Ilex aquifolium, is a species of holly native to western and southern Europe, northwest Africa, southwest Asia. It is regarded as the type species of the genus Ilex, which by association is called "holly", it is an evergreen tree or shrub found, for example, in shady areas of forests of oak and in beech hedges. In the British Isles it is one of few native evergreen trees, it has a great capacity to adapt to different conditions and is a pioneer species that repopulates the margins of forests or clearcuts. I. aquifolium can exceed 10 m in height, but is found at much smaller heights 2–3 m tall and broad, with a straight trunk and pyramidal crown, branching from the base. It grows and does not fully mature due to cutting or fire, it can live 500 years, but does not reach 100. Ilex aquifolium is the species of holly long associated with Christmas, the Roman festival of Saturnalia, its glossy green prickly leaves and bright red berries are represented in wreaths and cards wherever Christmas is celebrated.
It is a subject of music and folklore in the British tradition. It is a popular ornamental shrub or hedge, with numerous cultivars in a range of colours. Ilex aquifolium grows to 10–25 m tall with a woody stem as wide as 40–80 cm 100 cm or more, in diameter; the leaves are 5–12 cm long and 2–6 cm broad. In the young and in the lower limbs of mature trees, the leaves have three to five sharp spines on each side, pointing alternately upward and downward, while leaves of the upper branches in mature trees lack spines; the flowers are white, four-lobed, pollinated by bees. Holly is dioecious, meaning that there are female plants; the sex cannot be determined until the plants begin flowering between 4 and 12 years of age. In male specimens, the flowers appear in axillary groups. In the female, flowers are isolated or in groups of three and are small and white or pink, consist of four petals and four sepals fused at the base; the fruit only appears on female plants. The fruit is a drupe, about 6–10 mm in diameter, a bright red or bright yellow, which matures around October or November.
They are eaten by rodents and larger herbivores. Each fruit contains 3 to 4 seeds which do not germinate until the third spring. Today, holly is found in western Asia and Europe in the undergrowth of oak forest and beech forest in particular, although at times it can form a dense thicket as the dominant species, it requires moist, shady environments, found within forests or in shady slopes and mountain gorges. Along the west coast of the United States and Canada, from California to British Columbia, non-native English Holly has proved invasive spreading into native forest habitat, where it thrives in shade and crowds out native species, it has been placed on the Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board's monitor list, is a Class C invasive plant in Portland. During the Cenozoic Era, the Mediterranean region and northwest Africa had a wetter climate and were covered by laurel forests. Holly was a typical representative species of this biome, where many current species of the genus Ilex were present.
With the drying of the Mediterranean Basin during the Pliocene, the laurel forests retreated, replaced by more drought-tolerant sclerophyll plant communities. The modern Ilex aquifolium resulted from this change. Most of the last remaining laurel forests around the Mediterranean are believed to have died out 10,000 years ago at the end of the Pleistocene. Holly is a rugged pioneer species that prefers moist areas, tolerates frost as well as summer drought; the plant is common in the garrigue and maquis and is found in deciduous forest and oak forest. Pure stands of hollies can grow into a labyrinth of vaults in which thrushes and deer take refuge, while smaller birds are protected among their spiny leaves. After the first frost of the season, holly fruits become soft and fall to the ground serving as important food for winter birds at a time of scarce resources; the flowers are attractive as nectar sources for insects such as bees, wasps and small butterflies. The commonly-encountered pale patches on leaves are due to the leaf-mine insect Phytomyza ilicis.
It is an invasive species on the West Coast of the United States as well as in Hawaii. Ilex aquifolium is grown in parks and gardens in temperate regions. Numerous cultivars have been selected, of which the following have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:- The hybrid Ilex × altaclerensis was developed at Highclere Castle in Hampshire, England, in 1835, a cross between I. aquifolium and the tender species I. perado. The following cultivars have gained the RHS AGM:- Hollies are used for hedges. Holly berries contain alkaloids and theobromine, caffeic acid, a yellow pigment, ilexanthin; the berries are regarded as toxic to humans. Accidental consumption may occur by pets attracted to the bright red berries; the berries are emetic due to the
Honokōhau Settlement and Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park
Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park is a United States National Historical Park located in the Kona District on the Big island of Hawaiʻi in the U. S. state of Hawaiʻi. It includes the National Historic Landmarked archaeological site known as the Honokōhau Settlement; the park was established on November 10, 1978, for the preservation and interpretation of traditional native Hawaiian activities and culture. Kaloko and Honokōhau are the names of two of the four different ahupuaʻa, or traditional mountain-to-sea land divisions encompassed by the park. Although in ancient times this arid area of lava rock was called kekaha ʻaʻole wai, the abundant sea life attracted settlement for hundreds of years. Kaloko is a site of fishponds used in ancient Hawaii; the first reference to the pond comes from the story of Kamalalawalu, about 300 years ago. The kuapā is over 6 feet high, stretching for 750 feet. Constructed by hand without mortar, the angle and gaps between the stones deflected the surf better than many modern concrete seawalls.ʻAimakapā fishpond is an important wetland area protecting native birds including the koloa maoli, ʻalae keʻokeʻo, āeʻo, auʻkuʻu, among others.
The area is under reforestation, after the removal of non-native invasive plants. It was added to the Register of Historic Places in 1978 as site 78003148. Honokōhau means "bay drawing dew" and refers to the ancient settlement on the south part of the park; this area can be reached via trails from the park visitor's center, or from the small boat harbor access road on Kealakehe Parkway. Features include kahua, kiʻi pōhaku, hōlua and heiau; the ʻAiʻopio Fishtrap is a 1.7-acre pond, with a stone wall forming an artificial enclosure along the curved shoreline of a bay. Small openings allowed young fish to enter from the sea, but as they grew larger they were caught with nets inside the trap as needed, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1966 as site 66000287. Several restored trails include about one mile of the Māmalahoa Trail, it was built in the mid-19th century, evolved over the years into the Hawaii Belt Road which encircles the entire island. The coastal trail is part of the Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail.
The Honokōhau boat harbor provides a launching area for traditional canoes, fishing boats, Scuba diving and snorkeling tours of the area. U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park
The blackberry is an edible fruit produced by many species in the genus Rubus in the family Rosaceae, hybrids among these species within the subgenus Rubus, hybrids between the subgenera Rubus and Idaeobatus. The taxonomy of the blackberries has been confused because of hybridization and apomixis, so that species have been grouped together and called species aggregates. For example, the entire subgenus Rubus has been called the Rubus fruticosus aggregate, although the species R. fruticosus is considered a synonym of R. plicatus. What distinguishes the blackberry from its raspberry relatives is whether or not the torus "picks with" the fruit; when picking a blackberry fruit, the torus stays with the fruit. With a raspberry, the torus remains on the plant; the term bramble, a word meaning any impenetrable thicket, has traditionally been applied to the blackberry or its products, though in the United States it applies to all members of the genus Rubus. In the western US, the term caneberry is used to refer to blackberries and raspberries as a group rather than the term bramble.
The black fruit is not a berry in the botanical sense of the word. Botanically it is termed an aggregate fruit, composed of small drupelets, it is a widespread and well-known group of over 375 species, many of which are related apomictic microspecies native throughout Europe, northwestern Africa, temperate western and central Asia and North and South America. Blackberries are perennial plants which bear biennial stems from the perennial root system. In its first year, a new stem, the primocane, grows vigorously to its full length of 3–6 m, arching or trailing along the ground and bearing large palmately compound leaves with five or seven leaflets. In its second year, the cane becomes a floricane and the stem does not grow longer, but the lateral buds break to produce flowering laterals. First- and second-year shoots have numerous short-curved sharp prickles that are erroneously called thorns; these prickles can tear through denim with ease and make the plant difficult to navigate around. Prickle-free cultivars have been developed.
The University of Arkansas has developed primocane fruiting blackberries that grow and flower on first-year growth much as the primocane-fruiting red raspberries do. Unmanaged mature plants form a tangle of dense arching stems, the branches rooting from the node tip on many species when they reach the ground. Vigorous and growing in woods, scrub and hedgerows, blackberry shrubs tolerate poor soils colonizing wasteland and vacant lots; the flowers are produced in late spring and early summer on short racemes on the tips of the flowering laterals. Each flower is about 2 -- 3 cm in diameter with five pale pink petals; the drupelets only develop around ovules. The most cause of undeveloped ovules is inadequate pollinator visits. A small change in conditions, such as a rainy day or a day too hot for bees to work after early morning, can reduce the number of bee visits to the flower, thus reducing the quality of the fruit. Incomplete drupelet development can be a symptom of exhausted reserves in the plant's roots or infection with a virus such as raspberry bushy dwarf virus.
Blackberry leaves are food for certain caterpillars. Caterpillars of the concealer moth Alabonia geoffrella have been found feeding inside dead blackberry shoots; when mature, the berries are eaten and their seeds dispersed by several mammals, such as the red fox and the Eurasian badger, as well as by small birds. Blackberries grow wild throughout most of Europe, they are an important element in the ecology of many countries, harvesting the berries is a popular pastime. However, the plants are considered a weed, sending down roots from branches that touch the ground, sending up suckers from the roots. In some parts of the world without native blackberries, such as in Australia, New Zealand, the Pacific Northwest of North America, some blackberry species Rubus armeniacus and Rubus laciniatus, are naturalised and considered an invasive species and a serious weed. Blackberry fruits are red before they are ripe, leading to an old expression that "blackberries are red when they're green". In various parts of the United States, wild blackberries are sometimes called "black-caps", a term more used for black raspberries, Rubus occidentalis.
As there is evidence from the Iron Age Haraldskær Woman that she consumed blackberries some 2,500 years ago, it is reasonable to conclude that blackberries have been eaten by humans over thousands of years. Cultivated blackberries are notable for their significant contents of dietary fiber, vitamin C, vitamin K. A 100 gram serving of raw blackberries supplies 43 calories and 5 grams of dietary fiber or 25% of the recommended Daily Value. In 100 grams, vitamin C and vitamin K contents are 25% and 19% DV while other essential nutrients are low in content. Blackberries contain both insoluble fiber components. Blackberries contain numerous large seeds; the seeds contain oil rich in omega-3 and omega-6 fats as well as protein, dietary fiber, carotenoids and ellagic acid. The soft fruit is popular for use in desserts, seedless jelly
The Lamiaceae or Labiatae are a family of flowering plants known as the mint or deadnettle family. Many of the plants are aromatic in all parts and include used culinary herbs, such as basil, rosemary, savory, oregano, thyme and perilla; some species are shrubs, trees, or vines. Many members of the family are cultivated, not only for their aromatic qualities, but their ease of cultivation, since they are propagated by stem cuttings. Besides those grown for their edible leaves, some are grown for decorative foliage, such as Coleus. Others are grown for seed, such as Salvia hispanica, or for their edible tubers, such as Plectranthus edulis, Plectranthus esculentus, Plectranthus rotundifolius, Stachys affinis; the family has a cosmopolitan distribution. The enlarged Lamiaceae contain about 236 genera and have been stated to contain 6,900 to 7,200 species, but the World Checklist lists 7,534; the largest genera are Salvia, Stachys, Hyptis, Vitex and Nepeta. Clerodendrum was once a genus of over 400 species, but by 2010, it had been narrowed to about 150.
The family has traditionally been considered related to the Verbenaceae. The alternate family name Labiatae refers to the fact that the flowers have petals fused into an upper lip and a lower lip; the flowers are bilaterally symmetrical with five united sepals. They are bisexual and verticillastrate. Although this is still considered an acceptable alternative name, most botanists now use the name Lamiaceae in referring to this family; the leaves each pair at right angles to the previous one or whorled. The stems are square in cross section, but this is not found in all members of the family, is sometimes found in other plant families; the last revision of the entire family was published in 2004. It provided keys to 236 genera; these are marked with an asterisk in the list below. A few genera have been established or resurrected since 2004; these are marked with a plus sign. The remaining genera in the list are of historical interest only and are from a source that includes such genera without explanation.
Few of these are recognized in modern treatments of the family. Kew Gardens provides a list of genera. A list at the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website is updated; the circumscription of several genera has changed since 2004. Tsoongia and Viticipremna have been sunk into synonymy with Vitex. Huxleya has been sunk into Volkameria. Kalaharia, Volkameria and Tetraclea have been segregated from a polyphyletic Clerodendrum. Rydingia has been separated from Leucas; the remaining Leucas is paraphyletic over four other genera. In 2004, the Lamiaceae were divided into seven subfamilies with 10 genera not placed in any of the subfamilies; the unplaced genera are: Tectona, Hymenopyramis, Peronema, Cymaria, Acrymia and Ombrocharis. The subfamilies are the Symphorematoideae, Ajugoideae, Prostantheroideae, Nepetoideae and Lamioideae; the subfamily Viticoideae is not monophyletic. The Prostantheroideae and Nepetoideae are divided into tribes; these are shown in the phylogenetic tree below. Most of the genera of Lamiaceae have never been sampled for DNA for molecular phylogenetic studies.
Most of those that have been are included in the following phylogenetic tree. The phylogeny depicted below is based on seven different sources. Lamiaceae in L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz; the families of flowering plants: descriptions, identification, information retrieval. Http://delta-intkey.com
In forestry and ecology, understory comprises plant life growing beneath the forest canopy without penetrating it to any great extent, but above the forest floor. Only a small percentage of light penetrates the canopy so understory vegetation is shade tolerant; the understory consists of trees stunted through lack of light, other small trees with low light requirements, shrubs and undergrowth. Small trees such as holly and dogwood are understory specialists. In temperate deciduous forests, many understory plants start into growth earlier than the canopy trees to make use of the greater availability of light at this time of year. A gap in the canopy caused by the death of a tree stimulates the potential emergent trees into competitive growth as they grow upwards to fill the gap; these trees tend to have straight trunks and few lower branches. At the same time, the bushes and plant life on the forest floor become more dense; the understory experiences greater humidity than the canopy, the shaded ground does not vary in temperature as much as open ground.
This causes a proliferation of ferns and fungi and encourages nutrient recycling, which provides favorable habitats for many animals and plants. The understory is the underlying layer of vegetation in a forest or wooded area the trees and shrubs growing between the forest canopy and the forest floor. Plants in the understory comprise an assortment of seedlings and saplings of canopy trees together with specialist understory shrubs and herbs. Young canopy trees persist in the understory for decades as suppressed juveniles until an opening in the forest overstory permits their growth into the canopy. In contrast understory shrubs complete their life cycles in the shade of the forest canopy; some smaller tree species, such as dogwood and holly grow tall and are understory trees. The canopy of a rainforest is about 10m thick, intercepts around 95% of the sunlight; the understory receive less intense light than plants in the canopy and such light as does penetrate is impoverished in wavelengths of light that are most effective for photosynthesis.
Understory plants therefore must be shade tolerant—they must be able to photosynthesize adequately using such light as does reach their leaves. They are able to use wavelengths that canopy plants cannot. In temperate deciduous forests towards the end of the leafless season, understory plants take advantage of the shelter of the still leafless canopy plants to "leaf out" before the canopy trees do; this is important because it provides the understory plants with a window in which to photosynthesize without the canopy shading them. This brief period is a crucial period in which the plant can maintain a net positive carbon balance over the course of the year; as a rule forest understories experience higher humidity than exposed areas. The forest canopy reduces solar radiation, so the ground does not heat up or cool down as as open ground; the understory dries out more than more exposed areas do. The greater humidity encourages epiphytes such as ferns and mosses, allows fungi and other decomposers to flourish.
This drives nutrient cycling, provides favorable microclimates for many animals and plants, such as the pygmy marmoset. Overgrazing Layers of rainforests https://www.eolss.net/sample-chapters/C10/E5-03-01-08.pdf
The ʻiʻiwi, or scarlet honeycreeper is a "hummingbird-niched" species of Hawaiian honeycreeper. It is one of the most plentiful species of this family, many of which are extinct; the ʻiʻiwi is a recognizable symbol of Hawaiʻi. The ʻiʻiwi is the third most common native land bird in the Hawaiian Islands. Large colonies of ʻiʻiwi inhabit the islands of Hawaiʻi, Kauaʻi, with smaller colonies on Molokaʻi and Oʻahu but are no longer present on Lānaʻi. Altogether, the remaining populations are decreasing; the adult ʻiʻiwi is scarlet, with black wings and tail and a long, salmon-colored bill used for drinking nectar. The contrast of the red and black plumage with surrounding green foliage makes the ʻiʻiwi one of Hawaiʻi's most seen birds. Younger birds have golden plumage with more spots and ivory bills and were mistaken for a different species by early naturalists. Observations of young birds moulting into adult plumage resolved this confusion. Although it was used in the feather trade, it was less affected than the Hawaiʻi mamo because it was not as sacred to Hawaiians.
The ʻiʻiwi's feathers were prized by Hawaiian aliʻi for use in decorating ʻahuʻula and mahiole, such uses gave the species its original scientific name: Vestiaria, which comes from the Latin for "clothing", coccinea meaning "scarlet-colored". The bird is mentioned in Hawaiian folklore; the Hawaiian song "Sweet Lei Mamo" includes the line "The i'iwi bird, too, is a friend". The bird can hover, much like a hummingbird, its peculiar song consists of a couple of whistles, the sound of balls dropping in water, the rubbing of balloons together, the squeaking of a rusty hinge. The long bill of the ʻiʻiwi assists it to extract nectar from the flowers of the Hawaiian lobelioids, which have decurved corollas. Starting in 1902 the lobelioid population declined and the ʻiʻiwi shifted to nectar from the blossoms of ʻōhiʻa lehua trees. ʻIʻiwi eat small arthropods. These birds are altitudinal migrants. Seeking food at low elevation exposes them to low elevation disease organisms and high mortality; because the ʻiʻiwi can migrate between islands, it has not gone extinct on smaller islands such as Molokaʻi.
In the early winter in January to June, the birds pair off and mate as the ʻōhiʻa plants reach their flowering maximum. The female lays two to three eggs in a small cup shaped nest made from tree fibers and down feathers; these bluish eggs hatch in fourteen days. The chicks are yellowish-green; the chicks fledge in 24 days and soon attain adult plumage. Linguists derive the Hawaiian language word ʻiʻiwi from Proto-Nuclear-Polynesian *kiwi, which in central Polynesia refers to the bristle-thighed curlew, a migratory bird; the long decurved bill of the curlew somewhat resembles that of the ʻiʻiwi. Although ʻiʻiwi are still common on most of the Hawaiian islands, they are rare on Oʻahu and Molokai and since 1929 no longer found on Lānaʻi. Most of the decline was from loss of habitat, as native forests were cleared for farming and development. Plentiful in two parts of its range, it is listed as a threatened species because of small populations in some of its range and its susceptibility to fowlpox and avian influenza.
Ninety percent of all exposed ʻiʻiwi died and the other ten percent were weakened but survived. Habitat restoration projects removed non-native/invasive plants and animal species, including on the Island of Hawaiʻi, around Mauna Kea. Smaller lobelia populations forced ʻiʻiwi to target ʻōhiʻa trees. Introduced diseases avian malaria are spread by mosquitoes. In a series of challenge experiments involving avian malaria, more than half of the ʻiʻiwi tested died from a single infected mosquito bite. ʻIʻiwi survive at higher elevations where temperatures are too cool for mosquitoes. Many disease-susceptible endemic birds became rare to absent at lower elevations in intact native forest; the ʻiʻiwi were removed when forests were replaced with farms, plantations and alien forests. Altitudinal migration complicates population assessment. On Molokaʻi, The Nature Conservancy preserved habitat by fencing off areas within several nature reserves to keep out pig populations; the pigs create wallows which serve as incubator sites for mosquito larvae, which in turn spread avian malaria.
ʻIʻiwi was classified as a near threatened species by the IUCN, but recent research has proven that it was rarer than believed. It was uplisted to vulnerable status in 2008; the species was listed as threatened by the United States Department of the Interior on 20 October 2017. List of adaptive radiated Hawaiian honeycreepers by form BirdLife Species Factsheet. ʻIʻiwi videos, photos & sounds on the Internet Bird Collection Extra information on the Iiwi DNLR factsheet for the I'iwi
Game or quarry is any animal hunted for sport or for food, the meat of those animals. The type and range of animals hunted for food varies in different parts of the world. Game or quarry is any animal hunted for sport; the term game arises in medieval hunting terminology by the late 13th century and is particular to English, the word derived from the generic Old English gamen "joy, sport, merriment". Quarry in the generic meaning is early modern, in the more specific sense "bird targeted in falconry" late 14th and 15th centuries as quirre "entrails of deer placed on the hide and given to the hunting-dogs as a reward", from Old French cuiriee "spoil, quarry", but influenced by corée "viscera, entrails". Wild game meat is considered to be superior in nutrient density, has lower fat content, than meat procured through contemporary farming methods, while the cost in time and money to procure wild game is much higher. Small game includes small animals, such as rabbits, geese or ducks. Large game includes animals like deer and bear.
Big game is a term sometimes used interchangeably with large game although in other contexts it refers to large African, mammals which are hunted for trophies. The type and range of animals hunted for food varies in different parts of the world; this is influenced by climate, animal diversity, local taste and locally accepted views about what can or cannot be legitimately hunted. Sometimes a distinction is made between varieties and species of a particular animal, such as wild turkey and domestic turkey. Fish caught for sport are referred to as game fish; the flesh of the animal, when butchered for consumption is described as having a "gamey" flavour. This difference in taste can be attributed to the wild diet of the animal, which results in a lower fat content compared to domestic farm raised animals. In some countries, game is classified, including legal classification with respect to licences required, as either "small game" or "large game". A single small game licence may be subject to yearly bag limits.
Large game are subject to individual licensing where a separate licence is required for each individual animal taken. In some parts of Africa, wild animals hunted for their meat are called bushmeat. Animals hunted for bushmeat include, but are not limited to: Various species of antelope, including duikers Various species of primates like mandrills or gorillas Rodents like porcupines or cane ratsSome of these animals are endangered or otherwise protected, thus it is illegal to hunt them. In Africa, animals hunted for their pelts or ivory are sometimes referred to as the big game. See the legal definition of game in Swaziland. South Africa is a famous destination for game hunting, with its large biodiversity and therefore rather impressive variety of game species. Many creatures have returned to former areas from which they were once taken from as a result of being killed for big-game hunting. Species of creatures hunted include: South Africa has 62 species of gamebirds, including guineafowl, partridge, sandgrouse, geese, snipe and korhaan.
Some of these species are no longer hunted, of the 44 indigenous gamebirds that can be utilised in South Africa, only three, namely the yellow-throated sandgrouse, Delegorgue's pigeon and the African pygmy goose warrant special protection. Of the remaining 41 species, 24 have shown an increase in numbers and distribution range in the last 25 years or so; the status of 14 species appears unchanged, with insufficient information being available for the remaining three species. The gamebirds of South Africa where the population status in 2005 was secure or growing are listed below: In Australia, game includes: Game in New Zealand includes: Chamois Deer, multiple species Pig Tahr Duck, multiple species In the U. S. and Canada, white-tailed deer are the most hunted big game. Other game species include: In the PRC there is a special cuisine category called ye wei, which includes animals in the wild. In the UK game is defined in law by the Game Act 1831, it is illegal to shoot game at night. Other that are hunted for food in the UK are specified under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981.
UK law defines game as including: Black grouse Red grouse Brown hare Ptarmigan Grey partridge and red-legged partridge Common pheasantDeer are not included in the definition, but similar controls provided to those in the Game Act apply to deer. Deer hunted in the UK are: Red deer Roe deer Fallow deer Sika deer Muntjac deer Chinese water deer and hybrids of these deerOther animals which are hunted in the UK include: Duck, including mallard, tufted duck, teal and pochard Goose, including greylag goose, Canada goose, pink-footed goose and in England and Wales white-fronted goose Woodpigeon Woodcock Snipe Rabbit Golden ploverCapercaillie are not hunted in the UK because of a recent decline in numbers and conservation projects towards their recovery; the ban is considered voluntary on private lands, few birds live away from RSPB or Forestry Commission land allegedly. In Iceland game includes: Reindeer Ptarmigan, a popular Christmas dish in Iceland Puffin Auk Goos