W. W. Norton & Company
W. W. Norton & Company is an American publishing company based in New York City, it has been owned wholly by its employees since the early 1960s. The company is known for its Norton Anthologies and its texts in the Norton Critical Editions series, both of which are assigned in university literature courses; the roots of the company date back to 1923, when William Warder Norton founded the firm with his wife Mary Norton, became its first president. In the 1960s, Mary Norton offered most of her stock to its leading managers. Storer D. Lunt took over in 1945 after Norton's death, was succeeded by George Brockway, Donald S. Lamm, W. Drake McFeely, Julia A. Reidhead. Reidhead was vice president and publishing director of Norton's College division and a former editor of the Norton Anthologies. W. W. Norton & Company is an employee-owned publisher in the United States, which publishes fiction, poetry, college textbooks, art books, professional books. Norton Anthologies collect canonical works from various literatures.
Norton Anthologies offer general headnotes on each author, a general introduction to each period of literature, annotations for every anthologized text. Like Penguin Classics, Norton Critical Editions provide reprints of classic literature. However, unlike most critical editions, all Norton Critical Editions provide a selection of contextual documents, critical essays along with an edited text. Annotations to the text are provided as footnotes, rather than endnotes as well. Oxford World's Classics Verso Book's Radical Thinkers Albatross Publishing House Boni & Liveright Official website Making the Cut - Chronicle of Higher Education
A chamber pot is a portable toilet, meant for nocturnal use in the bedroom. It was common in many cultures before the advent of indoor plumbing. "Chamber" is an older term for bedroom. The chamber pot is known as a Jordan, a jerry, a guzunder, a po, a potty pot, a potty, or a thunder pot, it was known as a chamber utensil or bedroom ware. Chamber pots were used in ancient Greece at least since the 6th century BC and were known under different names: ἀμίς, οὐράνη and οὐρητρίς, σκωραμίς /, χερνίβιον; the introduction of indoor flush toilets started to displace chamber pots, in the 19th century but they remained common until the mid-20th century. The alternative to using the chamber pot was a long cold walk to the outhouse in the middle of the night. Chamber pots continue in use today in areas lacking indoor plumbing, such as rural China. In the Philippines, chamber pots are used as urinals and are known as arinola in most Philippine languages, such as Cebuano and Tagalog. In Korea, chamber pots are referred to as yogang.
They were used by people who did not have indoor plumbing to avoid the cold elements during the winter months and are still used in North Korea to this day. A chamber pot might be disguised in a sort of chair, it might be stored in a cabinet with doors to hide it. For homes without these items of furniture, the chamber pot was stored under the bed; the modern commode toilet and bedpan, used by bedbound or disabled persons, are variants of the chamber pot. The term "potty" is used when discussing the toilet with small children, such as during potty training, it is usually used to refer to the small, toilet-shaped devices made for potty training, which are similar to chamber pots. These "potties" are a large plastic bowl with an ergonomically-designed back and front to protect against splashes, they may have a built-in handle or grasp at the back to allow easy emptying and a non-slip bottom to prevent the child from sliding while in use. Some are given bright colors, others may feature gentle or unoffensive drawings or cartoon characters.
In many cases they are used since it is difficult for children to maneuver themselves up onto the normal toilet. Their size means they can be packed away in a bag for days out or when camping with young children, can be placed near or under beds for sufferers of nocturia or some other form of incontinence. "The Crabfish" is an old tale. Philippine mythology recounts. President Elpidio Quirino, as part of a smear campaign against him, was falsely rumoured to possess a golden arinola. Thomas More in his satire Utopia had chamberpots made out of gold. History of water supply and sanitation
The Ingenious Gentleman Sir Quixote of La Mancha, or just Don Quixote, is a Spanish novel by Miguel de Cervantes. Published in two parts, in 1605 and 1615, Don Quixote is the most influential work of literature from the Spanish Golden Age and the entire Spanish literary canon; as a founding work of modern Western literature, it appears high on lists of the greatest works of fiction published, such as the Bokklubben World Library collection that cites Don Quixote as the authors' choice for the "best literary work written". The story follows the adventures of a noble named Alonso Quixano who reads so many chivalric romances that he loses his sanity and decides to become a knight-errant, reviving chivalry and serving his country, under the name Don Quixote de la Mancha, he recruits a simple farmer, Sancho Panza, as his squire, who employs a unique, earthy wit in dealing with Don Quixote's rhetorical orations on antiquated knighthood. Don Quixote, in the first part of the book, does not see the world for what it is and prefers to imagine that he is living out a knightly story.
Throughout the novel, Cervantes uses such literary techniques as realism and intertextuality. The book had a major influence on the literary community, as evidenced by direct references in Alexandre Dumas' The Three Musketeers, Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Edmond Rostand's Cyrano de Bergerac, as well as the word quixotic and the epithet Lothario; the 19th-century German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer cited Don Quixote as one of the four greatest novels written, along with Tristram Shandy, La Nouvelle Héloïse, Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre. When first published, Don Quixote was interpreted as a comic novel. After the French Revolution, it was better known for its central ethic that individuals can be right while society is quite wrong and seen as disenchanting. In the 19th century, it was seen as a social commentary, but no one could tell "whose side Cervantes was on". Many critics came to view the work as a tragedy in which Don Quixote's idealism and nobility are viewed by the post-chivalric world as insane, are defeated and rendered useless by common reality.
By the 20th century, the novel had come to occupy a canonical space as one of the foundations of modern literature. Cervantes wrote that the first chapters were taken from "the archives of La Mancha", the rest were translated from an Arabic text by the Moorish author Cide Hamete Benengeli; this metafictional trick appears to give a greater credibility to the text, implying that Don Quixote is a real character and that the events related occurred several decades prior to the recording of this account. However, it was common practice in that era for fictional works to make some pretense of being factual, such as the common opening line of fairy tales "Once upon a time in a land far away...". In the course of their travels, the protagonists meet innkeepers, goat-herders, priests, escaped convicts and scorned lovers; the aforementioned characters sometimes tell tales that incorporate events from the real world, like the conquest of the Kingdom of Maynila or battles in the Eighty Years' War. Their encounters are magnified by Don Quixote's imagination into chivalrous quests.
Don Quixote's tendency to intervene violently in matters irrelevant to himself, his habit of not paying debts, result in privations and humiliations. Don Quixote is persuaded to return to his home village; the narrator says that records of it have been lost. Alonso Quixano, the protagonist of the novel, is a Hidalgo, nearing 50 years of age, living in an unnamed section of La Mancha with his niece and housekeeper, as well as a boy, never heard of again after the first chapter. Although Quixano is a rational man, in keeping with the humoral physiology theory of the time, not sleeping adequately—because he was reading—has caused his brain to dry; as a result, he is given to anger and believes every word of these fictional books of chivalry to be true. Imitating the protagonists of these books, he decides to become a knight-errant in search of adventure. To these ends, he dons an old suit of armour, renames himself "Don Quixote", names his exhausted horse "Rocinante", designates Aldonza Lorenzo, a neighboring farm girl, as his lady love, renaming her Dulcinea del Toboso, while she knows nothing of this.
Expecting to become famous he arrives at an inn, which he believes to be a castle. He spends the night holding vigil over his armor and becomes involved in a fight with muleteers who try to remove his armor from the horse trough so that they can water their mules. In a pretended ceremony, the innkeeper sends him on his way. Don Quixote next "frees" a young boy named Andres, tied to a tree and beaten by his master, makes his master swear to treat the boy fairly. Don Quixote encounters traders from Toledo, who "insult" the imaginary Dulcinea, he attacks them, only to be
Miguel de Cervantes
Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra was a Spanish writer, regarded as the greatest writer in the Spanish language and one of the world's pre-eminent novelists. His novel Don Quixote has been translated into over dialects. Don Quixote, a classic of Western literature, is sometimes considered both the first modern novel and the best work of fiction written. Cervantes' influence on the Spanish language has been so great that the language is called la lengua de Cervantes, he has been dubbed El príncipe de los ingenios. In 1569, in forced exile from Castile, Cervantes moved to Rome, where he worked as chamber assistant of a cardinal, he enlisted as a soldier in a Spanish Navy infantry regiment and continued his military life until 1575, when he was captured by Barbary pirates. After five years of captivity, he was released on payment of a ransom by his parents and the Trinitarians, a Catholic religious order, he returned to his family in Madrid. In 1585, Cervantes published a pastoral novel, he worked as a purchasing agent for the Spanish Armada and as a tax collector for the government.
In 1597, discrepancies in his accounts for three years previous landed him in the Crown Jail of Seville. In 1605, Cervantes was in Valladolid when the immediate success of the first part of his Don Quixote, published in Madrid, signalled his return to the literary world. In 1607, he settled in Madrid, where he worked until his death. During the last nine years of his life, Cervantes solidified his reputation as a writer, publishing Novelas ejemplares in 1613, Viaje del Parnaso in 1614, Ocho comedias y ocho entremeses and the second part of Don Quixote in 1615, his last work, Los trabajos de Persiles y Sigismunda, was published posthumously in 1617. It is assumed that Cervantes was born in Alcalá de Henares, a Castilian city about 35 kilometres north-east from Madrid on 29 September 1547; the probable date of his birth was determined from records in the church register, given the tradition of naming a child after the feast day of his birth. He was baptized in Alcalá de Henares on 9 October 1547 at the parish church of Santa María la Mayor.
The register of baptisms records the following: On Sunday, the ninth day of the month of October, the year of our Lord one thousand five hundred forty and seven, son of Rodrigo Cervantes and his wife Leonor, was baptised. Witnesses, Baltasar Vázquez, I, who baptised him and signed this in my name. Bachelor Serrano, his father, was a barber-surgeon of Galician extraction from Córdoba, who set bones, performed blood-lettings, attended to "lesser medical needs". His paternal grandfather, Juan de Cervantes, was an influential lawyer who held several administrative positions, his uncle was mayor of Cabra for many years. His mother, Leonor de Cortinas, was a native of Arganda del Rey and the third daughter of a nobleman, who lost his fortune and had to sell his daughter into matrimony in 1543; this led to a awkward marriage and several affairs by Rodrigo. Leonor died on 19 October 1593. Miguel at birth was not surnamed Cervantes Saavedra, he adopted the "Saavedra" name as an adult. Little is known of Cervantes' early years.
It seems he spent much of his childhood moving from town to town with his family enrolling in The Imperial School, a Jesuit educational establishment for boys in Madrid. Court records show a poor household. While it has been speculated that he studied at the University of Salamanca, there is no evidence supporting it. Based on the high praise of the Jesuits in the Dialogue of the Dogs, there has been speculation that Cervantes studied with them, but again there is no evidence, his siblings were Andrés, Luisa, Rodrigo and Juan – the latter known because he is mentioned in his father's will. The reasons that forced Cervantes to leave Spain remain uncertain. Possible reasons include that he was a "student" of the same name, a "sword-wielding fugitive from justice", or fleeing from a royal warrant of arrest, for having wounded a certain Antonio de Sigura in a duel. Like many young Spanish men who wanted to further their careers, Cervantes left for Italy. In Rome, he focused his attention on Renaissance art and poetry – knowledge of Italian literature is discernible in his work.
He found "a powerful impetus to revive the contemporary world in light of its accomplishments". Thus, Cervantes' stay in Italy, as revealed in his works, might be in part a desire for a return to an earlier period of the Renaissance. By 1570, Cervantes had enlisted as a soldier in a regiment of the Spanish Navy Marines, Infantería de Marina, stationed in Naples a possession of the Spanish crown, he was there for about a year. In September 1571, Cervantes sailed on board the Marquesa, part of the galley fleet of the Holy League that, under the command of John of Austria, the illegitimate half brother of Spain's Phillip II, defeated the Ottoman fleet on 7 October 1571, in the Battle of Lepanto. Though taken with fever, Cervantes refused to stay below, he d
Laurence Sterne was an Irish novelist and an Anglican clergyman. He wrote the novels The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman and A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy, published many sermons, wrote memoirs, was involved in local politics. Sterne died in London after years of fighting tuberculosis. Sterne was born in County Tipperary, his father, Roger Sterne, was an ensign in a British regiment returned from Dunkirk, disbanded on the day of Sterne's birth. Within six months the family had returned to Yorkshire, in July 1715 they moved back to Ireland, having "decamped with Bag & Baggage for Dublin", in Sterne's words; the first decade of Sterne's life was spent moving from place to place as his father was reassigned throughout Ireland. During this period Sterne never lived in one place for more than a year. In addition to Clonmel and Dublin, his family lived in, among other places, Wicklow Town, Drogheda and Carrickfergus. In 1724, his father took Sterne to Roger's wealthy brother, Richard, so that Sterne could attend Hipperholme Grammar School near Halifax.
Sterne was admitted to a sizarship at Jesus College, Cambridge, in July 1733 at the age of 20. His great-grandfather Richard Sterne had been the Master of the college as well as the Archbishop of York. Sterne graduated with a degree of Bachelor of Arts in January 1737. Sterne was ordained as a deacon in March 1737 and as a priest in August 1738, his religion is said to have been the "centrist Anglicanism of his time", known as'latitudinarianism." Shortly thereafter Sterne was awarded the vicarship living of Sutton-on-the-Forest in Yorkshire. Sterne married Elizabeth Lumley in 1741. Both were ill with consumption. In 1743, he was presented to the neighbouring living of Stillington by Rev. Richard Levett, Prebendary of Stillington, patron of the living. Subsequently Sterne did duty both there and at Sutton, he was a prebendary of York Minster. Sterne's life at this time was tied with his uncle, Dr Jaques Sterne, the Archdeacon of Cleveland and Precentor of York Minster. Sterne's uncle was an ardent Whig, urged Sterne to begin a career of political journalism which resulted in some scandal for Sterne and a terminal falling-out between the two men.
Jaques Sterne was a powerful clergyman but a rabid politician. In 1741–42 Sterne wrote political articles supporting the administration of Sir Robert Walpole for a newspaper founded by his uncle but soon withdrew from politics in disgust, his uncle became his arch-enemy. Sterne lived in Sutton for twenty years, during which time he kept up an intimacy which had begun at Cambridge with John Hall-Stevenson, a witty and accomplished bon vivant, owner of Skelton Hall in the Cleveland district of Yorkshire. In 1759, to support his dean in a church squabble, Sterne wrote A Political Romance, a Swiftian satire of dignitaries of the spiritual courts. At the demands of embarrassed churchmen, the book was burnt. Thus, Sterne discovered his real talents. Having discovered his talent, at the age of 46, he turned over his parishes to a curate, dedicated himself to writing for the rest of his life, it was while living in the countryside, having failed in his attempts to supplement his income as a farmer and struggling with tuberculosis, that Sterne began work on his best known novel, The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, the first volumes of which were published in 1759.
Sterne was at work on his celebrated comic novel during the year that his mother died, his wife was ill, his daughter was taken ill with a fever. He wrote as fast as he could, composing the first 18 chapters between January and March 1759. An initial satiric version was rejected by Robert Dodsley, the London printer, just when Sterne's personal life was upset, his mother and uncle both died. His wife had threatened suicide. Sterne continued his comic novel, but every sentence, he said, was "written under the greatest heaviness of heart". In this mood, he softened the satire and recounted details of Tristram's opinions, eccentric family and ill-fated childhood with a sympathetic humour, sometimes hilarious, sometimes sweetly melancholic—a comedy skirting tragedy; the publication of Tristram Shandy made Sterne famous on the continent. He was delighted by the attention, famously saying "I wrote not be fed but to be famous." He spent part of each year in London. After the publication of volumes three and four of Tristram Shandy, his love of attention remained undiminished.
In one letter, he wrote "One half of the town abuse my book as bitterly, as the other half cry it up to the skies—the best is, they abuse it and buy it, at such a rate, that we are going on with a second edition, as fast as possible." Indeed, Baron Fauconberg rewarded Sterne by appointing him as the perpetual curate of Coxwold, North Yorkshire. Sterne continued to struggle with his illness, departed England for France in 1762 in an effort to find a climate that would alleviate his suffering. Sterne was lucky to attach himself to a diplomatic party bound for Turin, as England and
Early modern period
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era. Although the chronological limits of the period are open to debate, the timeframe spans the period after the late portion of the post-classical age, known as the Middle Ages, through the beginning of the Age of Revolutions and is variously demarcated by historians as beginning with the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, with the Renaissance period, with the Age of Discovery, ending around the French Revolution in 1789. Historians in recent decades have argued that from a worldwide standpoint, the most important feature of the early modern period was its globalizing character; the period witnessed the exploration and colonization of the Americas and the rise of sustained contacts between isolated parts of the globe. The historical powers became involved in global trade, as the exchange of goods, animals, food crops, slaves extended to the Old World and the New World; the Columbian Exchange affected the human environment.
New economies and institutions emerged, becoming more sophisticated and globally articulated over the course of the early modern period. This process began in the medieval North Italian city-states Genoa and Milan; the early modern period included the rise of the dominance of the economic theory of mercantilism. The European colonization of the Americas and Africa occurred during the 15th to 19th centuries, spread Christianity around the world; the early modern trends in various regions of the world represented a shift away from medieval modes of organization and economically. Feudalism declined in Europe, while the period included the Protestant Reformation, the disastrous Thirty Years' War, the Commercial Revolution, the European colonization of the Americas, the Golden Age of Piracy. By the 16th century the economy under the Ming dynasty was stimulated by trade with the Portuguese, the Spanish, the Dutch, while Japan engaged in the Nanban trade after the arrival of the first European Portuguese during the Azuchi–Momoyama period.
Other notable trends of the early modern period include the development of experimental science, accelerated travel due to improvements in mapping and ship design rapid technological progress, secularized civic politics, the emergence of nation states. Historians date the end of the early modern period when the French Revolution of the 1790s began the "late modern" period. Dates are approximate. Consult particular article for details. Early modern themes Other In Early Modern times, the major nations of East Asia attempted to pursue a course of Isolationism from the outside world but this policy was not always enforced uniformly or successfully. However, by the end of the Early Modern Period, China and Japan were closed and disinterested to Europeans while trading relationships grew in port cities such as Guangzhou and Dejima. Around the beginning of the Ming dynasty, China was leading the world in mathematics as well as science. However, Europe soon caught up to China's scientific and mathematical achievements and surpassed them.
Many scholars have speculated about the reason behind China's lag in advancement. A historian named Colin Ronan claims that though there is no one specific answer, there must be a connection between China's urgency for new discoveries being weaker than Europe's and China's inability to capitalize on its early advantages. Ronan believes that China's Confucian bureaucracy and traditions led to China not having a scientific revolution, which led China to have fewer scientists to break the existing orthodoxies, like Galileo Galilei. Despite inventing gunpowder in the 9th century, it was in Europe that the classic handheld firearms, were invented, with evidence of use around the 1480s. China was using the matchlocks by 1540, after the Portuguese brought their matchlocks to Japan in the early 1500s. China during the Ming Dynasty established a bureau to maintain its calendar; the bureau was necessary because the calendars were linked to celestial phenomena and that needs regular maintenance because twelve lunar months have 344 or 355 days, so occasional leap months have to be added in order to maintain 365 days per year.
In the 16th century the Ming dynasty flourished over maritime trade with the Portuguese and Dutch Empires. The trade brought in a massive amount of silver. Prior to China's global trade, its economy ran on a paper money. However, in the 14th century, China's paper money system suffered a crisis, by the mid-15th century, crashed; the silver imports helped fill the void left by the broken paper money system, which helps explain why the value of silver in China was twice as high as the value of silver in Spain during the end of the 16th century. The Ming dynasty suffered an economic collapse in the seventeenth-century because of heavy inflation of silver, the European trade depression of the 1620s; the economy sunk to the point where all of China's trading partner cut ties with them: Philip IV restricted shipments of exports from Acapulco, the Japanese cut off all trade with Macau, the Dutch severed connections between Gao and Macau. The damage to the economy was compounded by the effects on agriculture of the incipient Little Ice Age, natural calamities, crop failure and sudden epidemics.
The ensuing breakdown of authority and people's livelihoods allowed rebel leaders, such as Li Zicheng, to challenge Ming authority. The Ming dynasty fell around 1644 to the Qing dynasty, the last ruling dynasty of Chi
George Cruikshank was a British caricaturist and book illustrator, praised as the "modern Hogarth" during his life. His book illustrations for his friend Charles Dickens, many other authors, reached an international audience. Cruikshank was born in London, his father, Isaac Cruikshank, was one of the leading caricaturists of the late 1790s and Cruikshank started his career as his father's apprentice and assistant. His older brother, Isaac Robert followed in the family business as a caricaturist and illustrator. Cruikshank's early work was caricature, he illustrated the first, 1823 English translation of Grimms' Fairy Tales, published in two volumes as German Popular Stories. On 16 October 1827, he married Mary Ann Walker. Two years after her death, on 7 March 1851, he married Eliza Widdison; the two lived at North London. Upon his death, it was discovered that Cruikshank had fathered 11 illegitimate children with a mistress named Adelaide Attree, his former servant, who lived close to where he lived with his wife.
Adelaide was ostensibly married and had taken the married surname'Archibold'. Cruikshank's early career was renowned for his social caricatures of English life for popular publications, he achieved early success collaborating with William Hone in his political satire The Political House That Jack Built. In the same year he produced the remarkable anti-abolitionist New Union Club, it satirised. His first major work was Pierce Egan's Life in London in which the characters Tom and Jerry, two'men about town' visit various London locations and taverns to enjoy themselves and carouse; this was followed by The Comic Almanack and Omnibus. He gained notoriety with his political prints that attacked the royal family and leading politicians. In 1820 he received a royal bribe of £100 for a pledge "not to caricature His Majesty" "in any immoral situation", his work included a personification of England named John Bull, developed from about 1790 in conjunction with other British satirical artists such as James Gillray, Thomas Rowlandson.
Cruikshank replaced one of James Gillray, as England's most popular satirist. For a generation he delineated Tories and Radicals impartially. Satirical material came to him from every public event – wars abroad, the enemies of Britain, the frolic, among other qualities, such as the weird and terrible, in which he excelled, his hostility to enemies of Britain and a crude racism is evident in his illustrations commissioned to accompany William Maxwell's History of the Irish rebellion in 1798 where his lurid depictions of incidents in the rebellion were characterised by the simian-like portrayal of Irish rebels. Among the other racially engaged works of Cruikshank there were caricatures about the "legal barbarities" of the Chinese, the subject given by his friend, Dr. W. Gourley, a participant in the ideological battle around the Arrow War, 1856–60. For Charles Dickens, Cruikshank illustrated Sketches by The Mudfog Papers and Oliver Twist. Cruikshank acted in Dickens's amateur theatrical company.
On 30 December 1871 Cruikshank published a letter in The Times which claimed credit for much of the plot of Oliver Twist. The letter launched a fierce controversy around. Cruikshank was not the first Dickens illustrator to make such a claim. Robert Seymour who illustrated the Pickwick Papers suggested that the idea for that novel was his; the friendship between Cruikshank and Dickens soured further when Cruikshank became a fanatical teetotaler in opposition to Dickens's views of moderation. In Somerset Maugham's short story "Miss King", Cruickshank's influence is referenced: "She wore a large white cotton nightcap tied under the chin and a white voluminous nightdress that came high up in the neck. Nightcap and nightdress belonged to a past age and reminded you of Cruickshank's illustrations to the novels of Charles Dickens." In the late 1840s, Cruikshank's focus shifted from book illustration to an obsession with temperance and anti-smoking. A heavy drinker, he now supported, lectured to, supplied illustrations for the National Temperance Society and the Total Abstinence Society, among others.
The best known of these are The Bottle, 8 plates, with its sequel, The Drunkard's Children, 8 plates, with the ambitious work, The Worship of Bacchus, published by subscription after the artist's oil painting, now in the Tate Gallery, London. For his efforts he was made vice president of the National Temperance League in 1856; when the invasion scare of 1859 led to the creation of the Volunteer Movement, Cruikshank was one of those who organised Rifle Volunteer Corps. At first his unit was the 24th Surrey RVC, which recruited from working men who were total abstainers and was named'Havelock's Own' in honour of Major-General Sir Henry Havelock, a hero of the Indian Mutiny and pioneer of Temperance Clubs in the army. However, Cruikshank received little encouragement from the Lord-Lieutenant of Surrey, was rebuked for crossing into Kent to recruit. Disgusted, he disbanded his unit in 1862 and began anew in Middlesex, organising the 48th Middlesex RVC; the unit ran into financial difficulties and when Cruikshank was forced to retire due to age, he was replaced as commanding officer by Lt-Col