A Shinto shrine is a structure whose main purpose is to house one or more kami. Its most important building is used for the safekeeping of sacred objects, not for worship. Although only one word is used in English, in Japanese Shinto shrines may carry any one of many different, non-equivalent names like gongen, -gū, jingū, mori, myōjin, -sha, ubusuna or yashiro. Structurally, a Shinto shrine is characterized by the presence of a honden or sanctuary, where the kami is enshrined; the honden may however be absent, as for example when the shrine stands on a sacred mountain to which it is dedicated, and, worshiped directly. The honden may be missing when there are nearby altar-like structures called himorogi or objects believed capable of attracting spirits called yorishiro that can serve as a direct bond to a kami. There may be a haiden and other structures as well. However, a shrine's most important building is used for the safekeeping of sacred objects rather than for worship. Miniature shrines can be found on roadsides.
Large shrines sometimes have on their precincts miniature shrines. The portable shrines which are carried on poles during festivals enshrine kami and are therefore true shrines. In 927 CE, the Engi-shiki was promulgated; this work listed all of the 2,861 Shinto shrines existing at the time, the 3,131 official-recognized and enshrined Kami. That number has grown and exceeded this figure through the following generations. In Agency for Cultural Affairs in Japan placed the number of shrines at 79,467 affiliated with the Association of Shinto Shrines; some shrines, such as the Yasukuni Shrine are independent of any outside authority. The number of Shinto shrines in Japan is estimated to be around 100,000; this figure may, or may not, include private shrines in homes and owned by small groups, abandoned or derelict shrines, roadside Hokora. etc. Ancestors are kami to be worshiped. Yayoi-period village councils sought the advice of ancestors and other kami, developed instruments to evoke them. Yoshishiro means "approach substitute" and were conceived to attract the kami to allow them physical space, thus making kami accessible to human beings.
Village-council sessions were held in quiet spots in the mountains or in forests near great trees or other natural objects that served as yorishiro. These sacred places and their yorishiro evolved into today's shrines, whose origins can be still seen in the Japanese words for "mountain" and "forest", which can mean "shrine". Many shrines have on their grounds one of the original great yorishiro: a big tree, surrounded by a sacred rope called shimenawa; the first buildings at places dedicated to worship were huts built to house some yorishiro. A trace of this origin can be found in the term hokura, "deity storehouse", which evolved into hokora, is considered to be one of the first words for shrine. True shrines arose with the beginning of agriculture, when the need arose to attract kami to ensure good harvests; these were, just temporary structures built for a particular purpose, a tradition of which traces can be found in some rituals. Hints of the first shrines can still be found there. Ōmiwa Shrine in Nara, for example, contains no sacred images or objects because it is believed to serve the mountain on which it stands.
Those images or objects are therefore unnecessary. For the same reason, it has a worship hall but no place to house the kami. Archeology confirms that, during the Yayoi period, the most common shintai in the earliest shrines were nearby mountain peaks that supplied stream water to the plains where people lived. Besides the mentioned Ōmiwa Shrine, another important example is Mount Nantai, a phallus-shaped mountain in Nikko which constitutes Futarasan Shrine's shintai; the name Nantai means "man's body". The mountain not only provides water to the rice paddies below but has the shape of the phallic stone rods found in pre-agricultural Jōmon sites. In 905 CE, Emperor Daigo ordered a compilation of Shinto rules. Previous attempts at codification are known to have taken place, neither the Konin nor the Jogan Gishiki survive. Under the direction of Fujiwara no Tokihira, the project stalled at his death in April 909. Fujiwara no Tadahira, his brother, took charge and in 912 CE and in 927 CE the Engi-shiki was promulgated in fifty volumes.
This, the first formal codification of Shinto rites and Norito to survive, became the basis for all subsequent Shinto liturgical practice and efforts. In addition to the first ten volumes of this fifty volume work, sections in subsequent volumes addressing the Ministry of Ceremonies and the Ministry of the Imperial Household regulated Shinto worship and contained liturgical rites and regulation. Felicia Gressitt Brock published a two-volume annotated English language translation of the first ten volumes with an introduction entitled Engi-shiki; the arrival of Buddhism changed the situation, introducing to Japan the concept of the permanent shrine. A great number of Buddhist temples were built next to existing shrines in mixed complexes called jingū-ji (神宮寺, lit. shri
Kokugakuin University is a private university, whose main office is in Tokyo's Shibuya district. The academic program and research of Shinto study, Japanese history and Chinese literature and cultural study are evaluated in and out of Japan as well as the study of economics and pedagogy, it was established in 1882. From its beginnings as the Office of Japanese Classics Research, Kokugakuin University was one of the first universities in Japan to gain legal approval to be recognized as such under the university system; the Office of Japanese Classics Research, founded in 1882, in 1890 established a method of teaching the subject of kokugaku called Kokugakuin. In 1920, it rose to the status of a university under the old university system, after World War II it became a university under Japan's current university system in 1948. 1882, November - The Office of Japanese Classics Research is founded in Iidabashi, Chiyoda ward. 1890, July - Kokugakuin is established as an educational institution by The Office of Japanese Classics Research.
1898, April - Becomes a juridical foundation. 1904, April - Raised to the status of a vocational school according to the vocational school system. 1906, June - Renamed to Private Kokugakuin University. 1919, September - Renamed to Kokugakuin University. 1920, April - Is regarded as an official university under the university system. 1923, May - Moves to the Imperial Estate behind Shibuya Higawa. 1946, January - The Office of Japanese Classics Research dissolves. 1946, March - Once again is foundationalized and the Kokugakuin University Juridical Foundation is established. 1947, April - A second department opens. 1948, April - Under the reformed educational system, recognized as a university, department of new system literature opens. 1948, September - Amalgamates with Mejiro Academy. 1949, April - A second department of new system literature is opened. Classes begin at the Mejiro branch; the Politics Department is established. 1950, April - The Politics Department is reorganized into the Politics and Economics Department.
1951, February - Reforms to Kokugakuin University Incorporated. 1951, March - The first and specialty old system literature departments are closed. 1951, April - The second Politics and Economics Department opens. A post-graduate master's degree program in literature is established. 1951, May - A special course in Shinto training literature is established. 1952, September - Amalgamates with Kugayama Academy. 1953, March - The second old system literature department is closed. Classes at the Mejiro branch are halted. 1953, April - A post-graduate Ph. D. program in literature is established. Classes begin at the Kugayama branch. 1955, January - A training program to become a kindergarten teacher is opened. 1955, July - A Japanese culture research program is established. 1958, March - Classes at the Kugayama branch are halted. 1958, April - The Shinto major program changes to the Shinto studies program. 1958, July - Tateshina Dormitory opens. 1963, April - The first Law Department is established. 1965, April - The second Law Department is established.
1966, March - The first and second Politics and Economics departments close. 1966, April - The Politics and Economics Department is reorganized, the first and second Economics departments are created. 1967, April - A post-graduate master's degree program in law is established. The second Shinto literature department is opened. Classes commence at the Hachioji branch building. 1968, April - A post-graduate master's degree program in economics is established. 1969, April - A post-graduate Ph. D. program in law is established. 1970, April - A post-graduate Ph. D. program in economics is established. 1982, April - Kokugakuin Women's Junior College is opened. 1985, March - Classes at the Hachioji branch building are terminated. 1985, April - Classes begin at the Shin-Ishikawa building. 1985, November - A monument to the Office of Japanese Classics Research is erected. 1987, April - Completed construction of the Shin-In'yū meeting hall. 1991, April - Kokugakuin Women's Junior College is renamed to Kokugakuin Junior College and is opened to both sexes.
1991, September - Hachioji branch building is shut down. 1992, April - First and second year classes begin to be held at the Tama Plaza campus. 1996, April - Part of the literature department is reorganized into Japanese literature, Chinese literature, foreign literature sections. In the Economics department, Economic Networking and Industrial Consumption Information sections are created; the Sagamihara campus is opened. 2001, April - The system of daytime and evening lectures is introduced for the law and economics departments. 2002, April - The literature and Shinto departments are reorganized, the Shinto Literature department is opened. 2002, November - The 120th anniversary since the founding of the Office of Japanese Classics Research is recognized. 2003, April - In commemoration of building # 1 is constructed. 2004, April - A Judicial Studies graduate program is established. 2004, July - In commemoration of building # 2 is constructed. 2005, April - A Management Studies section is created in the Economics department.
The system of daytime and evening lectures is introduced for the Japanese literature and history sections of the literature departmen
Chigi, Okichigi or Higi are forked roof finials found in Japanese and Shinto Architecture. Chigi predate Buddhist are an architectural element endemic to Japan, they are an important aesthetic aspect of Shinto shrines, where they are paired with katsuogi, another type of roof ornamentation. Today and katsuogi are used on Shinto buildings and distinguish them from other religious structures, such as Buddhist temples in Japan. Chigi are thought to have been employed on Japanese buildings starting from the 1st century AD, their existence during the Jōmon period is well documented by numerous artifacts. Measurements for chigi were mentioned in an early document, the Taishinpō Enryaku Gishikichō, written in 804 AD; the evolutionary origins of the chigi are not known. One theory is that they were interlocking bargeboard planks that were left uncut. Another is, yet another theory proposes that they were used to hold thatch roofing together. Evidence of this can be seen in minka, or common traditional homes, where two interlocking timbers are found at the roof gables.
However, the only certain fact is that chigi were a working part of the structure, but as building techniques improved, their function was lost and they were left as decorations. Chigi were only to have decorated the homes and warehouses of powerful families, more decorations signified higher rank; this traditional continued until recent times. In the 17th to 19th centuries, the legal code dictated how many chigi were allowed on a building roofs in accordance with the owner's social rank. Today, chigi are found only on Shinto shrines. Chigi may be built directly into the roof as part of the structure, or attached and crossed over the gable as an ornament; the former method is believed to closer resemble its original design, is still utilized in older building methods such as shinmei-zukuri, kasuga-zukuri, taisha-zukuri. Chigi that aren't built into the building are crossed, sometimes cut with a slight curve. While chigi are predominantly placed only at the ends of the roof, this method allows them to sometimes be placed in the middle as well.
More ornate chigi, such as at Ise Shrine, are cut with one or two kaza-ana, or "wind-slots", a third open cut at the tip, giving it a forked appearance. Gold metal coverings serve both ornamental purposes. If the tops are cut vertically, the enshrined kami is a male, otherwise a female; the katsuogi, a short decorative log, is found behind the chigi. Depending on the building, there may be only one katsuogi accompanying the chigi, or an entire row along the ridge of the roof. Names for chigi can vary from region. In Kyoto, Nara Prefecture, Hiroshima, they are called uma. In parts of Toyama, Osaka, Kōchi and Miyazaki prefectures, they are called umanori. Katsuogi Shinto architecture Shinto shrine The Glossary of Shinto for terms concerning Shinto and Shinto architecture
Main Hall (Japanese Buddhism)
Main hall is the term used in English for the building within a Japanese Buddhist temple compound which enshrines the main object of veneration. Because the various denominations deliberately use different terms, this single English term translates several Japanese words, among them Butsuden, Butsu-dō, kondō, konpon-chūdō, hondō. Hondō is its exact Japanese equivalent, while the others are more specialized words used by particular sects or for edifices having a particular structure; the term kondō "golden hall", started to be used during the Asuka and Nara periods. A kondō is the centerpiece of an ancient Buddhist temple's garan in Japan; the origin of the name is uncertain, but it may derive from the perceived preciousness of its content, or from the fact that the interior was lined with gold. This is the name used by the oldest temples in the country. A kondō, for example Hōryū-ji's is a true two-story building with a 3x2 bay central core surrounded by a 1-bay wide aisles (hisashi making it 5x4 bays, surrounded by an external 1-bay wide mokoshi, for a total of 9x7 bays.
The second story has the same dimensions as the temple's core at the first story, but has no mokoshi. Some temples, for example Asuka-dera or Hōryū-ji, have more than one kondō, but only one exists and is the first building to be built; because of its limited size, worshipers were not allowed to enter the building and had to stand outside. The kondō and a pagoda were surrounded by a corridor called kairō; the use of kondō declined after the 10th century, when it was replaced by a hondō divided in naijin and gejin. The term remained in some use up to the Edo period, but its frequency decreased drastically after the appearance of the term hon-dō in the Heian period; the term hondō means "main hall" and it enshrines the most important objects of veneration. The term is thought to have evolved during the 9th century to avoid the early term kondō, at the time used by six Nara sects called the Nanto Rokushū, it became common after the introduction of the two Mikkyo sects to Japan. Various new types of temple buildings, including the hondō, were built during the Heian period, in response to the requirements of new doctrines.
Different buildings were called hondō depending on the sect, for example: the kondō, the chudō, mieidō, the Amida-dō. A notable evolution of the hondō during this period is the inclusion of a space for worshipers inside the hondō itself, called gejin. Other names such as Konpon-chūdō "cardinal central hall" are used as well, for example for the main hall at Mount Hiei's Enryaku-ji; the Tokugawa funeral temple of Kan'ei-ji, built explicitly to imitate Enryaku-ji had one, though it has not survived. Yama-dera in Yamagata is another example of a temple using this name; the Butsuden or Butsu-dō "Buddha Hall", is the main hall of Zen temples of schools such as the Sōtō 曹洞 and Rinzai 臨済. This architectonic style arrived together with Zen during the Kamakura period. There are following types of Butsuden or Butsu-dō: The simplest is a 3x3 bay square building with no mokoshi (a mokoshi being an enclosure circling the core of the temple covered by a pent roof one bay in width; the second type is 3x3 bay square, but has a 1 bay wide mokoshi all around the core of the temple, making it look like a two-story, 5x5 bay building as in the case of the butsuden, visible in the photo on the right.
It is known that during the 13th and 14th centuries large butsuden measuring 5x5 bays square having a mokoshi were built, but none survives. Large size 3x3 bay butsuden with a mokoshi however still exist, for example at Myōshin-ji. In the case of the Ōbaku Zen school that arrived late in Japan, the architecture retained the Ming Chinese style; the hondō of Ōbaku Zen temples is called daiyū-hōden ‘the Treasured Hall of the Mahāvīra ’. An example can be found at Mampuku-ji. Shichidō garan for details about the main hall's position within a temple compound; the Glossary of Japanese Buddhism for terms concerning Japanese Buddhism, Japanese Buddhist art, Japanese Buddhist temple architecture. Mahavira Hall, the common Main Hall of Chinese and Korean Buddhist temples Iwanami Kōjien Japanese dictionary, 6th Edition, DVD version Iwanami Nihonshi Jiten, CD-Rom Version. Iwanami Shoten, 1999-2001; the Evolution of Buddhist Architecture in Japan by Alexander Soper 1978, ISBN 9780878171965 Japanese Art Net User System Dictionary of Japanese Architectural and Art Historical Terminology, Kondou, Hondou entries.
Accessed on May 6, 2009 Watanabe, Hiroshi. The Architecture of Tokyo. Edition Axel Menges. ISBN 978-3-930698-93-6
Minka are vernacular houses constructed in any one of several traditional Japanese building styles. In the context of the four divisions of society, minka were the dwellings of farmers and merchants; this connotation no longer exists in the modern Japanese language, any traditional Japanese-style residence of an appropriate age could be referred to as minka. Minka are characterised by their roof structure and their roof shape. Minka developed through history with distinctive styles emerging in the Edo period; the term minka means "houses of the people". It covers houses that accommodated a wide variety of people from farmers to village headmen and low level samurai. Minka come in a wide range of styles and sizes as a result of differing geographic and climatic conditions as well as the lifestyle of the inhabitants, they fall into one of four classifications: farmhouses nōka town houses machiya, fishermen's dwellings gyoka and mountain dwellings sanka. Unlike other forms of Japanese architecture, it is the structure rather than the plan, of primary importance to the minka.
Minka are divided up with primary posts that form the basic framework and bear the structural load of the building. Despite the wide variety of minka, there are eight basic forms. The'inverted U' consists of two vertical posts fixed at the top with a horizontal beam; the beam can be fixed to the top of the post either by resting upon it or via a mortise and tenon joint. This latter method is found in minka on the island of Shikoku. The'ladder' has post and beam units connected with larger beams including beams that are closer to the foundation level; this form of structure originated in townhouses of the Edo period. The system allows the irregular placement of posts and, allows flexibility in the plan. With the'umbrella' style, four beams radiate out from a central post; these posts sit at the centre of the square rather than the corners. Minka of this type are found in Shiga Prefecture. The'cross' has two beams at right angles to one another with the posts in the centre of the sides, it is used for small minka that have no other posts erected in the space or for large minka in the earth-floored area.
The style is most found in Shiga and Fukui prefectures.'Parallel crosses' are found in Shizuoka Prefecture and cover an area 5 metres by 10 metres. This system doubles up the ` cross' structure with eight posts; the ` box' structure connects four or more beam units to create a box-like structure. It can be found in Toyama and Ishikawa prefectures. The'interconnected box' can be found in Kyoto and Osaka.'Rising beams' is a form that enables better use of the second storey. It uses beams that rise from the posts to a secondary ridge, below the one formed by the rafters. Thatched roof farmhouses based upon the'rising beam' structure can be further classified into four major types; the yojiro-gumi and the wagoya are rare. The latter of these, the wagoya, is popular for machiya houses. Far more common are the odachi types; the odachi style has rafters and short vertical posts to support the ridge. These posts would have extended to the ground resulting in a row of posts extending down the centre of the house and dividing it.
Although these could be accommodated in the layout of the main house, they were impractical in the earth-floored entrance area—so they were omitted and a special beam structure used instead. This style was in wide use until the Edo period; the sasu style is a simpler triangular shape with a pair of rafters joined at the top to support the ridge pole. The ends of these rafters were sharpened to fit into mortice holes at either end of crossbeam; as this system does not rely on central posts it leaves a more unobstructed plan than the odachi style. There were two main methods for setting out the floor plan of the minka; the kyoma method uses a standard size of tatami mat, whereas the inakama method is based upon column spacing. The kyoma method works well for minka without central columns as the mats and the sliding partitions can be based on a standard size, it was used in minka in eastern Japan. The method has its disadvantages if used with posts because variations in post width can make the prefabrication of the sliding partitions difficult.
The inakama method is based upon the distance between centre of one post and centre of the post adjacent to it and it was used on the eastern side of Japan. The size and decoration of a minka was dependent upon its location and social status of its owner. Minka were influenced by local building techniques and were built with materials that were abundant in the immediate locality. For example, minka in Shizuoka used abundant bamboo for roofs, eaves and floors; when miscanthus reeds were difficult to obtain for thatched roofs, shingles were used instead. Climate had a bearing on construction: In Kyoto in the late Heian and Muromachi periods, roofs were clad in thin wooden shingles so owners would put stones on top to prevent the shingles from flying away in the wind; the social status of the minka owner was indicated by the complexity of the building. For thatched roof minka the nu
The karahafu is a type of gable with a style peculiar to Japan. The characteristic shape is the undulating curve at the top; this gable is common in traditional architecture, including Japanese castles, Buddhist temples, Shinto shrines. Roofing materials such as tile and bark may be used as coverings; the face beneath the gable may be flush with the wall below. Although kara can be translated as meaning "China" or "Tang", this type of roof with undulating bargeboards is an invention of Japanese carpenters in the late Heian period, it was named thus because the word kara could mean "noble" or "elegant", was added to names of objects considered grand or intricate regardless of origin. The karahafu developed during the Heian period and is shown in picture scrolls to decorate gates and palanquins; the first known depiction of a karahafu appears on a miniature shrine in Shōryoin shrine at Hōryū-ji in Nara. The karahafu and its building style became popular during the Kamakura and Muromachi period, when Japan witnessed a new wave of influences from the Asian continent.
During the Kamakura period, Zen Buddhism spread to Japan and the karahafu was employed in many Zen temples. The karahafu was used only in temples and aristocratic gateways, but starting from the beginning of the Azuchi–Momoyama period, it became an important architectural element in the construction of a daimyō's mansions and castles; the daimyō's gateway with a karahafu roof was reserved for the shōgun during his onari visits to the retainer, or for the reception of the emperor at shogunate establishments. A structure associated with these social connections imparted special meaning. Gates with a karahafu roof, the karamon, became a means to proclaim the prestige of a building and functioned as a symbol of both religious and secular architecture. In the Tokugawa shogunate, the karamon gates were a powerful symbol of authority reflected in architecture. Karamon Japanese architecture Japanese castle
A hōkyōintō is a Japanese pagoda, so called because it contained the Hōkyōin dharani sūtra. A Chinese variant of the Indian stūpa, it was conceived as a cenotaph of the King of Wuyue – Qian Liu. Made in stone and metal or wood, hōkyōintō started to be made in their present form during the Kamakura period. Like a gorintō, they are divided in five main sections called kaeribanaza, or "inverted flower seat", kiso, or base, tōshin, or body, kasa, or umbrella, sōrin, or pagoda finial; the tōshin is carved with a Sanskrit letter. The'sōrin has the same shape as the tip of a five-storied pagoda; the kasa can be called yane, or roof. It's decorated with four characteristic wings called sumikazari. Different structures exist, the hōkyōintō property of the Yatsushiro Municipal Museum in Kyushu for example is divided in just four parts, with no kaeribanaza; the sūtra contain all the pious deeds of a Tathagata Buddha, the faithful believe that praying in front of a hōkyōintō their sins will be canceled, during their lives they will be protected from disasters and after death they will go to heaven.
The hōkyōintō tradition in Japan is believed to have begun during the Asuka period. They started to be made in stone only during the Kamakura period, it is during this period that they started to be used as tombstones and cenotaphs. Iwanami Kōjien Japanese dictionary Sixth Edition, DVD Version Shinkō no Katachi - Hōkyōintō, Yatsushiro Municipal Museum, accessed on September 18, 2008 "Nihon Rekishi Chimei Taikei, online version". Hatakeyama Shigeyasu no Haka. Heibonsha. Retrieved 2008-09-18