Papaikou is a census-designated place in Hawaii County, United States, is a few miles north of the county seat, Hilo. The population of Papaikou was 1,314 at the 2010 census, down from 1,414 at the 2000 census. Papaikou is located on the east side of the island of Hawaii at 19°47′38″N 155°5′48″W. Hawaii Route 19 passes through the community, leading south 5 miles to Hilo and northwest 37 miles to Honokaa. According to the United States Census Bureau, the Papaikou CDP has a total area of 1.9 square miles, of which 1.4 square miles are land and 0.42 square miles, or 23.03%, are water. The CDP borders the Pacific Ocean from Hokeo Point in the north to Kekiwi Point in the south; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,414 people, 475 households, 363 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 964.3 people per square mile. There were 502 housing units at an average density of 342.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 15.28% White, 0.50% African American, 0.07% Native American, 45.83% Asian, 9.41% Pacific Islander, 1.41% from other races, 27.51% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.86% of the population. There were 475 households out of which 29.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.8% were married couples living together, 14.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.4% were non-families. 19.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.98 and the average family size was 3.35. In the CDP the population was spread out with 24.2% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 24.8% from 25 to 44, 23.2% from 45 to 64, 20.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.3 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $37,031, the median income for a family was $40,446. Males had a median income of $25,000 versus $24,205 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $13,782. About 12.1% of families and 15.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.0% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 or over.
Hawaii Tropical Botanical Garden
Kurtistown is a census-designated place in Hawaiʻi County, Hawaiʻi, United States, in the District of Puna. The population was 1,298 at the 2010 census, up from 1,157 at the 2000 census. Kurtistown is located on the east side of the island of Hawaii at 19°35′26″N 155°4′13″W, it is bordered to the northeast by Keaʻau, to the southeast by Orchidlands Estates, to the south by Hawaiian Acres, to the west by Mountain View. Hawaii Route 11 passes through the community, leading north 10 miles to Hilo and southwest 20 miles to Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. According to the United States Census Bureau, the Kurtistown CDP has a total area of 5.9 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,298 people in 476 households residing in the CDP; the population density was 223.8 people per square mile. There were 532 housing units at an average density of 91.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 19.49% White, 0.23% African American, 0.31% American Indian & Alaska Native, 35.82% Asian, 9.40% Native Hawaiian & Pacific Islander, 0.69% from other races, 34.05% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.02% of the population. There were 476 households out of which 26.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them. The average household size was 2.73. In the Kurtistown CDP the population was spread out with 22.6% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 8.7% from 25 to 34, 18.9% from 35 to 49, 24.7% from 50 to 64, 16.3% who were 65 years of age or older. For every 100 females, there were 99.4 males. For every 100 males there were 100.6 females. The median income for a household in the CDP at the 2000 census was $46,012, the median income for a family in 2000 was $51,176. Males had a median income in 2000 of $35,000 versus $26,875 for females; the per capita income for the CDP in 2000 was $16,528. About 6.5% of families and 8.4% of the population were below the poverty line in 2000, including 7.2% of those under age 18 and 2.0% of those age 65 or over
Hawaiʻi is the largest island located in the U. S. state of Hawaii. It is the largest and the southeasternmost of the Hawaiian Islands, a chain of volcanic islands in the North Pacific Ocean. With an area of 4,028 square miles, it has 63% of the Hawaiian archipelago's combined landmass, is the largest island in the United States. However, it has only 13% of Hawaiʻi's people; the island of Hawaiʻi is the third largest island in Polynesia, behind the two main islands of New Zealand. The island is referred to as the Island of Hawaiʻi, the Big Island, or Hawaiʻi Island to distinguish it from the state. Administratively, the whole island encompasses Hawaiʻi County; as of the 2010 Census the population was 185,079. The county seat and largest city is Hilo. There are no incorporated cities in Hawaiʻi County. Hawaiʻi is said to have been named after Hawaiʻiloa, the legendary Polynesian navigator who first discovered it. Other accounts attribute the name to the legendary realm of Hawaiki, a place from which some Polynesian people are said to have originated, the place where they transition to in the afterlife, or the realm of the gods and goddesses.
Captain James Cook, the English explorer and navigator, captain of the first European expedition that discovered the Hawaiian Islands, called them the "Sandwich Islands" after his patron, the Earl of Sandwich. Cook was killed on the Big Island at Kealakekua Bay on 14 February 1779, in a mêlée which followed the theft of a ship's boat. Hawaiʻi was the home island of Paiʻea Kamehameha known as Kamehameha the Great. Kamehameha united most of the Hawaiian islands under his rule in 1795, after several years of war, gave the kingdom and the island chain the name of his native island. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 5,086 square miles, of which 4,028 square miles is land and 1,058 square miles is water; the county's land area comprises 62.7 percent of the state's land area. It is the highest percentage by any county in the United States. At its greatest dimension, the island is 93 miles across, it has a land area of 4,028 square miles comprising 62% of the Hawaiian Islands' land area.
Measured from its sea floor base to its highest peak, Mauna Kea is the world's tallest mountain, taller than Mount Everest, since the base of Mount Everest is above sea level. Ka Lae, the southernmost point in the 50 states of the United States, is on Hawaii; the nearest landfall to the south is in the Line Islands. To the northwest of the island of Hawaii is the island of Maui, whose Haleakalā volcano is visible from Hawaii across the Alenuihaha Channel; the island of Hawaiʻi is built from five separate shield volcanoes that erupted somewhat sequentially, one overlapping the other. These are: Kohala – extinct Mauna Kea – dormant Hualālai – active Mauna Loa – active within Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park Kīlauea – active: erupting continuously from 1983 to 2018. Geologists now consider these "outcrops" to be part of the earlier building of Mauna Loa; because Mauna Loa and Kīlauea are active volcanoes, the island of Hawaii is still growing. Between January 1983 and September 2002, lava flows added 543 acres to the island.
Lava flowing from Kīlauea has destroyed several towns, including Kapoho in 1960, Kalapana and Kaimū in 1990. In 1987 lava filled in "Queen's Bath", a large, L-shaped, freshwater pool in the Kalapana area; some geologists count seven volcanoes as building the island, which include the submarine volcanoes Māhukona and Lōʻihi as parts of the base of the island. Māhukona off the northwest corner of the island has disappeared below the surface of the ocean. 22 miles southeast of Hawaii lies the undersea volcano known as Lōʻihi. It is an erupting seamount that now reaches 3,200 feet below the surface of the ocean. Continued activity at current rates from Lōʻihi will cause it to break the surface of the ocean sometime between 10,000 and 100,000 years from now; the Great Crack is an eight-mile-long, 60-foot-wide and 60-foot-deep fissure in the island, in the district of Kau. According to the United States Geological Survey, the Great Crack is the result of crustal dilation from magmatic intrusions into the southwest rift zone of Kilauea.
While neither the earthquake of 1868 nor that of 1975 caused a measurable change in the Great Crack, lava welled out of the lower 6 miles of the Great Crack in 1823. Visitors can find trails, rock walls, archaeological sites from as old as the 12th century around the Great Crack. 1,951 acres of private land were purchased during the presidency of Bill Clinton to protect various artifacts in this area, as well as the habitat of local wildlife. The Hilina Slump is a 4,760-cubic-mile section of the south slope of the Kīlauea volcano, slipping away from the island. Between 1990 and 1993, Global Positioning System measurements showed a southward displacement of about 4 inches per year. Undersea measurements show that a "bench" has formed a buttress and that this buttress may tend to reduce the likelihood of future catastrophic detachment. On 2 April 1868, an earthquake with a magnitude estimated between 7.25 and 7.9 rocked the southeast coast of Hawaii. This was the most destructive earthquake in the recorded history of Hawaii.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west and the Americas in the east. At 165,250,000 square kilometers in area, this largest division of the World Ocean—and, in turn, the hydrosphere—covers about 46% of Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of Earth's land area combined; the centers of both the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean. The equator subdivides it into the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean, with two exceptions: the Galápagos and Gilbert Islands, while straddling the equator, are deemed wholly within the South Pacific, its mean depth is 4,000 meters. The Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 meters; the western Pacific has many peripheral seas. Though the peoples of Asia and Oceania have traveled the Pacific Ocean since prehistoric times, the eastern Pacific was first sighted by Europeans in the early 16th century when Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama in 1513 and discovered the great "southern sea" which he named Mar del Sur.
The ocean's current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favorable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means "peaceful sea". Important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. About 3000 BC, the Austronesian peoples on the island of Taiwan mastered the art of long-distance canoe travel and spread themselves and their languages south to the Philippines and maritime Southeast Asia. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan. Trade, therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of this trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims. In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality. From 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean; the first contact of European navigators with the western edge of the Pacific Ocean was made by the Portuguese expeditions of António de Abreu and Francisco Serrão, via the Lesser Sunda Islands, to the Maluku Islands, in 1512, with Jorge Álvares's expedition to southern China in 1513, both ordered by Afonso de Albuquerque from Malacca.
The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and reached a new ocean. He named it Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. In 1519, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific East to West on a Spanish expedition to the Spice Islands that would result in the first world circumnavigation. Magellan called the ocean Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters; the ocean was called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century. Although Magellan himself died in the Philippines in 1521, Spanish Basque navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano led the remains of the expedition back to Spain across the Indian Ocean and round the Cape of Good Hope, completing the first world circumnavigation in a single expedition in 1522. Sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands, the Aru Islands, Papua New Guinea.
In 1542–43 the Portuguese reached Japan. In 1564, five Spanish ships carrying 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi, sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands. For the remainder of the 16th century, Spanish influence was paramount, with ships sailing from Mexico and Peru across the Pacific Ocean to the Philippines via Guam, establishing the Spanish East Indies; the Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries, linking Manila and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history. Spanish expeditions discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the quest for Terra Australis, Spanish explorations in the 17th century, such as the expedition led by the Portuguese navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, discovered the Pitcairn and Vanuatu archipelagos, sailed the Torres Strait between Australia and New Guinea, named after navigator Luís Vaz de Torres. Dutch explorers, sailing around southern Africa engaged in discovery and trade.
In the 16th and 17th centuries Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers. As the only known entrance from the Atlantic, the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western side of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines; the 18th cen
Pāhoa is a census-designated place in the District of Puna in Hawai‘i County, Hawai‘i, United States. The population was 962 at the 2000 census; the population dropped by 1.8% to 945 at the 2010 census. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 2.3 square miles, all of it land. Soils underlying the Pāhoa area are volcanic in origin, deriving from the active Kilauea Volcano. Kilauea is one of the Earth's most active volcanoes, with the January 2006 eruption being the longest rift zone eruption in Kilauea's 200-year recorded history; the volcanic soils underlying Pāhoa are considered to have been generated by lava flows within the last 125 to 500 years. For example, the eruption of 1840 is known to have deposited a lava flow within 1.5 miles of Pāhoa. Both Hawaii Route 130 and Hawaii Route 132 enter the town boundaries; as of the census of 2010, there were 945 people in 321 households residing in the CDP. The population density was 410.9 people per square mile. There were 356 housing units at an average density of 154.8 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the CDP was 14.92% White, 0.42% African American, 1.48% American Indian & Alaska Native, 43.49% Asian, 12.59% Native Hawaiian & Pacific Islander, 0.95% from other races, 26.14% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 6.56% of the population. There were 321 households out of which 24.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them. The average household size was 2.94. The age distribution was 22.3% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 12.0% from 25 to 34, 18.1% from 35 to 49, 23.0% from 50 to 64, 17.4% who were 65 years of age or older. For every 100 females, there were 105.0 males. For every 100 males age 18 over there were 95.2 females. The median income for a household in the CDP at the 2000 census was $33,333, the median income for a family in 2000 was $43,571. Males had a median income of $26,103 in 2000 versus $23,571 for females; the per capita income for the CDP in 2000 was $13,850. About 15.7% of families and 18.0% of the population were below the poverty line in 2000, including 28.9% of those under age 18 and 5.2% of those age 65 or over.
In the Hawaiian language, the word ` pāhoa' means knife. The Pāhoa held pointing downwards, such as the statue at Pāhoa High and Intermediate School, is a symbol of peace and strength, it is unknown when indigenous Hawaiians settled the area during pre-contact times, but the deep, rich soil and important protected archeological sites in the area suggest a long history of habitation. Legends associated with the Pāhoa area are referenced in Hawaii's ancient oral history in the Pele and Hi'iaka Myth. There are two primary schools in the Pāhoa area, Pāhoa Elementary School and Keonepoko Elementary School, in the Hawaiian Beaches subdivision. There are two secondary schools, Pahoa High and Intermediate School on Pāhoa Village Road and the Hawaii Academy of Arts and Sciences. In June 2014, a lava flow dubbed the June 27th flow started running from a vent in the Pu'u O'o cone in a northeast direction towards the villages of Kaohe Homesteads and Pahoa. In early September it appeared that the lava flow was en route to the small community of Kaohe Homesteads.
Community leaders and state officials began to draw up plans for evacuations and the mayor signed an emergency proclamation as the flow approached to within 0.8 miles, a distance it was expected to cover in a week. On September 13, a release from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory stated that the flow had begun to shift away from the subdivision as it had interacted with both the cracks and down-dropped blocks within the East Rift Zone of Kīlauea volcano and a natural valley that leveled away from Kaohe Homesteads; the lava flow advanced on Pahoa. On October 25, the flow had reached the town's recycling facility, closed and temporarily relocated as a result; the flow was advancing on a nearby cemetery and triggered the first series of evacuations. On November 10, the flow claimed one home. Officials feared that the lava would cover Hawaii Route 130, the only route in and out of Pahoa and of the entire lower Puna section of the island. On October 22, The National Park Service announced that it would help state and county officials create an emergency route along 8 miles of the buried Chain of Craters Road in order to help Puna residents who would lose access to the rest of Hawai‘i.
Construction of the Chain of Craters alternate route began by making a path over a wall of lava rock covering the road in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. The eruption stopped short of Route 130, work on the emergency route was called off in November 2014; the 2018 lower Puna eruption which features destructive lava flows resulting in the loss of 700 homes, originated in nearby Leilani Estates. Earth Metrics Inc. C. Michael Hogan, Engineering Report for the Pahoa Main Post Office, Hawaii 96778, published by the U. S. Postal Service, Western Regional Office, San Bruno, September 5, 1986 U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Pāhoa Pahoa, Hawaii Photographs Hawaiian Volcano Observatory-USGS daily flow map Hawaii Center for Volcanology Pahoa, Hawaii Profile
Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959. Hawaii is the only U. S. state located in Oceania, the only U. S. state located outside North America, the only one composed of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean; the state encompasses nearly the entire volcanic Hawaiian archipelago, which comprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 miles. At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight main islands are—in order from northwest to southeast: Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe and the Island of Hawaiʻi; the last is the largest island in the group. The archipelago is ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania. Hawaii's diverse natural scenery, warm tropical climate, abundance of public beaches, oceanic surroundings, active volcanoes make it a popular destination for tourists, surfers and volcanologists.
Because of its central location in the Pacific and 19th-century labor migration, Hawaii's culture is influenced by North American and East Asian cultures, in addition to its indigenous Hawaiian culture. Hawaii has over a million permanent residents, along with many visitors and U. S. military personnel. Its capital is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu. Hawaii is the 8th-smallest and the 11th-least populous, but the 13th-most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. It is the only state with an Asian plurality; the state's oceanic coastline is about 750 miles long, the fourth longest in the U. S. after the coastlines of Alaska and California. The state of Hawaii derives its name from the name of Hawaiʻi. A common Hawaiian explanation of the name of Hawaiʻi is that it was named for Hawaiʻiloa, a legendary figure from Hawaiian myth, he is said to have discovered the islands. The Hawaiian language word Hawaiʻi is similar to Proto-Polynesian *Sawaiki, with the reconstructed meaning "homeland". Cognates of Hawaiʻi are found in other Polynesian languages, including Māori and Samoan.
According to linguists Pukui and Elbert, "lsewhere in Polynesia, Hawaiʻi or a cognate is the name of the underworld or of the ancestral home, but in Hawaii, the name has no meaning". A somewhat divisive political issue arose in 1978 when the Constitution of the State of Hawaii added Hawaiian as a second official state language; the title of the state constitution is The Constitution of the State of Hawaii. Article XV, Section 1 of the Constitution uses The State of Hawaii. Diacritics were not used because the document, drafted in 1949, predates the use of the ʻokina and the kahakō in modern Hawaiian orthography; the exact spelling of the state's name in the Hawaiian language is Hawaiʻi. In the Hawaii Admission Act that granted Hawaiian statehood, the federal government recognized Hawaii as the official state name. Official government publications and office titles, the Seal of Hawaii use the traditional spelling with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel length. In contrast, the National and State Parks Services, the University of Hawaiʻi and some private enterprises implement these symbols.
No precedent for changes to U. S. state names exists since the adoption of the United States Constitution in 1789. However, the Constitution of Massachusetts formally changed the Province of Massachusetts Bay to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1780, in 1819, the Territory of Arkansaw was created but was admitted to statehood as the State of Arkansas. There are eight main Hawaiian islands; the island of Niʻihau is managed by brothers Bruce and Keith Robinson. Access to uninhabited Kahoʻolawe island is restricted; the Hawaiian archipelago is located 2,000 mi southwest of the contiguous United States. Hawaii is the southernmost U. S. the second westernmost after Alaska. Hawaii, like Alaska, does not border any other U. S. state. It is the only U. S. state, not geographically located in North America, the only state surrounded by water and, an archipelago, the only state in which coffee is commercially cultivable. In addition to the eight main islands, the state has many smaller islets. Kaʻula is a small island near Niʻihau.
The Northwest Hawaiian Islands is a group of nine small, older islands to the northwest of Kauaʻi that extend from Nihoa to Kure Atoll. Across the archipelago are around 130 small rocks and islets, such as Molokini, which are either volcanic, marine sedimentary or erosional in origin. Hawaii's tallest mountain Mauna Kea is 13,796 ft above mean sea level; the Hawaiian islands were formed by volcanic activity initiated at an undersea magma source called the Hawaii hotspot. The process is continuing to build islands; because of the hotspot's location, all active land volcanoes are located on the southern half of Hawaii Island. The newest volcano, Lōʻihi Seamount, is located south of the coast of Hawaii Island; the last volcanic eruption outside Hawaii Island occurred
Laupāhoehoe is a census-designated place in Hawaii County, United States, in the District of North Hilo. The population was 581 at the 2010 census, up from 473 at the 2000 census; the community's name means "lava tip" and refers to the angular lava tip or cape formed by ancient pāhoehoe flows which created the cape on which the community was built. On April 1, 1946 the Big Island of Hawaii was struck by the so-called "April Fools Day tsunami", originating from the Aleutian Islands earthquake. 160 people on the island were killed. While the greatest number of deaths occurred in Hilo, the school building at Laupāhoehoe was inundated, twenty students and four teachers were drowned. A monument to the dead now stands on Laupāhoehoe Point. Laupāhoehoe is located on the northeast side of the island of Hawaii, at 19°59′5″N 155°14′10″W. Hawaii Route 19 passes through the community, leading southeast 24 miles to Hilo and west 32 miles to Waimea. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 2.4 square miles, of which 2.1 square miles are land and 0.3 square miles, or 10.66%, are water.
As of the census of 2010, there were 581 people in 214 households residing in the CDP. The population density was 276.7 people per square mile. There were 243 housing units at an average density of 115.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 36.49% White, 0.34% African American, 0.17% American Indian & Alaska Native, 24.44% Asian, 4.82% Native Hawaiian & Pacific Islander, 0.86% from other races, 32.87% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 18.59% of the population. There were 214 households out of which 28.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them. The average household size was 2.71. In the Laupahoehoe CDP the population was spread out with 23.9% under the age of 18, 5.0% from 18 to 24, 12.9% from 25 to 34, 15.1% from 35 to 49, 26.0% from 50 to 64, 17.0% who were 65 years of age or older. For every 100 females there were 105.3 males. For every 100 males there were 95.0 females. The median income for a household in the CDP at the 2000 census was $29,250, the median income for a family in 2000 was $30,000.
Males had a median income in 2000 of $21,667 versus $21,607 for females. The per capita income for the CDP in 2000 was $11,896. About 28.4% of families and 25.2% of the population were below the poverty line in 2000, including 41.1% of those under age 18 and 14.0% of those age 65 or over. Laupāhoehoe, Hawai'i is at coordinates 19°59′5″N 155°14′10″W. Laupahoehoe Train Museum