. Okun in a plenary talk at the 1962 International Conference on High Energy Physics. In this talk he said: Notwithstanding the fact that this report deals with weak interactions, we shall have to speak of interacting particles; these particles pose not only numerous scientific problems, but a terminological problem.

The point is that "strongly interacting particles" is a clumsy term which does not yield itself to the formation of an adjective. For this reason, to take but one instance, decays into interacting particles are called non-leptonic; this definition is not exact because "non-leptonic" may signify "photonic". In this report I shall call interacting particles "hadrons", the corresponding decays "hadronic". I hope. According to the quark model, the properties of hadrons are determined by their so-called valence quarks. For example, a proton is composed of two up one down quark. Adding these together yields the proton charge of +1. Although quarks carry color charge, hadrons must have zero total color charge because of a phenomenon called color confinement; that is, hadrons must be "colorless" or "white". The simplest ways for this to occur are with a quark of one color and an antiquark of the corresponding anticolor, or three quarks of different colors. Hadrons with the first arrangement are a type of meson, those with the second arrangement are a type of baryon.

Massless virtual gluons compose the numerical majority of particles inside hadrons. The strength of the strong force gluons which bind the quarks together has sufficient energy to have resonances composed of massive quarks. One outcome is that short-lived pairs of virtual quarks and antiquarks are continually forming and vanishing again inside a hadron; because the virtual quarks are not stable wave packets, but an irregular and transient phenomenon, it is not meaningful to ask which quark is real and which virtual. Therefore, when a hadron or anti-hadron is stated to consist of 2 or 3 quarks, this technically refers to the constant excess of quarks vs. antiquarks. Like all subatomic particles, hadrons are assigned quantum numbers corresponding to the representations of the Poincaré group: JPC, where J is the spin quantum number, P the intrinsic parity, C the charge conjugation, m the particle's mass. Note that the mass of a hadron has little to do with the mass of its valence quarks. Hadrons may carry flavor quantum numbers such as isospin, strangeness.

All quarks carry an additive, conserved quantum number called a baryon number, +​1⁄3 for quarks and −​1⁄3 for antiquarks. This means that baryons have B = 1 whereas mesons have B = 0. Hadrons have excited states known as resonances; each ground state hadron may have several excited states. Resonances decay quickly via the strong nuclear force. In other phases of matter the hadrons may disappear. For example, at high temperature and high pressure, unless there are sufficiently many flavors of quarks, the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QC

Sandusky (locomotive)

Sandusky was the name of a steam railroad locomotive, a 4-2-0, built in the United States. This locomotive included engineering features that hadn't been used before in locomotive construction and it played an integral role in the railroad history of Ohio. Sandusky was the first locomotive built by Ketchum & Grosvenor. Thomas Rogers, the manufacturing company's founder, designed the locomotive. While some references cite Sandusky as the first locomotive built in the United States, the Best Friend of Charleston is more accepted as the first; the Sandusky, was the first locomotive to feature counterweights in its driving wheels to offset the force of the piston stroke and the combined weight of the axle and piston rod against the railroad track. Rogers filed a patent for the engine's counterbalance on July 12, 1837. Sandusky featured the first use of hollow oval-shaped spokes in its driving wheels. While Sandusky was built for the New Jersey Railroad and Transportation Company, that railroad never purchased the engine.

It was sold to the Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad, the first railroad built in Ohio. Through this purchase, Sandusky earned a couple more firsts — it became the first locomotive to cross the Allegheny Mountains and it was the first locomotive to operate in Ohio, its transportation to Ohio was supervised by Thomas Hogg. The Sandusky pulled the first train on the MR&LE from Sandusky to Bellevue. October 3 or October 6, 1837: The Sandusky makes its first trial run between Paterson, Jersey City, New Brunswick New Jersey; some references cite October 3 while others cite October 6 as the locomotive's first trial operations. October 14, 1837: The Mad River & Lake Erie railroad purchases Sandusky. December 2, 1837: Sandusky makes its first run on the MR&LE in Ohio. Paul Rapsey Hodge Moshein and Rothfus, Robert R. Rogers locomotives: A brief history and construction list, Railroad History 13-147. Steam Locomotive Builders The Evolution of the American Locomotive Mad River & Lake Erie Railroad History Obituary of Thomas Hogg

Dehydrohalogenation

Dehydrohalogenation is an elimination reaction that eliminates a hydrogen halide from a substrate. The reaction is associated with the synthesis of alkenes, but it has wider applications. Traditionally, alkyl halides are substrates for dehydrohalogenations; the alkyl halide must be able to form an alkene, thus methyl and benzy halides are not suitable substrates. Aryl halides are unsuitable. Upon treatment with strong base, chlorobenzene dehydrohalogenates to give phenol via a benzyne intermediate; when treated with a strong base many alkyl chlorides convert to corresponding alkene. It is called a β-elimination reaction and is a type of elimination reaction. Zaitsev's rule helps to predict regioselectivity for this reaction type; some examples are shown below: + + H2O}}\\\ &\\\ &\end}}"> CH 3 β − α CH 2 Cl Ethyl Chloride + KOH ⟶ CH 2 = CH 2 Ethylene + KCl + H 2 O CH 3 − CH 2 − CH 2 Cl 1 − Chloropropane + KOH ⟶ CH 3 − CH = CH 2 Propene + KCl + H 2 O CH 3 − CHCl − CH 3 2 − Chloropropane + KOH ⟶ CH 3 − CH = CH 2 Propene + KCl + H 2 O Here ethyl chloride reacts with potassium hydroxide dissolved in ethanol, giving ethylene.

1-chloropropane and 2-chloropropane give propene. In general, the reaction of a haloalkane with potassium hydroxide can compete with an SN2 nucleophilic substitution reaction by OH− a strong, unhindered nucleophile. Alcohols are however minor products. Dehydrohalogenations employ strong bases such as potassium tert-butoxide. On an industrial scale, base-promoted dehydrohalogenations as described above are disfavored; the disposal of the alkali halide salt is problematic. Instead thermally-induced dehydrohalogenations are preferred. One example is provided by the production of vinyl chloride by heating 1,2-dichloroethane: CH2Cl-CH2Cl → CH2=CHCl + HClThe resulting HCl can be reused in oxychlorination reaction. Thermally induced dehydrofluorinations are employed in the production of fluoroolefins and hydrofluoroolefins. One example is the preparation of 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropene from 1,1,2,3,3,3-hexafluoropropane: CF2HCHCF3 → CHF=CCF3 + HF Chlorohydrins, compounds with the connectivity RCH-CHR', undergo dehydrochlorination to give epoxides.

This reaction is employed industrially to produce millions of tons of propylene oxide annually from propylene chlorohydrin: CH3CHCH2Cl + KOH → CH3CHCH2 + H2O + KCl The carbylamine reaction for the synthesis of isocyanides from the action of chloroform on a primary amine involves three dehydrohalogenations. The first dehydrohalogenation is the formation of dichlorocarbene: KOH + CHCl3 → KCl + H2O + CCl2Two successive base-mediated dehydrochlorination steps result in formation of the isocyanide. Dehydrohalogenation of Alkyl Halides

Philip Dottin Souper

Philip Dottin Souper was an English colonial administrator and railway company secretary. Souper was born in England, he was baptised in 1802 in London and presented to the church in 1803 in Saint Helier, the son of William Henry Souper and Amelia Ann. His father was a British Army officer, in the 1st Regiment of Foot, he exchanged in 1797 into a regiment raised to serve in the West Indies. It was led by William Myers, had incorporated the St Vincent Rangers, was known as "Myers' Regiment of Foot", he was paymaster of the Chasseurs Britanniques at the time. In 1813, Souper's father was transferred to become a paymaster at Dorset. In a noted case, he was convicted of a murder in Lymington in 1814, after a duel in which he killed another officer; the judge, Sir Henry Dampier, recommended mercy. It was reported that Henry William and Amelia Ann Souper had a family of six sons and a daughter. In 1817, Souper became a lieutenant in the York Chasseurs, which he had joined as an ensign in May 1815; this formation took part in the Invasion of Guadeloupe.

He was placed on half pay in 1817, became paymaster of the recruiting district at Harwich, for foreign troops. Philip Dottin Souper became Colonial Secretary of Trinidad under Ralph James Woodford, Governor from 1813. Woodford used young officials for administrative work, kept them on a short leash, it was noted. An 1834, report on the drive to reduce sinecures shows Souper taking on the dual roles of Secretary and Clerk of the Council. There were in fact three defined official roles, Secretary and Register. In 1810, James Chapman, who held the three posts, had been listed as a sinecure holder using deputies for the functions; therefore Souper, who held each of these posts at some times, was for most of his career doing so as a deputy. He was absent from his post as Governor's Secretary in 1824 for reasons of bad health; the "acting escribando" in July of that year was George F. Souper. George Frederick Souper of Trinidad became a barrister of the Inner Temple, being called to the bar in 1833. An anonymous pamphlet by "A Free Mulatto" of 1824 accused Souper of acting in a bigoted way towards a man of colour who had served in the militia, around 1820.

It records alleged slurs. The author was Jean-Baptiste Philip, of French-speaking "free coloured" background and a doctor, the pamphlet An Address to the Right Hon. Earl Bathurst, published in London, dealt with grievances specific to the "coloured population of Trinidad", understood free. In particular it dismissed an argument against setting a precedent for the recognition of people of colour, in relation to a "Dr. Philip" requesting a position from Woodward as military surgeon, he stated that Gellineau was moved to make room for Souper, but held posts including that of escribando. He argued that the precedent had thereby been set. A related complaint about the Council, in which Souper as Clerk was named, was that of George Pilkington, civil engineer on Trinidad and future abolitionist campaigner, from 1830. In autobiographical work he alleged that the Council had acted wrongly against him on a financial matter, after he had promoted a person of colour to officer rank in the militia cavalry.

In 1829, Souper acted as executor for his uncle, Philip Reinagle, on Trinidad. He took part in the 1830 public meeting hosted by Robert Neilson that appointed Joseph Marryat to represent West Indian planter interests. Under the Slavery Abolition Act 1833, Souper received compensation, for one enslaved person in Trinidad. In 1836, he was still acting as Clerk to the Council of Trinidad, but was seeking a post in New South Wales. In July 1836, Souper was corresponding from John Street, The Adelphi in London, as Secretary to the South Western Railway Company. In 1837 the company reached an informal agreement with the London and Exeter Railway Company, a rival in the south-west of England, not to obstruct parliamentary bills, it followed a deputation from the London and Exeter meeting Souper. In 1839, Souper was serving as Secretary to the Eastern Coast of Central America Commercial and Agricultural Company, he had been brought in from South Western Railway Company, resigning his post there, at the same time as Peter Harriss Abbott, on the board of the South Western Railway Company, Peter Pollock QC, the company's counsel, both of whom went onto the board.

He was replaced as Company Secretary, however, by James A. Winsor. Souper was Secretary to the Irish North Midland Railway in 1845; this was a proposed railway, which went out of business in August 1847, repaying investors 12 shillings in the pound. According to Alumni Cantabrigienses, Souper worked as a surgeon. In 1848, Souper was appointed Registrar of the Court of First Instance on Mauritius, he was Registrar of the Supreme Court there, from 1852. In 1857 he was appointed collector of internal revenue on Mauritius; this position gave a seat on the Mauritius Council, ex officio, as well as position as vendue master. Souper died at age 60, on 13 November 1861, in Queen's Terrace, four days after disembarking from the SS Euxine. During his time in Trinidad, Souper married Oriana Jane Reinagle, daughter of Ramsay Richard Reinagle, in 1827; this was a marriage of first cousins. Philip and Oriana had a large family: Woodford Cro

Church of Christ (Latter Day Saints)

The Church of Christ was the original name of the Latter Day Saint church founded by Joseph Smith. Organized informally in 1829 in New York and formally on April 6, 1830, it was the first organization to implement the principles found in Smith's newly published Book of Mormon, thus represents the formal beginning of the Latter Day Saint movement. Names for this organization included the Church of the Latter Day Saints, the Church of Jesus Christ, the Church of God, the Church of Christ of Latter Day Saints, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Smith and his associates asserted that the Church of Christ was a restoration of the 1st-century Christian church, which Smith claimed had fallen from God's favor and authority because of what he called a "Great Apostasy". After Smith's death in 1844, there was a crisis of authority, with the majority of the members following Brigham Young to Utah Territory, but with several smaller denominations remaining in Illinois or settling in Missouri and in other states.

Each of the churches that resulted from this schism considers itself to be the rightful continuation of Smith's original "Church of Christ", regardless of the name they may bear. This church is unrelated to other bodies bearing the same name, including the United Church of Christ, a Reformed church body, the Churches of Christ, an offshoot of the Campbellite movement. Today, there are several Latter Day Saint churches called "Church of Christ" within the Hedrickite branch of the movement; the first Latter Day Saint references to the "church of Christ" are found in passages of the Book of Mormon that Smith dictated from April to June 1829. During the course of this dictation, the outlines for a community of believers or church structure became apparent; such a structure would have authority from God, ordinances such as baptism, ordained clergy. Some time in April 1829, Smith dictated a story of Alma the Elder, the former priest of a wicked king, who baptized his followers by immersion, "having authority from the Almighty God", called his community of believers the "church of God, or the church of Christ".

The book described the clergy in Alma's church as consisting of priests, who were unpaid and were to "preach nothing save it were repentance and faith in the Lord". Alma established many churches, which were considered "one church" because "there was nothing preached in all the churches except it were repentance and faith in God." In addition to priests, the book mentions that the clergy of these churches included teachers. In May 1829, a revelation by Smith described the "church" in informal terms: "Behold, this is my doctrine: whosoever repenteth and cometh unto me, the same is my church: whosoever declareth more or less than this, the same is not of me, but is against me: therefore, he is not of my church." Smith's further dictation of the Book of Mormon stated that there were "two churches only. As a result of the book's references to baptism and the organization of churches, Smith prayed for clarification and direction. Soon thereafter, in May 1829, Smith and Oliver Cowdery said they were visited by John the Baptist in angelic form, who conferred the Aaronic priesthood on them, which included the authority to baptize in Jesus Christ's name.

Smith and Cowdery baptized each other by immersion. They baptized dozens of people, as early as June 1829; these converts, did not belong to a formal church organization. This community of believers referred to themselves as "the Church of Christ", included converts in three New York towns: Fayette and Colesville. In June 1829, Smith dictated a revelation stating that "in are all things written, concerning my church, my gospel, my rock. Wherefore if you shall build up my church, my gospel, my rock, the gates of hell shall not prevail against you." Some time between June and December 1829, Cowdery said he received a revelation about "how he should build up his church & the manner thereof". This revelation was called the "Articles of the Church of Christ", it indicated that the church should ordain priests and teachers "according to the gifts & callings of God unto men"; the church was to meet to partake of bread and wine. Cowdery was described as "an Apostle of Jesus Christ". According to David Whitmer, by April 1830, this informal "Church of Christ" had about six elders and 70 members.

On April 6, 1830, Joseph Smith, Oliver Cowdery, a group of 30 believers met with the intention of formally organizing the Church of Christ into a legal institution. It is uncertain whether this occurred in the home of Peter Whitmer, Sr. in Fayette, New York, or whether it occurred in the log home of Joseph Smith, Sr. near their property in Manchester. Soon after this formal organization, small branches were formally established in Manchester and Colesville. Although the purpose was to effect a legal organization, it may have had no legal effect since no records of incorporation have been found in either the Manchester–Palmyra area, the Fayette area, or in several other counties around this time period, as required by state law at the time: the church evidently did not follow the required legal formalities. Prior to 1834, all church publications and documents stated that the church was organized in the Smith log home in Manchester, New York; the first Smith log home was located on the Samuel Jennings property in Palmyra, just north of the t

Churchill Road

Churchill Road is an arterial road in the inner northwestern suburbs of Adelaide, Australia. Designated route A22, the road commences at Torrens Road and travels north to Grand Junction Road. Route A22 continues northeast from Grand Junction Road on Cavan Road to meet Port Wakefield Road. Churchill Road was known as Lower North Road; the A22 commences at the City Ring Route, travels northwest for a short distance along Torrens Road turns north into Churchill Road. It includes the complete length of Churchill Road to Grand Junction Road, where it continues northeast along the complete length of Cavan Road, terminating at Port Wakefield Road in Dry Creek / Cavan / Gepps Cross. Australian roads portal 34°53′49″S 138°35′07″E