Haji Misbach

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Haji Mohamad Misbach, commonly known as Haji Misbach or Haji Merah (Indonesian: The Red Hajji), Surakarta, 1876–1926, was an early communist figure from the Dutch East Indies who preached that Islam and Communism were compatible.[1] He was a member of the Sarekat Islam (Islamic League) party in its early years. Along with Ernest Douwes Dekker and members of the Insulinde party, in 1918-19 he incited peasants in the Surakarta area to resist corvée duty and was arrested by the Dutch.[2]

With the 1923 split of the Sarekat Islam into left and right wings, he followed most of the left wing into the PKI (Indonesian Communist Party). After a bombing in Surakarta, Haji Misbach was blamed and exiled to New Guinea.[3]


  1. ^ Ricklefs, Merle Calivin (2001). A History of Modern Indonesia since c. 1200. Stanford University Press. 
  2. ^ McVey, Ruth (2006). The Rise of Indonesian Communism. Singapore: Equinox. 
  3. ^ McVey, Ruth (2006). The Rise of Indonesian Communism. Singapore: Equinox.