Atlas Shrugged is a 1957 novel by Ayn Rand. Rand's fourth and final novel, it was her longest, the one she considered to be her magnum opus in the realm of fiction writing. Atlas Shrugged includes elements of science fiction and romance, it contains Rand's most extensive statement of Objectivism in any of her works of fiction; the book depicts a dystopian United States in which private businesses suffer under burdensome laws and regulations. Railroad executive Dagny Taggart and her lover, steel magnate Hank Rearden, struggle against "looters" who want to exploit their productivity. Dagny and Hank discover that a mysterious figure called John Galt is persuading other business leaders to abandon their companies and disappear as a "strike" of productive individuals against the looters; the novel ends with the strikers planning to build a new capitalist society based on Galt's philosophy of reason and individualism. The theme of Atlas Shrugged, as Rand described it, is "the role of man's mind in existence".
The book explores a number of philosophical themes from which Rand would subsequently develop Objectivism. In doing so, it expresses the advocacy of reason and capitalism, depicts what Rand saw to be the failures of governmental coercion. Atlas Shrugged received negative reviews after its 1957 publication, but achieved enduring popularity and consistent sales in the following decades. Rand's stated goal for writing the novel was "to show how the world needs prime movers and how viciously it treats them" and to portray "what happens to the world without them"; the core idea for the book came to her after a 1943 telephone conversation with a friend, who asserted that Rand owed it to her readers to write fiction about her philosophy. Rand replied, "What if I went on strike? What if all the creative minds of the world went on strike?" Rand began Atlas Shrugged to depict the morality of rational self-interest, by exploring the consequences of a strike by intellectuals refusing to supply their inventions, business leadership, scientific research, or new ideas to the rest of the world.
To produce Atlas Shrugged, Rand conducted research on the American railroad industry. Her previous work on a proposed screenplay based on the development of the atomic bomb, including her interviews of J. Robert Oppenheimer, was used in the portrait of the character Robert Stadler and the novel's depiction of the development of "Project X". To do further background research, Rand toured and inspected a number of industrial facilities, such as the Kaiser Steel plant, rode the locomotives of the New York Central Railroad, learned to operate the locomotive of the Twentieth Century Limited. Rand's self-identified literary influences include Victor Hugo, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Edmond Rostand, O. Henry. In addition, Justin Raimondo has observed similarities between Atlas Shrugged and the 1922 novel The Driver, written by Garet Garrett, which concerns an idealized industrialist named Henry Galt, a transcontinental railway owner trying to improve the world and fighting against government and socialism.
In contrast, Chris Matthew Sciabarra found Raimondo's "claims that Rand plagiarized... The Driver" to be "unsupported", Stephan Kinsella doubts that Rand was in any way influenced by Garrett. Writer Bruce Ramsey said both novels "have to do with running railroads during an economic depression, both suggest pro-capitalist ways in which the country might get out of the depression, but in plot, character and theme they are different."Atlas Shrugged was Rand's last completed work of fiction. It marked a turning point in her life—the end of her career as a novelist and the beginning of her role as a popular philosopher. Due to the success of Rand's 1943 novel The Fountainhead, she had no trouble attracting a publisher for Atlas Shrugged; this was a contrast to her previous novels. Before she began writing it, she had been approached by publishers interested in her next novel. However, her contract for The Fountainhead gave the first option to its publisher, Bobbs-Merrill Company. After reviewing a partial manuscript, they asked her to discuss a number of other changes.
She refused, Bobbs-Merrill rejected the book. Hiram Hayden, an editor she liked who had left Bobbs-Merrill, asked her to consider his new employer, Random House. In an early discussion about the difficulties of publishing a controversial novel, Random House president Bennett Cerf proposed that Rand should submit the manuscript to multiple publishers and ask how they would respond to its ideas, so she could evaluate who might best promote her work. Rand was impressed by her overall conversations with them. After speaking with a few other publishers, of about a dozen who were interested, Rand decided multiple submissions were not needed. Upon reading the portion Rand submitted, Cerf declared it a "great book" and offered Rand a contract, it was the first time Rand had worked with a publisher whose executives seemed enthusiastic about one of her books. Random House published the novel on October 10, 1957; the initial print run was 100,000 copies. The first paperback edition was published by New American Library in July 1959, with an initial run of 150,000.
A 35th-anniversary edition was published by E. P. Dutton in 1992, with an introduction by Rand's legal heir, Leonard Peikoff; the novel has been translated into more than 25 languages. The working title throughout its writing was The Strike, but thinking this title would have revealed the mystery element of the novel prematurely, Rand was pleased when he
The Sicilian Mafia known as the Mafia and referred to by its own members as Cosa Nostra, is a Mafia-terrorist-type organized crime syndicate originating in Sicily, Italy. It is a loose association of criminal groups that share a common organisational structure and code of conduct; the basic group is known as "clan", or cosca. Each family claims sovereignty over a territory a town or village or a neighbourhood of a larger city, in which it operates its rackets, its members call themselves "men of honour", although the public refers to them as mafiosi. The Mafia's core activities are protection racketeering, the arbitration of disputes between criminals, the organizing and oversight of illegal agreements and transactions. Following waves of emigration, the Mafia has spread to other countries such as Canada and the United States; the word mafia originated in Sicily. The Sicilian adjective mafiusu translates to mean "swagger," but can be translated as "boldness, bravado". In reference to a man, mafiusu in 19th century Sicily was ambiguous, signifying a bully, arrogant but fearless and proud, according to scholar Diego Gambetta.
In reference to a woman, the feminine-form adjective "mafiusa" means beautiful and attractive. The Sicilian word mafie refers to the caves near Trapani and Marsala, which were used as hiding places for refugees and criminals. Sicily was once an Islamic emirate, therefore mafia might have Arabic roots. Possible Arabic roots of the word include: ma'afi = exempted. In Islamic law, Jizya, is the yearly tax imposed on non-Muslims residing in Muslim lands, and people who pay it are "exempted" from prosecution. Mahyas = aggressive boasting, bragging marfud = rejected mu'afa = safety, protection Ma àfir = the name of an Arab tribe that ruled PalermoThe public's association of the word with the criminal secret society was inspired by the 1863 play "I mafiusi di la Vicaria" by Giuseppe Rizzotto and Gaspare Mosca; the words mafia and mafiusi are never mentioned in the play. The play is about a Palermo prison gang with traits similar to the Mafia: a boss, an initiation ritual, talk of "umirtà" and "pizzu".
The play had great success throughout Italy. Soon after, the use of the term "mafia" began appearing in the Italian state's early reports on the phenomenon; the word made its first official appearance in 1865 in a report by the prefect of Palermo Filippo Antonio Gualterio. The term mafia has become a generic term for any organized criminal network with similar structure and interests. Giovanni Falcone, the anti-Mafia judge murdered by the Mafia in 1992, objected to the conflation of the term "Mafia" with organized crime in general: While there was a time when people were reluctant to pronounce the word "Mafia"... nowadays people have gone so far in the opposite direction that it has become an overused term... I am no longer willing to accept the habit of speaking of the Mafia in descriptive and all-inclusive terms that make it possible to stack up phenomena that are indeed related to the field of organised crime but that have little or nothing in common with the Mafia. According to Mafia turncoats, the real name of the Mafia is "Cosa Nostra".
Italian-American mafioso Joseph Valachi testified before the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the U. S. Senate Committee on Government Operations in 1963, he revealed. At the time, it was fostered by the FBI and disseminated by the media; the FBI added the article la to the term. In 1984, Mafia turncoat Tommaso Buscetta revealed to anti-mafia magistrate Giovanni Falcone that the term was used by the Sicilian Mafia, as well. Buscetta dismissed the word "mafia" as a mere literary creation. Other defectors such as Antonino Calderone and Salvatore Contorno confirmed the use of Cosa Nostra by members. Mafiosi introduce known members to each other as belonging to cosa nostra or la stessa cosa, meaning "he is the same thing as you — a mafioso." The Sicilian Mafia has used other names to describe itself throughout its history, such as "The Honoured Society". Mafiosi are known among themselves as "men of honour" or "men of respect". Cosa Nostra should not be confused with other mafia-type organisations in Southern Italy, such as the'Ndrangheta in Calabria, the Camorra in Campania, or the Sacra Corona Unita in Apulia.
It is difficult to define the single function or goal of the phenomenon of the Mafia. Until the early 1980s, mafia was considered a unique Sicilian cultural attitude and form of power, excluding any corporate or organisational dimension; some used it as a defensive attempt to render the Mafia benign and romantic — not a criminal association, but the sum of Sicilian values that outsiders will never understand. Leopoldo Franchetti was an Italian deputy who travelled to Sicily and who wrote one of the first authoritative reports on the mafia in 1876, he saw the Mafia as an "industry of violence" and described the designation of the term "mafia": the term mafia found a class of violent criminals ready and waiting for a name to define them, given their special character and importance in Sicilian society, they had the right to a different name from that defining
Captain Nemo is a fictional character created by the French science fiction author Jules Verne. Nemo appears in two of Verne's novels, Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea and The Mysterious Island, makes a cameo appearance in Verne's play Journey Through the Impossible. Nemo is a mysterious figure; the son of an Indian Raja, he is a scientific genius who roams the depths of the sea in his submarine, the Nautilus, built in pieces all over the world and shipped to the builder. Nemo tries to project a stern, controlled confidence, but he is driven by a thirst for vengeance and a hatred of imperialism focused on the British Empire, he is wracked by remorse over the deaths of his crew members and by the deaths of enemy sailors. Nemo has appeared in various adaptations of Verne's novels, including films, where he has been portrayed by a number of different actors, he has been adopted by other authors for inclusion in their own works, such as in Alan Moore's The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen and Philip José Farmer's The Other Log of Phileas Fogg.
Nemo is Latin for "no one". Nemo is, the Latin rendering of Ancient Greek Outis, the pseudonym adopted by Odysseus, in Greek mythology—a ruse employed to outwit the cyclops Polyphemus; this appears to be the intended meaning, since in The Mysterious Island, when addressed by Cyrus Harding as Captain Nemo, he replies, "I have no name!" Nothing concerning his past is revealed in Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, except his dislike of imperialism and the apparent loss of his family in the past. In The Mysterious Island, Captain Nemo identifies himself as Prince Dakkar, son of the Hindu Raja of Bundelkhand, a descendant of the Muslim Sultan Fateh Ali Khan Tipu of the Kingdom of Mysore, famous for the Anglo-Mysore Wars and Mysorean rocket technology. After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, in which Dakkar lost his family and his kingdom, he devoted himself to scientific research and developed the Nautilus, wherein he and a crew of followers cruise the seas, they gather bullion from various shipwrecks in the oceans, most notably the wrecks of the Spanish treasure fleet in Bay of Vigo, sunk during the Battle of Vigo Bay.
He claims to have no interest in the affairs of the world above, but he intervenes to aid the oppressed, such as by giving salvaged treasure to participants in the Cretan Revolt against the island's Turkish rulers and by saving a Ceylonese or Tamil pearl hunter from a diving accident, or by saving the castaways from drowning in Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea and covertly protecting another set of castaways in The Mysterious Island. Like many actual Indian princes of the era, Nemo had a European or English education, in which he spent his youth studying and touring Europe. In his first meeting with Professor Aronnax and his companions, they speak to him in French, English and German. Aronnax comments that Nemo's French was perfect, relies on his intuition and knowledge of ethnology to infer that he was from southern latitudes; the Nautilus’s library and art collection reveal Nemo to be familiar with European culture and arts. Further, he was an accomplished player of the organ. Nemo is said to have died of old age, on board the Nautilus, at Dakkar Grotto on Lincoln Island in the South Pacific.
Funeral rites were administered by Cyrus Harding, one of the castaways protected by Nemo himself, his vessel was submerged in the waters of the grotto. Nemo's character in the novels is seen through the observations of Professor Pierre Aronnax, the narrator of Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, when Nemo is about forty years of age and described as a reticent man and swarthy in appearance, with a straight nose and wide-set eyes. In The Mysterious Island, the aged Captain Nemo sports a long white beard, he avoids dry land, except, as with Antarctica and desert islands. In keeping with his contempt for the nations of the surface, he uses no products that are not marine in nature, be it food, furnishing, or tobacco. Little is revealed about his political opinions except an maniacal hatred of oppression, with which he identifies all the imperialistic nations of the world, he therefore identifies himself with those oppressed, be they Cretans rising against the Turks, Ceylonese pearl divers, or black whales attacked by cachalots.
When Professor Aronnax alleges that Nemo violates maritime and international law by sinking war-ships, Nemo responds that he is defending himself from his attackers, that the laws of the world on the surface no longer apply to him. In one scene, Nemo exclaims: "... On its surface they can still exercise their iniquitous claims, battle each other, devour each other, haul every earthly horror, but thirty feet below sea level, their dominion ceases, their influence fades, their power vanishes! Ah, live! Live in the heart of the seas! Here alone lies independence! Here I recognize no superiors! Here I'm free!" Nemo is devoted to his crew and grieves when one is killed in the giant squid attack in the Caribbean Sea, or after a midnight encounter with a surface ship. He shows the same compassion in his treatment of the castaways in The Mysterious Island, retains a strong attachment to his deceased wife and children. Though short-tempered, he expresses his anger, he is a man of immense courage, in the forefront of every activity, from releasing the Nautilus from the Antarctic ice to fighting squid in the Caribbean.
Leif Erikson or Leif Ericson was a Norse explorer from Iceland. He was the first known European to have set foot on continental North America, before Christopher Columbus. According to the Sagas of Icelanders, he established a Norse settlement at Vinland, tentatively identified with the Norse L'Anse aux Meadows on the northern tip of Newfoundland in modern-day Canada. Archaeological evidence suggests that Vinland may have been the areas around the Gulf of St. Lawrence and that the L'Anse aux Meadows site was a ship repair station. Leif was the son of Erik the Red, the founder of the first Norse settlement in Greenland and of Thjodhild, both of Norwegian origin, his place of birth is not known, but he is assumed to have been born in Iceland, colonized by Norsemen from Norway. He grew up in the family estate Brattahlíð in the Eastern Settlement in Greenland. Leif had two known sons: Thorgils, born to noblewoman Thorgunna in the Hebrides. Leif was the son of Erik the Red and his wife Thjodhild, the grandson of Thorvaldr Ásvaldsson, distant relative of Naddodd, who discovered Iceland.
He was a Viking in the early days. His year of birth is most given as c. 970 or c. 980. Though Leif's birthplace is not accounted for in the sagas, it is he was born in Iceland, where his parents met—probably somewhere on the edge of Breiðafjörður, at the farm Haukadal where Thjóðhild's family is said to have been based. Leif had two brothers, whose names were Thorsteinn and Thorvaldr, a sister, Freydís. Thorvald Asvaldsson was banished from Norway for manslaughter and went into exile in Iceland accompanied by young Erik; when Erik was himself banished from Iceland, he travelled further west to an area he named Greenland, where he established the first permanent settlement in 986. Tyrker, one of Erik's thralls, had been specially trusted to keep in charge of Erik's children, as Leif referred to him as his "foster father". Leif and his crew travelled from Greenland to Norway in 999 AD. Blown off course to the Hebrides and staying for much of the summer, he arrived in Norway and became a hirdman of King Olaf Tryggvason.
He converted to Christianity and was given the mission of introducing the religion to Greenland. The Saga of Erik the Red and the Saga of the Greenlanders, both thought to have been written around 1200, contain different accounts of the voyages to Vinland; the only two known historical mentions of Vinland are found in the work of Adam of Bremen c. 1075 and in the Book of Icelanders compiled c. 1122 by Ari the Wise. According to the Saga of Erik the Red, Leif saw Vinland for the first time after being blown off course on his way to introduce Christianity to Greenland. According to a literal interpretation of Einar Haugen's translation of the two sagas in the book Voyages to Vinland, Leif was not the first European to discover America: he had heard the story of merchant Bjarni Herjólfsson who claimed to have sighted land to the west of Greenland after having been blown off course. Bjarni never made landfall there, however; when travelling from Norway to Greenland, Leif was blown off course, to a land that he did not expect to see, where he found "self-sown wheat fields and grapevines".
He went back to Greenland. If this is to be trusted, Bjarni Herjólfsson was the first European to see America beyond Greenland, the two unnamed shipwrecked men were the first people known to Europeans to have made landfall there. Leif approached Bjarni, purchased his ship, gathered a crew of thirty-five men, mounted an expedition towards the land Bjarni had described, his father Erik was set to join him but dropped out after he fell from his horse on his way to set sail, an incident he interpreted as a bad omen. Leif followed Bjarni's route in reverse and landed first in a rocky and desolate place he named Helluland. After venturing further by sea, he landed the second time in a forested place. After two more days at sea, he landed in a verdant area with a mild climate and plentiful supplies of salmon; as winter approached, he decided to encamp there and broke his party into two groups – one to remain at camp and the other to explore the country. During one of these explorations, Tyrker discovered that the land was full of grapes.
Leif therefore named the land Vinland. There, he and his crew built a small settlement, called Leifsbudir by visitors from Greenland. After having wintered over in Vinland, Leif returned to Greenland in the spring with a cargo of grapes and timber. On the return voyage, he rescued an Icelandic castaway and his crew, earning him the nickname "Leif the Lucky". Research done in the early 1960s by Norwegian explorer Helge Ingstad and his wife, archaeologist Anne Stine Ingstad, identified a Norse site located at the northern tip of Newfoundland, it has been suggested. The Ingstads demonstrated that Norsemen had reached America about 500 years before Christopher Columbus. Archaeological evidence suggests that Vinland may have been the areas around the Gulf of St. Lawrence and that the L'Anse aux Meadows site was a ship repair station and waypoint for voyages there; that does not contradict the identification of L'Anse aux Meadows with Leifsbúðir since the two sagas appear to describe Vinland as a wider region which included several settlements.
The Saga of Erik the Red mentions two other settlements in Vinl
A contract is a legally-binding agreement which recognises and governs the rights and duties of the parties to the agreement. A contract is enforceable because it meets the requirements and approval of the law. An agreement involves the exchange of goods, money, or promises of any of those. In the event of breach of contract, the law awards the injured party access to legal remedies such as damages and cancellation. In the Anglo-American common law, formation of a contract requires an offer, consideration, a mutual intent to be bound; each party must have capacity to enter the contract. Although most oral contracts are binding, some types of contracts may require formalities such as being in writing or by deed. In the civil law tradition, contract law is a branch of the law of obligations. At common law, the elements of a contract are offer, intention to create legal relations and legality of both form and content. Not all agreements are contractual, as the parties must be deemed to have an intention to be bound.
A so-called gentlemen's agreement is one, not intended to be enforceable, "binding in honour only". In order for a contract to be formed, the parties must reach mutual assent; this is reached through offer and an acceptance which does not vary the offer's terms, known as the "mirror image rule". An offer is a definite statement of the offeror's willingness to be bound should certain conditions be met. If a purported acceptance does vary the terms of an offer, it is not an acceptance but a counteroffer and, therefore a rejection of the original offer; the Uniform Commercial Code disposes of the mirror image rule in §2-207, although the UCC only governs transactions in goods in the USA. As a court cannot read minds, the intent of the parties is interpreted objectively from the perspective of a reasonable person, as determined in the early English case of Smith v Hughes, it is important to note that where an offer specifies a particular mode of acceptance, only an acceptance communicated via that method will be valid.
Contracts may be unilateral. A bilateral contract is an agreement in which each of the parties to the contract makes a promise or set of promises to each other. For example, in a contract for the sale of a home, the buyer promises to pay the seller $200,000 in exchange for the seller's promise to deliver title to the property; these common contracts take place in the daily flow of commerce transactions, in cases with sophisticated or expensive precedent requirements, which are requirements that must be met for the contract to be fulfilled. Less common are unilateral contracts in which one party makes a promise, but the other side does not promise anything. In these cases, those accepting the offer are not required to communicate their acceptance to the offeror. In a reward contract, for example, a person who has lost a dog could promise a reward if the dog is found, through publication or orally; the payment could be additionally conditioned on the dog being returned alive. Those who learn of the reward are not required to search for the dog, but if someone finds the dog and delivers it, the promisor is required to pay.
In the similar case of advertisements of deals or bargains, a general rule is that these are not contractual offers but an "invitation to treat", but the applicability of this rule is disputed and contains various exceptions. The High Court of Australia stated that the term unilateral contract is "unscientific and misleading". In certain circumstances, an implied contract may be created. A contract is implied in fact if the circumstances imply that parties have reached an agreement though they have not done so expressly. For example, John Smith, a former lawyer may implicitly enter a contract by visiting a doctor and being examined. A contract, implied in law is called a quasi-contract, because it is not in fact a contract. Quantum meruit claims are an example. Where something is advertised in a newspaper or on a poster, the advertisement will not constitute an offer but will instead be an invitation to treat, an indication that one or both parties are prepared to negotiate a deal. An exception arises if the advertisement makes a unilateral promise, such as the offer of a reward, as in the famous case of Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Co, decided in nineteenth-century England.
The company, a pharmaceutical manufacturer, advertised a smoke ball that would, if sniffed "three times daily for two weeks", prevent users from catching the'flu. If the smoke ball failed to prevent'flu, the company promised that they would pay the user £100, adding that they had "deposited £1,000 in the Alliance Bank to show our sincerity in the matter"; when Mrs Carlill sued for the money, the company argued the advert should not be taken as a serious binding offer. Although an invitation to treat cannot be accepted, it should not be ignored, for it may affect the offer. For instance, where an offer is made in response to an invitation to treat, the offer may incorporate the terms of the invitation to treat. If, as in the Boots case, the offer is made by an action without any
Bureau of Indian Affairs
The Bureau of Indian Affairs is an agency of the federal government of the United States within the U. S. Department of the Interior, it is responsible for the administration and management of 55,700,000 acres of land held in trust by the United States for Native Americans in the United States, Native American Tribes and Alaska Natives. The BIA is one of two bureaus under the jurisdiction of the Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs: the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Bureau of Indian Education, which provides education services to 48,000 Native Americans; the BIA’s responsibilities included providing health care to American Indians and Alaska Natives. In 1954 that function was transferred to the Department of Health and Welfare, it is now known as the Indian Health Service. Located in Washington, D. C. the BIA is headed by a bureau director. The current assistant secretary is Tara Sweeney; the BIA oversees 567 federally recognized tribes through 4 offices: Office of Indian Services: operates the BIA’s general assistance, disaster relief, Indian child welfare, tribal government, Indian Self-Determination, Indian Reservation Roads Program.
Office of Justice Services: directly operates or funds law enforcement, tribal courts, detention facilities on federal Indian lands. OJS funded 208 law enforcement agencies, consisting of 43 BIA-operated police agencies, 165 tribally operated agencies under contract, or compact with the OJS; the office has seven areas of activity: Criminal Investigations and Police Services, Detention/Corrections, Inspection/Internal Affairs, Tribal Law Enforcement and Special Initiatives, the Indian Police Academy, Tribal Justice Support, Program Management. The OJS provides oversight and technical assistance to tribal law enforcement programs when and where requested, it operates four divisions: Corrections, Drug Enforcement, the Indian Police Academy, Law Enforcement. Office of Trust Services: works with tribes and individual American Indians and Alaska Natives in the management of their trust lands and resources; the Office of Field Operations: oversees 12 regional offices. Agencies to relate to Native Americans had existed in the U.
S. government since 1775, when the Second Continental Congress created a trio of Indian-related agencies. Benjamin Franklin and Patrick Henry were appointed among the early commissioners to negotiate treaties with Native Americans to obtain their neutrality during the American Revolutionary War. In 1789, the U. S. Congress placed Native American relations within the newly formed War Department. By 1806 the Congress had created a Superintendent of Indian Trade, or "Office of Indian Trade" within the War Department, charged with maintaining the factory trading network of the fur trade; the post was held by Thomas L. McKenney from 1816 until the abolition of the factory system in 1822; the government licensed traders to have some control in Indian territories and gain a share of the lucrative trade. The abolition of the factory system left a vacuum within the U. S. government regarding Native American relations. The Bureau of Indian Affairs was formed on March 11, 1824, by Secretary of War John C.
Calhoun, who created the agency as a division within his department, without authorization from the United States Congress. He appointed McKenney as the first head of the office. McKenney preferred to call it the "Indian Office", whereas the current name was preferred by Calhoun. In 1832 Congress established the position of Commissioner of Indian Affairs. In 1849 Indian Affairs was transferred to the U. S. Department of the Interior. In 1869, Ely Samuel Parker was the first Native American to be appointed as commissioner of Indian affairs. One of the most controversial policies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs was the late 19th to early 20th century decision to educate native children in separate boarding schools, with an emphasis on assimilation that prohibited them from using their indigenous languages and cultures, it emphasized being educated to European-American culture. The bureau was renamed from Office of Indian Affairs to Bureau of Indian Affairs in 1947. With the rise of American Indian activism in the 1960s and 1970s and increasing demands for enforcement of treaty rights and sovereignty, the 1970s were a turbulent period of BIA history.
The rise of activist groups such as the American Indian Movement worried the U. S. government. As a branch of the U. S. government with personnel on Indian reservations, BIA police were involved in political actions such as: The occupation of BIA headquarters in Washington, D. C. in 1972: On November 3, 1972, a group of around 500 American Indians with the AIM took over the BIA building, the culmination of their Trail of Broken Treaties walk. They intended to bring attention to American Indian issues, including their demands for renewed negotiation of treaties, enforcement of treaty rights and improvement in living standards, they occupied the Department of Interior headquarters from November 3 to November 9, 1972. Feeling the government was ignoring them, the protesters vandalized the building. After a week, the protesters left. Many records were lost, destroyed or stolen, including irreplaceable treati
Anarchism is an anti-authoritarian political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary, cooperative institutions and the rejection of hierarchies those societies view as unjust. These institutions are described as stateless societies, although several authors have defined them more as distinct institutions based on non-hierarchical or free associations. Anarchism holds the state to be undesirable and harmful. Anarchism is considered a far-left ideology and much of its economics and legal philosophy reflect anti-authoritarian interpretations of communism, syndicalism, mutualism, or participatory economics; as anarchism does not offer a fixed body of doctrine from a single particular worldview, many anarchist types and traditions exist and varieties of anarchy diverge widely. Anarchist schools of thought can differ fundamentally, supporting anything from extreme individualism to complete collectivism. Strains of anarchism have been divided into the categories of social and individualist anarchism, or similar dual classifications.
The etymological origin of anarchism derives from ancient Greek word anarkhia. Anarkhia meant "without a ruler" as it was composed by the word arkhos; the suffix -ism is used to denote the ideological current that favours anarchism. The first known use of this word was in 1642. Various factions within the French Revolution labelled opponents as anarchists although few shared many views of anarchists. There would be many revolutionaries of the early 19th century who contributed to the anarchist doctrines of the next generation, such as William Godwin and Wilhelm Weitling, but they did not use the word anarchist or anarchism in describing themselves or their beliefs; the first political philosopher to call himself an anarchist was Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, marking the formal birth of anarchism in the mid-19th century. Since the 1890s and beginning in France, the term libertarianism has been used as a synonym for anarchism and its use as a synonym is still common outside the United States. On the other hand, some use libertarianism to refer to individualistic free-market philosophy only, referring to free-market anarchism as libertarian anarchism.
While opposition to the state is central, defining anarchism is not an easy task as there is a lot of talk among scholars and anarchists on the matter and various currents perceive anarchism differently. Hence, it might be true to say that anarchism is a cluster of political philosophies opposing authority and hierarchical organization in the conduct of all human relations in favour of a society based on voluntary association and decentralisation, but this definition has its own shortcomings as the definition based on etymology, or based on anti-statism or the anti-authoritarian. Major elements of the definition of anarchism include: a) the will for a non coercive society. During the prehistoric era of mankind, an established authority did not exist, it was after the creation of towns and cities that hierarchy was invented and anarchistic ideas espoused as a reaction. Most notable examples of anarchism in the ancient world were in Greece. In China, philosophical anarchism, meaning peaceful delegitimizing of the state, was delineated by Taoist philosophers.
In Greece, anarchist attitudes were articulated by tragedians and philosophers. Aeschylus and Sophocles used the myth of Antigone to illustrate the conflict of personal autonomy with the state rules. Socrates questioned Athenian authorities and insisted to the right of individual freedom of consciousness. Cynics associated authorities while trying to live according to nature. Stoics were supportive of a society based on unofficial and friendly relations among its citizens without the presence of a state. During the Middle Ages, there was no anarchistic activity except some ascetic religious movements in the Islamic world or in Christian Europe; this kind of tradition gave birth to religious anarchism. In Persia, a Zoroastrian Prophet known as Mazdak was calling for an egalitarian society and the abolition of monarchy, but he soon found himself executed by the king. In Basra, religious sects preached against the state. In Europe, various sects developed anti-state and libertarian tendencies; those currents were the precursor of religious anarchism in the centuries to come.
It was in the Renaissance and with the spread of reasoning and humanism through Europe that libertarian ideas emerged. Writers were outlining in their novels ideal societies that were based not on coercion but voluntarism; the Enlightenment further pushed towards anarchism with the optimism for social progress. The turning point towards anarchism was the French Revolution in which the anti-state and federalist sentiments began to take a form by Enragés and sans-culottes; some prominent figures of anarchism begun developing the first anarchist currents. That is the era of classical anarchism that lasted until the end of the Spanish Civil War of 1936 and was the golden age of anarchism. William Godwin espoused philosophical anarchism in England morally delegitimizing the state, Max Stirner's thinking paved the way to individualism and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon's theory of mutualism found fertile soil in France. Michael Bakunin took mutualism and extended