Tel Aviv is the second most populous city in Israel—after Jerusalem—and the most populous city in the conurbation of Gush Dan, Israel's largest metropolitan area. Located on the country's Mediterranean coastline and with a population of 443,939, it is the economic and technological center of the country. Tel Aviv is governed by the Tel Aviv-Yafo Municipality, headed by Mayor Ron Huldai, is home to many foreign embassies, it is ranked 25th in the Global Financial Centres Index. Tel Aviv has the third- or fourth-largest economy and the largest economy per capita in the Middle East; the city has the 31st highest cost of living in the world. Tel Aviv receives over 2.5 million international visitors annually. A "party capital" in the Middle East, it has 24-hour culture. Tel Aviv is home to Tel Aviv University, the largest university in the country with more than 30,000 students; the city was founded in 1909 by the Yishuv as a modern housing estate on the outskirts of the ancient port city of Jaffa part of the Jerusalem province of Ottoman Syria.
It was at first called'Ahuzat Bayit', a name changed the following year to'Tel Aviv'. Its name means "Ancient Hill of Spring". Other Jewish suburbs of Jaffa established outside Jaffa's Old City before Tel Aviv became part of Tel Aviv, the oldest among them being Neve Tzedek. Immigration by Jewish refugees meant that the growth of Tel Aviv soon outpaced that of Jaffa, which had a majority Arab population at the time. Tel Aviv and Jaffa were merged into a single municipality in 1950, two years after the Israeli Declaration of Independence, proclaimed in the city. Tel Aviv's White City, designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2003, comprises the world's largest concentration of International Style buildings, including Bauhaus and other related modernist architectural styles. Tel Aviv is the Hebrew title of Theodor Herzl's Altneuland, translated from German by Nahum Sokolow. Sokolow had adopted the name of a Mesopotamian site near the city of Babylon mentioned in Ezekiel: "Then I came to them of the captivity at Tel Aviv, that lived by the river Chebar, to where they lived.
The name was chosen in 1910 from several suggestions, including "Herzliya". It was found fitting. Aviv is Hebrew for "spring", symbolizing renewal, tel is a man-made mound accumulating layers of civilization built one over the other and symbolizing the ancient. Although founded in 1909 as a small settlement on the sand dunes north of Jaffa, Tel Aviv was envisaged as a future city from the start, its founders hoped that in contrast to what they perceived as the squalid and unsanitary conditions of neighbouring Arab towns, Tel Aviv was to be a clean and modern city, inspired by the European cities of Warsaw and Odessa. The marketing pamphlets advocating for its establishment in 1906, wrote: In this city we will build the streets so they have roads and sidewalks and electric lights; every house will have water from wells that will flow through pipes as in every modern European city, sewerage pipes will be installed for the health of the city and its residents. Jaffa, now a part of Tel Aviv, was an important port city in the region for millennia.
Archaeological evidence shows signs of human settlement there starting in 7,500 BC. Its natural harbour has been used since the Bronze Age. By the time Tel Aviv was founded as a separate city during Ottoman rule of the region, Jaffa had been ruled by the Canaanites, Philistines, Assyrians, Persians, Ptolemies, Hasmoneans, Byzantines, the early Islamic caliphates, Crusaders and Mamluks before coming under Ottoman rule in 1515, it had been fought over numerous times. The city is mentioned in ancient Egyptian documents, as well as the Hebrew Bible. During the First Aliyah in the 1880s, when Jewish immigrants began arriving in the region in significant numbers, new neighborhoods were founded outside Jaffa on the current territory of Tel Aviv; the first was Neve Tzedek, founded by Mizrahi Jews due to overcrowding in Jaffa and built on lands owned by Aharon Chelouche. Other neighborhoods were Neve Shalom, Yafa Nof, Ohel Moshe, Kerem HaTeimanim, others. Once Tel Aviv received city status in the 1920s, those neighborhoods joined the newly formed municipality, now becoming separated from Jaffa.
The Second Aliyah led to further expansion. In 1906, a group of Jews, among them residents of Jaffa, followed the initiative of Akiva Aryeh Weiss and banded together to form the Ahuzat Bayit society; the society's goal was to form a "Hebrew urban centre in a healthy environment, planned according to the rules of aesthetics and modern hygiene." The urban planning for the new city was influenced by the Garden city movement. The first 60 plots were purchased in Kerem Djebali near Jaffa by Jacobus Kann, a Dutch citizen, who registered them in his name to circumvent the Turkish prohibition on Jewish land acquisition. Meir Dizengoff Tel Aviv's first mayor joined the Ahuzat Bayit society, his vision for Tel Aviv involved peaceful co-existence with Arabs. On 11 April 1909, 66 Jewish families gathered on a desolate sand dune to parcel out the land by lottery using seashells; this gathering is considered the official date of the establishment of Tel Aviv. The lottery was organised by president of the building society.
Weiss collected 120
Zalman Shoval is an Israeli banker,politician and diplomat. He is active in Israel's economic life, he was the Israeli ambassador to the United States in the years 1990–1993 and 1998–2000, an active member of the Knesset in the Rafi-State List, the Likud party. Shoval was born in the Free City of Danzig home to a large Jewish community, as the son of a Jewish family originating in Eastern Europe, his father was born in Latvia. They immigrated to Mandatory Palestine in 1938. Shoval attended first the Ben-Yehuda School and the "Geula" high school in Tel Aviv before obtaining a BA at UC Berkeley, an MA at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva. Between 1955 and 1957 he was a cadet in the Ministry Foreign Affairs, after which he became involved in finance, twice serving as chairman of the Bankers Association Council. Shoval joined David Ben-Gurion when he left to found Rafi in 1965, again when Ben-Gurion founded the State List in 1969. In the elections that year he narrowly missed out on being elected to the Knesset.
However, when Ben-Gurion resigned from the Knesset in May 1970, Shoval took his place. Shortly before the 1973 elections, the State List joined other groups to form the Likud, Shoval was returned to the Knesset as a Likud MK. Re-elected in 1977, he was responsible for information in Foreign Affairs Ministry as a deputy to Foreign Minister Moshe Dayan and was responsible for the P. R. and information aspects of the 1978 Camp David Conference. Before that, he served as a member of Israel's delegation to the U. N. In January 1981 Shoval and two other Likud MKs broke away from the party to form Telem with Moshe Dayan. However, in the 1981 elections Telem won only two mandates, Shoval lost his seat. In 1984 Hurvitz and Shoval formed Ometz. Whilst he missed out on election to the Knesset in that year's elections, Rafi-Ometz merged back into Likud in 1986, in 1988 Shoval was elected back into the Knesset as a Likud MK, he resigned from the Knesset in October 1990 in order to become Israeli Ambassador to the United States, a post he held until 1993, again between 1998 and 2000.
During his first tenure as Israel's Ambassador he had been involved in matters relating to the Gulf War and its aftermath and participated in the Madrid peace conference and after that he was a member of the Israeli team negotiating with the Jordanians and Palestinians. In 1998 he was a member of the Israeli delegation headed by Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu at the U. S. sponsored Wye River Conference and he was involved in the diplomatic negotiations with the U. S. administration before and after the above conference. He continued in this task after the change of the Israeli government in May 1999. In March 1999 he was given the award of "Diplomat of the Year" by the Los Angeles World Affairs Council. Mr. Shoval, together with a number of friends, in 1977 founded the "Moshe Dayan Public Forum for Political and Social Questions", a non-partisan public affairs society, in 1983 he was among the founders of the "Dayan Center for Middle Eastern Studies" at Tel Aviv University, is a member of its Board of Trustees.
He is a member of the Board of Trustees of "The Interdisciplinary Center, is the Past-Chairman of the Center's Institute of Policy and Strategy which organizes the annual "Herzliya Conference". He was a member of the Board of Directors of the Hadassah Medical Organization. Mr. Shoval was, till his appointment as Chairman of the New Israel Opera. In the 1990s, he partnered up with Israeli businessperson Shlomo Grofman. Together, they established Faire Fund for real estates project such as HaYarkon 96 and Shoval-Grofman Real Estate Limited. Today Shoval is a member of the Board of Trustees of Tel Aviv and Ben Gurion Universities, of the Dayan Center and of the International Board of Governors of the Ariel University Center of Samaria. Ambassador Shoval is a member of all the Likud's Central Bodies. In December 1997, he was unanimously elected President of the "World Likud", a post from which he resigned upon assuming the position of Israel's Ambassador to Washington. In 2009, Prime Minister Netanyhu asked him to head an Advisory "Forum" on U.
S.-Israel relations. He holds the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel in the I. D. F. Mr. Shoval is married to Kena and they have three children, Michal and Gideon, four grandchildren. Books: A View From The Stage, Tel Aviv, 1991 Diplomat, Yediot Books, 2016 Jerusalem and Washington: A Life in Politics and Diplomacy and Littlefield, 2018 Zalman Shoval on the Knesset website
Benjamin Halevy was an Israeli judge and politician. Halevy was born Ernst Levi in Weißenfels and educated at the Universities of Freiburg, Göttingen and Berlin, he immigrated to what was the British Mandate of Palestine in 1933 after Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany, studied at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Halevy was a Magistrate Judge in Jerusalem during the Mandate period, from 1938 until Israel's declaration of independence in 1948, he served as a District Judge and the President of the Jerusalem District Court until 1963 when he was appointed to the Supreme Court of Israel. Halevy was the sole judge in what became known as the "Kastner trial," a libel lawsuit against Malchiel Gruenwald, a hotelier, who accused Rudolf Kastner of having been a Nazi collaborator. Halevy allowed the scope of the trial to be expanded and ruled that Kastner had indeed, in his words, "sold his soul to the devil." Kastner was assassinated and Halevy's ruling was overturned by the Supreme Court. The manner in which he conducted the trial was criticized.
Halevy was the sole judge at the trial of the Kafr Qasim massacre's perpetrators, in his decision famously wrote, "The distinguishing mark of a manifestly illegal order is that above such an order should fly, like a black flag, a warning saying:'Prohibited!'" He was a judge at the trial of Adolf Eichmann, along with Yitzhak Raveh and Moshe Landau. In 1969 Halevy resigned from the court, he was elected to the Seventh Knesset for the Gahal list, again to the Eighth Knesset in 1973 after Gahal had merged into Likud. He left the party to sit as an independent MK. In the 1977 elections, he was returned to the Knesset on Dash's list, but the party split up after a year, Halevy joined the Democratic Movement, before leaving to again sit as an independent. During the Ninth Knesset he served as deputy speaker. Today a street in his birthplace Weißenfels is named after him, he was married for many years to Luba. They had daughter. After Luba's death he married Michal Halevy. Israeli judicial system Adolf Eichmann Associated Press.
"Benjamin Halevy, 86". Retrieved 2007-12-28. Benjamin Halevy on the Knesset website
Israel the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the east and west and Egypt to the southwest; the country contains geographically diverse features within its small area. Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem has only partial recognition. Israel has evidence of the earliest migration of hominids out of Africa. Canaanite tribes are archaeologically attested since the Middle Bronze Age, while the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age; the Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE. Judah was conquered by the Babylonian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces.
The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Hasmonean kingdom by 110 BCE, which in 63 BCE however became a client state of the Roman Republic that subsequently installed the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE, in 6 CE created the Roman province of Judea. Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction, expulsion of Jewish population and the renaming of the region from Iudaea to Syria Palaestina. Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. In the 7th century CE, the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187; the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement in the diaspora followed by waves of immigration to Ottoman Syria and British Mandate Palestine.
In 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency, rejected by Arab leaders; the following year, the Jewish Agency declared the independence of the State of Israel, the subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War saw Israel's establishment over most of the former Mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by neighboring Arab states. Israel has since fought several wars with Arab countries, since the Six-Day War in 1967 held occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip, it extended its laws to the Golan East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories is the world's longest military occupation in modern times. Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in a final peace agreement. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have been signed.
In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a democratic state. The country has a liberal democracy, with a parliamentary system, proportional representation, universal suffrage; the prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature. Israel is a developed country and an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member, with the 32nd-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2017; the country benefits from a skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. Israel has the highest standard of living in the Middle East, has one of the highest life expectancies in the world. Furthermore, Israel ranked 11th in the UN's 2018 World Happiness Report. Upon independence in 1948, the country formally adopted the name "State of Israel" after other proposed historical and religious names including Eretz Israel and Judea, were considered but rejected.
In the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term "Israeli" to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have been used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel and the entire Jewish people respectively; the name "Israel" in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, according to the Hebrew Bible, was given the name after he wrestled with the angel of the Lord. Jacob's twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. Jacob and his sons had lived in Canaan but were forced by famine to go into Egypt for four generations, lasting 430 years, until Moses, a great-great grandson of Jacob, led the Israelites back into Canaan during the "Exodus"; the earliest known archaeological artifact to mention the word "Israel" as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt. The area is known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith.
Under British Mandate, the whole region was known as Palestine (Hebre
The Knesset is the unicameral national legislature of Israel. As the legislative branch of the Israeli government, the Knesset passes all laws, elects the President and Prime Minister, approves the cabinet, supervises the work of the government. In addition, the Knesset elects the State Comptroller, it has the power to waive the immunity of its members, remove the President and the State Comptroller from office, dissolve the government in a constructive vote of no confidence, to dissolve itself and call new elections. The Prime Minister may dissolve the Knesset. However, until an election is completed, the Knesset maintains authority in its current composition; the Knesset is located in Jerusalem. The term "Knesset" is derived from the ancient Knesset HaGdola or "Great Assembly", which according to Jewish tradition was an assembly of 120 scribes and prophets, in the period from the end of the Biblical prophets to the time of the development of Rabbinic Judaism – about two centuries ending c. 200 BCE.
There is, however, no organisational continuity and – aside from the number of members – little similarity, as the ancient Knesset was a religious unelected body. As the legislative branch of the Israeli government, the Knesset passes all laws, elects the president, approves the cabinet, supervises the work of the government through its committees, it has the power to waive the immunity of its members, remove the President and the State Comptroller from office, to dissolve itself and call new elections. The Knesset has de jure parliamentary supremacy, can pass any law by a simple majority one that might arguably conflict with the Basic Laws of Israel, unless the basic law includes specific conditions for its modification. In addition to the absence of a formal constitution, with no Basic Law thus far being adopted which formally grants a power of judicial review to the judiciary, the Supreme Court of Israel has in recent years asserted its authority, when sitting as the High Court of Justice, to invalidate provisions of Knesset laws it has found to be inconsistent with a Basic Law.
The Knesset is presided over by a Deputy Speaker. The Knesset is divided into committees. Committee chairpersons are chosen by their members, on recommendation of the House Committee, their factional composition represents that of the Knesset itself. Committees may elect sub-committees and delegate powers to them, or establish joint committees for issues concerning more than one committee. To further their deliberations, they invite government ministers, senior officials, experts in the matter being discussed. Committees may request explanation and information from any relevant ministers in any matter within their competence, the ministers or persons appointed by them must provide the explanation or information requested. There are four types of committees in the Knesset. Permanent committees amend proposed legislation dealing with their area of expertise, may initiate legislation. However, such legislation may only deal with Basic Laws and laws dealing with the Knesset, elections to the Knesset, Knesset members, or the State Comptroller.
Special committees function in a similar manner to permanent committees, but are appointed to deal with particular manners at hand, can be dissolved or turned into permanent committees. Parliamentary inquiry committees are appointed by the plenum to deal with issues viewed as having special national importance. In addition, there are two types of committees that convene only when needed: the Interpretations Committee, made up of the Speaker and eight members chosen by the House Committee, deals with appeals against the interpretation given by the Speaker during a sitting of the plenum to the Knesset rules of procedure or precedents, Public Committees, established to deal with issues that are connected to the Knesset. Permanent committees: House Committee Finance Committee Economic Affairs Committee Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee Interior and Environment Committee Immigration and Diaspora Affairs Committee Education and Sports Committee Constitution and Justice Committee Labour and Health Committee Science and Technology Committee State Control Committee Committee on the Status of WomenSpecial committees: Committee on Drug Abuse Committee on the Rights of the Child Committee on Foreign Workers Israeli Central Elections Committee Public Petitions CommitteeThe other committees are the Arrangements Committee and the Ethics Committee.
The Ethics Committee is responsible for jurisdiction over Knesset members who violate the rules of ethics of the Knesset, or involved in illegal activities outside the Knesset. Within the framework of responsibility, the Ethics Committee may place various sanctions on a member, but is not allowed to restrict a members' right to vote; the Arrangements Committee proposes the makeup of the permanent committees following each election, as well as suggesting committee chairs, lays down the sitting arrangements of political parties in the Knesset, the distribution of rooms in the Knesset building to members and parties. Knesset members join together in formal or informal groups known as "lobbies" or "caucuses", to advocate for a particular topic. There are hundreds of such caucuses in the Knesset; the Knesset Christian Allies Caucus and the Knesset Land of Israel Caucus are two of the largest and mo
1992 Israeli legislative election
Elections for the 13th Knesset were held in Israel on 23 June 1992. The election resulted in the formation of a Labor government, led by Yitzhak Rabin, helped by the failure of several small right wing parties to pass the electoral threshold. Voter turnout was 77.4%. 1 Two MKs left the Labor Party to establish the Third Way, whilst Nava Arad left the party. 2 Two MKs left Likud to establish Gesher, whilst Efraim Gur left the party. 3 Three MKs left Tzomet to establish Yiud. One MK left Yiud to establish Atid. 4 Yosef Azran left Shas. 5 United Torah Judaism split into Degel HaTorah. 6 One MK left Moldet to establish Yamin Yisrael, whilst Yosef Ba-Gad left the party. Labour's Yitzhak Rabin formed the twenty-fifth government on 13 July 1992, including Meretz and Shas in his coalition, which had 17 ministers. Hadash and the Arab Democratic Party supported the government despite not being coalition members. Shas left the coalition in September 1993, Yiud joined in January 1995. Rabin's government advanced the peace process to unprecedented levels.
The government's willingness to make peace with Syria and concede the Golan Heights led to Avigdor Kahalani and Emanuel Zisman leaving the party to form the Third Way. After Rabin's assassination on 4 November 1995, Shimon Peres took over as Prime Minister and formed a new government on 22 November 1995, his coalition was the same as before. Peres called early elections in 1996 in order to seek a mandate to continue the peace process, in which he lost. Historical overview of the Thirteenth Knesset Knesset website Election results Knesset website
Herut was the major right-wing nationalist political party in Israel from 1948 until its formal merger into Likud in 1988. It was an adherent of Revisionist Zionism, was known in part for its militia actions. Herut was founded by Menachem Begin on 15 June 1948 as a successor to the Revisionist Irgun, a militant paramilitary group in Mandate Palestine; the new party was a challenge to the Hatzohar party established by Ze'ev Jabotinsky. Herut established an eponymous newspaper, with many of its founding journalists defecting from Hatzohar's HaMashkif. Herut's political expectations were high as the first election approached in 1949, it took credit for driving the British government out and as a young movement, reflecting the esprit of the nation, it perceived its image as being more attractive than the old establishment. They hoped to win 25 seats, which would place them second and make them leader of the opposition, with potential for future gain of government power; this analysis was shared by other parties.
Objection to withdrawal of the Israel Defense Forces and to negotiations with Arab states formed the party's main platform in the first Knesset election. The party vigorously opposed the ceasefire agreements with the Arab states until the annexation of Gaza Strip and the West Bank, both before and after the election. Herut differentiated itself by refusing to recognise the legitimacy of the Kingdom of Jordan after the armistice, used the slogan "To the banks of the Jordan River" in claiming Israel's right to the whole of Eretz Israel/Palestine. According to Joseph Heller, Herut was a one-issue party intent on expanding Israel's borders. Herut's socio-economic platform represented a clear shift to the right, with support for private initiative, but for legislation preventing the trusts from exploiting workers. Begin was at first careful not to appear anti-socialist, stressing his opposition to monopolies and trusts, demanding that "all public utility works and basic industries must be nationalized".
Herut was from the outset inclined to sympathise with the underdog, according to Hannah Torok Yablonka, "tended to serve as a lodestone for society's misfits". Herut won 14 seats with 11.5 per cent of the votes, making it the fourth-largest party in the Knesset. The party was renowned for its right-wing views and militia actions, considered to be outside the mainstream; the practical differences between Herut and Mapai, were less dramatic than the rhetoric suggested. Factors to consider include the establishment's interest in ostracising its Herut rival, Herut's need, as an opposition party, to emphasise those differences and reflect their core voter's instincts; the party and its leader, had met fierce resistance from the Labor Zionist establishment in Israel and abroad for many years. They were criticised by Jewish intellectuals on the occasion of Begin's visit to New York City in an open letter to The New York Times on 4 December 1948; the letter condemned Herut as "akin to Nazi and Fascist parties", as a "Terrorist party".
It was signed by over twenty prominent Jewish intellectuals, including Albert Einstein, Hannah Arendt, Zellig Harris, Sidney Hook. Among the most disturbing political phenomena of our times is the emergence in the newly created state of Israel of the "Freedom Party", a political party akin in its organization, political philosophy and social appeal to the Nazi and Fascist parties, it was formed out of the membership and following of the former Irgun Zvai Leumi, a terrorist, right-wing, chauvinist organization in Palestine... It is inconceivable that those who oppose fascism throughout the world, if informed as to Mr. Begin's political record and perspectives, could add their names and support to the movement he represents... Today they speak of freedom and anti-imperialism, whereas until they preached the doctrine of the Fascist state, it is in its actions. The hostility between Begin and Israel's first Prime Minister, the Mapai leader David Ben-Gurion, which had begun over the Altalena Affair, was evident in the Knesset.
Ben-Gurion coined the phrase "without Herut and Maki", a reference to his position that he would include any party in his coalition, except those two. In fact, Herut was approached at least three times by Mapai for government negotiations; the ostracism expressed itself in the Prime Minister's refusal to refer to Begin by name from the Knesset Podium, using instead the phrase "the person who sits next to M. K. Badar", boycotting his Knesset speeches. Ben-Gurion's policy of ostracising Revisionism was performed systematically, as seen in the legal exclusion of fallen Irgun and Lehi fighters from public commemoration and from benefits to their families. Herut members were excluded from military positions. In the municipal elections of 1950, Herut lost voters to the centrist General Zionists, who attracted disillusioned voters from Mapai and established themselves as a tough opposition rival to Herut. At the second national convention, Begin was challenged by more radical elements of his party.
They wanted a more dynamic leadership, thought he had adapted himself to the system. At the convention, Begin's proposal to send children abroad for security reasons, although there was a precedent for such a