Hafling is an Italian comune. Hafling is located in South Tyrol in northern Italy, about 20 kilometres northwest of Bolzano; as of 30 November 2010, it had a population of 756 and an area of 27.4 square kilometres. Hafling borders the following municipalities: Merano, Schenna and Vöran; the city gave its name to the Haflinger breed of horses. The emblem is a natural breed Haflinger horse, on a mountain with three vert peaks, through a pine tree; the mountain and the pine symbolize. The coat of arms was granted in 1967. According to the 2011 census, 97.58 % of the population spoke 2.42 % Italian as first language. Media related to Hafling at Wikimedia Commons Official website
The LuAZ-967 was the Transporter of the Front Line, a small Soviet four-wheel drive amphibious vehicle. Light enough to be air transportable, it had a 400 kg payload over most terrain; the design originated after the Korean War, when the Soviets saw a need for small off-road vehicles comparable to the American Jeep, to supplement the overly-large and -heavy GAZ-69s in service. It was to serve for casualty evacuation, munition supply and the carriage of light armaments, to be used by Russian Airborne Troops. Developed at NAMI, the prototype, known as NAMI 049, was completed in 1958. Unlike the Jeep, it had a Fibreglass body, four-wheel torsion bar independent suspension, permanent four-wheel drive with locking hubs, it had a wheelbase of 1,800 mm, a ground clearance of 280 mm, was powered by a 22 hp MD-65 motorcycle engine. Trials proved it underpowered, the body too fragile. A second prototype, the NAMI 049A, had a 746 cc V4 MeMZ 965 engine, steel body, rear wheel drive; the torsion bars were replaced with a coil spring setup.
It weighed 1,350 kg, with a 37 hp MeMZ 967A engine, was able to pull a 300 kg trailer. It was produced between 1961-1975 at Lutsk automobile plant - LuAZ, it was succeeded by the LuAZ-969В, LuAZ-969, LuAZ-969М and the LuAZ-1302. LuAZ-967A — modernized high-powered engine MeMZ-967А LuAZ-967M — modernized ЛуАЗ-967А with the same engine. Geolog - a special 6-wheel version was built; the LuAZ 967M had a MeMZ-967A 887 cc gasoline engine from the ZAZ automobile. An air-cooled, carbureted ohv V4, it developed 37 hp at 2250 rpm. A 4+1 speed transmission has separately engaged crawl gear. Unlike many small military vehicles, it was a front wheel drive 4x2, the rear axle was selectively engaged only when 4x4 was needed; the watertight steel body had 4-wheel independent suspension with torsion bars and 285 mm of ground clearance. The driving controls were on the truck's centerline, both the controls and the windshield could be folded down for a lower profile. Ware, Pat; the World Encyclopedia of Military Vehicles.
Lorenz Books. P. 179. ISBN 0-7548-2052-1. Thompson, Andy. Cars of the Soviet Union. Somerset, UK: Haynes Publishing, 2008. LuAZ-967 Verwundetentransporter photos LuAZ cross-country vehicles
The Haflinger known as the Avelignese, is a breed of horse developed in Austria and northern Italy during the late nineteenth century. Haflinger horses are small, are always chestnut with flaxen mane and tail, have distinctive gaits described as energetic but smooth, are well-muscled yet elegant; the breed traces its ancestry to the Middle Ages. Haflingers, developed for use in mountainous terrain, are known for their hardiness, their current conformation and appearance are the result of infusions of bloodlines from Arabian and various European breeds into the original native Tyrolean ponies. The foundation sire, 249 Folie, was born in 1874. All Haflingers can trace their lineage back to Folie through one of seven bloodlines. World Wars I and II, as well as the Great Depression, had a detrimental effect on the breed, lower-quality animals were used at times to save the breed from extinction. During World War II, breeders focused on horses that were shorter and more draft-like, favored by the military for use as packhorses.
The emphasis after the war shifted toward animals of increased height. In the postwar era, the Haflinger was indiscriminately crossed with other breeds and some observers feared the breed was in renewed danger of extinction. However, starting in 1946, breeders focused on producing purebred Haflingers and a closed stud book was created. Interest in the breed increased in other countries and between 1950 and 1974 the population grew while the overall European horse population decreased. Population numbers continued to increase and as of 2005 250,000 Haflingers existed worldwide. There are breeding farms in several countries, although most of the breeding stock still comes from Austria. In 2003, a Haflinger became the first horse to be cloned. Haflingers have many uses including light draft, harness work and various under-saddle disciplines such as endurance riding, equestrian vaulting and therapeutic riding, they are still used by the Austrian and German armies for work in rough terrain. The World Haflinger Federation, the international governing body that controls breed standards for the Haflinger, is made up of a confederation of 22 national registries, helps set breeding objectives and rules for its member organizations.
The name "Haflinger" comes from the village of Hafling. The breed is called the Avelignese, from the Italian name for Hafling, Avelengo or Aveligna. Haflingers are always chestnut in color and come in shades ranging from a light gold to a rich golden chestnut or liver hue; the mane and tail are flaxen. The height of the breed has increased since the end of World War II, when it stood an average of 13.3 hands. The desired height today is between 15 hands. Breeders are discouraged from breeding horses under the minimum size, but taller individuals may pass inspection if they otherwise meet requirements of the breed registry; the breed has a refined light poll. The neck is of medium length, the withers are pronounced, the chest deep; the back is medium-long and muscular, the croup is long sloping and well-muscled. The legs are clean, with broad, flat knees and powerful hocks showing clear definition of tendons and ligaments; the Haflinger has ground-covering gaits. The walk is energetic; the trot and canter are elastic and athletic with a natural tendency to be light on the forehand and balanced.
There is some knee action, the canter has a distinct motion forwards and upwards. One important consideration in breeding during the second half of the 20th century was temperament. A requirement for a quiet, kind nature has become part of official breed standards and is checked during official inspections; some sources recognize two types of Haflinger, a shorter, heavier type used for draft work and a taller, lighter type used for pleasure riding, light driving and under-saddle competition. The Food and Agriculture Organization recognizes both an "Avelignese" and an "Avelignese Tradizionale" as existing in Italy, although, as of 2007, only 13 of the latter existed, including only one breeding stallion. However, all breed organizations register only one type. All Haflingers today trace their lineage through one of seven stallion lines to Folie, the foundation stallion of the breed. Colts are given a name beginning with the letter or letters denoting their stallion line, fillies are given a name beginning with the first letter of their dam's name.
The exceptions are France, where foals are given a name beginning with a letter of the alphabet designated to be used for that year. The seven stallion lines are: A-line. Founded by Anselmo, born 1926. One of the most prevalent lines today, descendants include the second-largest number of stallions at stud. Anselmo was brought back to stud at the age of 21, when a lack of stallions after World War II led to concerns that the line would not survive, produced several stallions now represented in all Haflinger breeding populations worldwide. B-line. Founded by Bolzano, born 1915. Bolzano's less common line, although strong in Austria, is not prevalent elsewhere; the line is spreading nevertheless. S. and several European countries including Great Britain are establishing Bolzano lines. M-line. Founded by Massimo, born 1927. An Italian
Steyr-Daimler-Puch was a large manufacturing conglomerate based in Steyr, broken up in stages between 1987 and 2001. The component parts and operations continued to exist under new names; the company known as Josef und Franz Werndl and Company was founded in 1864 as a rifle manufacturer. It grew during the First World War, by the end of which it employed 14,000 people; the company began producing bicycles in 1894, Steyr automobiles after 1918. In September 1917 Steyr recruited Hans Ledwinka, now remembered as one of the great automobile engineers of the twentieth century, but relatively unknown, to the position of "Chefkonstrukteur", to lead the creation of their automobile manufacturing business The first Steyr car, the six cylinder Type II "12/40" appeared in 1920, it was well-built, if a little cumbersome. The small but luxurious 1.5 L six Type XII of the late twenties won international motor press acclaim. The company changed its name to Steyr-Werke AG in 1926. In 1934, Steyr merged with Austro-Daimler-Puch to form Steyr-Daimler-Puch.
The range produced in these years consisted of modern designs, sporting or complete unit construction bodies in streamlined livery, from the one-litre Steyr 50 to the 2.3 L Steyr 220 "six". During World War II, when Austria was part of the Third Reich, Steyr-Daimler-Puch's Generaldirektor Georg Meindl became one of the first German industrialists to suggest the use of slave labour from concentration camps to boost manpower at Steyr; the request was approved and prisoners were brought by guarded train from the Mauthausen-Gusen camp complex at Gusen 30 km distant. On 5 January 1942, Meindl wrote a letter to SS Gruppenführer Ernst Kaltenbrunner recommending a new'satellite' prison camp be constructed to house prisoners nearer the Steyr factory complex, explaining how this would reduce the time and loss of prisoners in transit to and from work while reducing security and transport overhead costs; this was approved and prisoners were used for facilities construction, to supplant manufacturing labor.
This practice heretofore was not common at other larger German companies, though others followed suit including Mercedes-Benz and MAN. The vehicle range was for military use, including the Steyr RSO Raupenschlepper Ost with an air-cooled 3.5 L V8 engine designed by Ferdinand Porsche, who worked for the company at that time. War-time production there included small arms, assault rifles, machine guns, aircraft engines. After the war, Steyr-Daimler-Puch built Diesel engined trucks and buses and heavy tractors and resumed passenger car production. First, Steyr assembled the FIAT 1100E put their own engine in a Fiat 1400, renaming the car the "Steyr 2000". From 1957 through to the early 1970s it produced the tiny Puch 500 under license from FIAT, again with an engine of Austrian design. Most prominent, was its range of off-road cars, from the two-cylinder Haflinger and the 4 x 4 or 6 x 6 Pinzgauer, the Fiat Panda 4x4 to the Mercedes-Puch G. SDP was the initial designer and manufacturer of these utility vehicles.
The Haflinger was produced from 1959–1974, the Pinzgauer from 1971–2000, the Puch G from 1979. The company's Puch division produced a line of motorcycles and motor scooters marketed in the United States through Sears Roebuck including the Puch 250 SGS, delivered in a cardboard crate box to the customer's home; the Austro-Daimler branch built heavy trucks for the imperial Austrian army. The main Steyr civil agricultural tractor production started in 1947. After the war Steyr-Daimler-Puch resumed manufacturing bicycles and mopeds establishing distributors in several countries to manage their sales. Steyr made bicycles for sale for other retailers, most notably Sears. In the mid 1970s "Steyr-Daimler-Puch America" was incorporated in Connecticut to manage importation and distribution of bicycles and mopeds. Puch Austro-Daimler bicycles remained in production at Graz in Austria until the motorcycle and bicycle fabrication portions of the company there were sold in the mid 1987 to Piaggio & C. S.p. A. of Italy.
Because of their extreme durability and toughness Steyr products won many enthusiastic friends around the world. In 1987, Steyr-Daimler-Puch AG began selling portions of its different production lines to form separate companies, which included Steyr Nutzfahrzeuge AG for truck manufacturing, Steyr Bus GmbH for bus manufacturing, Steyr-Daimler-Puch Fahrzeugtechnik AG and the EUROSTAR joint venture in Graz-Liebenau for assembly of automobiles and, in 1990, Steyr Tractor. Other production lines were spun off or sold outright to form independent companies, including Puch's motorcycle division going to Piaggio and Steyr Mannlicher producing weapons. In 1990, the diesel engine division was spun off into Steyr Motorentechnik GmbH, which in 2001 became an independent company, renaming itself Steyr Motors GmbH. Steyr Landmaschinentechnik AG was sold to Case Corporation in 1996 and renamed Case Steyr Landmaschinentechnik. Automobile production remained with Steyr-Daimler-Puch Fahrzeugtechnik until Magna International acquired a majority holding, in 1998, in 2001–2002 SFT was absorbed by Magna, becoming Magna Steyr.
In 1998, the production of military vehicles was sold to an Austrian investor company, which named it Steyr-Daimler-Puch Spezialfahrzeug GmbH. In 2003, SSF was sold to the U. S. co
The Willys MB and the Ford GPW, both formally called the U. S. Army "Truck, 1⁄4-ton, 4×4, Command Reconnaissance" known as Jeep or jeep, sometimes referred to as G503, were successful off-road capable, military utility vehicles, built in large numbers to a standardized design, from 1941 to 1945, for the Allied forces in World War II; the jeep became the primary light wheeled transport vehicle of the United States Military and its Allies in World War II, as well as the postwar period, with President Eisenhower once calling it, "one of three decisive weapons the U. S. had during WWII." It was the world's first mass-produced four-wheel drive car, manufactured in six-figure numbers. About 640,000 units were built, constituting a quarter of the total U. S. non-combat motor vehicles produced during the war, two-thirds of the 988,000 light vehicle class produced, together with the Dodge WC series, outnumbering those by two to one. Large numbers of jeeps were provided to the U. S.' allies, including Russia at the time – aside from large amounts of 1½- and 2½-ton trucks, some 80,000 jeeps were provided to Russia during WW II — more than Nazi Germany's total war production of their jeep counterparts, the Volkswagens Kübelwagen and Schwimmwagen, combined.
According to author Charles K. Hyde, "In many respects, the jeep became the iconic vehicle of World War II, with an mythological reputation of toughness and versatility." Not only did it become the workhorse of the American military, as it replaced the use of horses and other draft animals in every role, from cavalry units to supply trains, but improvised field modifications made the jeep capable of just about any other function GIs could think of. The jeep was considered such a valuable piece of equipment that General Eisenhower wrote that most senior officers regarded it as "one of the six most vital" U. S. vehicles to win the war. Moreover, General George Marshall called the squared-off little car "America's greatest contribution to modern warfare." In 1991, the MB Jeep was designated an "International Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark" by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. After WWII, the original jeep continued to serve, in the Korean War and other conflicts, until it was updated in the form of the M38 Willys MC and M38A1 Willys MD, received a complete redesign by Ford in the form of the 1960-introduced M151 jeep.
Its influence however, was much greater than that—manufacturers around the world began building jeeps and similar designs, either under license or not—at first for military purposes, but also for the civilian market. Willys trademarked the "Jeep" name, turned the MB into the civilian Jeep CJ models, Jeep became its own brand; the 1945 Willys Jeep was the world's first mass-produced civilian four-wheel drive car. The success of the jeep inspired both an entire category of recreational 4WDs and SUVs, making "four-wheel drive" a household term, numerous incarnations of military light utility vehicles. In 2010, the American Enterprise Institute called the jeep "one of the most influential designs in automotive history", its "sardine tin on wheels" silhouette even more recognizable than the VW Beetle; the design of the World War II jeep was the result of a long process, involving the contributions of both U. S. military officers and civilian engineers, the latter tied to three companies: Bantam and Ford, has been called a "design by committee".
In fall 1941, Lt. E. P. Hogan of the U. S. Quartermaster Corps wrote: "Credit for the original design of the Army's truck 1⁄4-ton, 4×4, may not be claimed by any single individual or manufacturer; this vehicle is the result of much research and many tests." Hogan credited both military and civilian engineers those working at the Holabird Quartermaster Depot. Advances in early-20th century technology resulted in widespread mechanisation of the military during World War I; the United States Army deployed thousands of motor vehicles in that war, including some 12,800 Dodges, thousands of four-wheel drive trucks: Jeffery / Nash Quads, trucks from the Four Wheel Drive Auto Company. General John Pershing viewed horses and mules as acceptable for the previous three U. S. wars, but in the new century, his cavalry forces had to move quicker, with more range and more personnel. After World War I, the use of motor vehicles in that war was considered only a prelude to much greater application in future armed conflicts.
As early as 1919, the US Quartermaster Corps recommended the acquisition of a new kind of military vehicle, "... of light weight and compact size, with a low silhouette and high ground clearance, possess the ability to carry weapons and men over all sorts of rough terrain." The U. S. Army started looking for a small vehicle suited for reconnaissance and messaging, while at the same time searching for a light cross-country weapons carrier. At the same time, there was a drive for standardization. By the end of World War I, U. S. forces overseas had a total of 216 makes and models of motor vehicles to operate, both foreign and domestic, no good supply system to keep them running. Various light motor vehicles were tested. At first motorcycles with and without sidecars, some modified Ford Model Ts. In the early-1930s, the U. S. Army experimented with a bantam weight "midget truck" for raiders. After 1935, when the U. S. Congress declared World War I vehicles obsolete, procurement for "remotorization of the Army" gained more traction.
In 1937 Marmon-Herrington presented five 4×4 Fords, American Banta
The Volkswagen Beetle—officially the Volkswagen Type 1, informally in German the Käfer, in parts of the English-speaking world the Bug, known by many other nicknames in other languages—is a two-door, rear-engine economy car, intended for five occupants, manufactured and marketed by German automaker Volkswagen from 1938 until 2003. The need for a people's car, its concept and its functional objectives were formulated by the leader of Nazi Germany, Adolf Hitler, who wanted a cheap, simple car to be mass-produced for his country's new road network. Lead engineer Ferdinand Porsche and his team took until 1938 to finalise the design; the influence on Porsche's design of other contemporary cars, such as the Tatra V570, the work of Josef Ganz remains a subject of dispute. The result was the first Volkswagen, one of the first rear-engined cars since the Brass Era. With 21,529,464 produced, the Beetle is the longest-running and most-manufactured car of a single platform made. Although designed in the 1930s, due to World War II, civilian Beetles only began to be produced in significant numbers by the end of the 1940s.
The car was internally designated the Volkswagen Type 1, marketed as the Volkswagen. Models were designated Volkswagen 1200, 1300, 1500, 1302, or 1303, the former three indicating engine displacement, the latter two derived from the model number; the car became known in its home country as the Käfer and was marketed under that name in Germany, as the Volkswagen in other countries. For example, in France it was known as the Coccinelle; the original 25 hp Beetle was designed for a top speed around 100 km/h, which would be a viable cruising speed on the Reichsautobahn system. As Autobahn speeds increased in the postwar years, its output was boosted to 36 40 hp, the configuration that lasted through 1966 and became the "classic" Volkswagen motor; the Beetle gave rise to multiple variants: the 1950 Type 2'Bus', the 1955 Karmann Ghia, as well as the 1961 Type 3'Ponton' and the 1968 Type 4 family cars forming the basis of an rear-engined VW product range. The Beetle thus marked a significant trend, led by Volkswagen, by Fiat and Renault, whereby the rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout increased from 2.6 percent of continental Western Europe's car production in 1946 to 26.6 percent in 1956.
In 1959 General Motors launched an air-cooled, rear-engined car, the Chevrolet Corvair — which shared the Beetle's flat engine and swing axle architecture. Over time, front-wheel drive, hatchback-bodied cars would come to dominate the European small-car market. In 1974, Volkswagen's own front-wheel drive Golf hatchback succeeded the Beetle. In 1994, Volkswagen unveiled the Concept One, a "retro"-themed concept car with a resemblance to the original Beetle, in 1998 introduced the "New Beetle", built on the contemporary Golf platform with styling recalling the original Type 1, it remained in production through 2010, was succeeded in 2011 by the Beetle, more reminiscent of the original Beetle. In the 1999 Car of the Century competition, to determine the world's most influential car in the 20th century, the Type 1 came fourth, after the Ford Model T, the Mini, the Citroën DS; the originating concept behind the first Volkswagen, the company, its name, is the notion of a people’s car – a car affordable and practical enough for common people to own.
Hence the name, "people's car" in German, pronounced ). Although the Volkswagen was the brainchild of Ferdinand Porsche and Adolf Hitler, the idea is much older than Nazism, existed since mass-production of cars was introduced. Contrary to the United States, where the Ford Model T had become the first car to motorize the masses, contributing to household car ownership of about 33% in 1920 and some 46% in 1930, in the early 1930s, the German auto industry was still limited to luxury models, few Germans could afford anything more than a motorcycle: one German out of 50 owned a car. In April 1934, Hitler gave the order to Porsche to develop a Volkswagen; the epithet Volks- "people's-" had been applied to other Nazi-sponsored consumer goods as well, such as the Volksempfänger. In May 1934, at a meeting at Berlin's Kaiserhof Hotel, Chancellor Hitler insisted on a basic vehicle that could transport two adults and three children at 100 km/h while not using more than 7 litres of fuel per 100 km; the engine had to be powerful enough for sustained cruising on Germany's new Autobahnen.
Everything had to be designed to ensure parts could be and inexpensively exchanged. The engine had to be air-cooled because, as Hitler explained, not every country doctor had his own garage; the "People's Car" would be available to citizens of Germany through a savings scheme, or Sparkarte, at 990 Reichsmark, about the price of a small motorcycle. Ferdinand Porsche developed the Type 12, or "Auto für Jedermann" for Zündapp in 1931. Porsche preferred the flat-four engine, selected a swing axle rear suspension, while Zündapp insisted on a water-cooled five-cylinder radial engine. In 1932 three prototypes were r
The Tatra 111 was a truck produced in Czechoslovakia by the Tatra company. The T111 was developed and manufactured during World War II as a heavy truck for use by the Wehrmacht. Production started in 1942 and continued for twenty years, ending in 1962 when it was replaced by the Tatra 138. Despite being built for the Nazi war machine, the vehicle played an important role after the war ended; the Tatra 111 contributed to the rebuilding effort during the postwar era in Eastern Europe and the USSR. To its chief designer, however, it brought charges of treason and collaboration with the Nazi regime after the communist takeover of Czechoslovakia and contributed to the imprisonment of Tatra's design guru Hans Ledwinka; the design was based on the proven Tatra concept of a backbone tube chassis construction with swing half axles, a modular gearbox and differential assemblies. The main advantages of the central load carrying backbone tube are its high torsion and bend strength, which protects the truck body against load stresses.
The secondary advantage is. Due to its torsional stiffness and use of differentials locks the vehicle had exceptional offroad capabilities. Of note was the ability to use a cranking handle to start the engine. Model V910 - the first Tatra air-cooled powerplant V12 75-degree V developed from Tatra V850 engine intended for use in Tatra 103; the engines had power output of 210 horsepower at 2250 RPM for war use, reduced to 180 hp at 1800 rpm to increase reliability. The engine has three camshafts and was cooled by two covered chain-driven cooling fans and belt drive. Central backbone tube and rear axles with independent swing half axles. Front axle suspended on quarter elliptic leaf springs, rear axles suspended on half elliptic longitudinal leaf spring; the service brakes were air all-round drums, parking brake had mechanical actuation on the rear end of backbone tube output shaft via a rotating drum. Front track = 2,080 mm Rear track = 1,800 mm Wheelbase = 4,175 mm +1,200 mm Road clearance = 300 mm Drive - 6x6 Selectable front wheels drive Main gearbox - 4+1 gear ratios - 5.29, 2.78, 1.62, 1.00, R 5.91 Auxiliary gearbox - 2-speed gear ratios - offroad - 4.52, highway - 1.82 Differentials - ratio 3.19 Clutch - 2x plate, dry The cab used wood for its construction due to strategic unavailability of steel during the war, in years the wooden frame was steel plated and the last models used an all-steel cabin.
The vehicle was capable of a top speed of 65 km/h. The maximum cargo capacity was 10.3 tonnes and it had the ability to tow up to 22 tonnes trailer. The Tatra 111 was in production for 20 years, with a total of 34,000 units made; the T111 engine was used in the variety of other vehicles such as a heavy tractor T141, a railway car M 131, airport tugs and pontoon bridges used by the army. The engine was "halved" to create an inline 6-cylinder version for the Praga V3S 6x6 light utility military truck and civilian Praga S5T light truck. Based on the T111 V12 engine was created V8 version for the T128 4x4 truck for the Czech Army, designed from the T111 parts. T111 main product range was in flatbed, tipper and crane configuration. Models The Tatra T111 exploits in Siberia had earned its reputation, its legendary reliability contributed to its iconic status among those who had driven and lived in those conditions; the T111 concept and technology continued its evolution in following years with a successful line of Tatra truck models.