Racial Equality Proposal
The Racial Equality Proposal was an amendment to the treaty under consideration at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference offered by Japan. The racial equality proposal was never intended to have any universal implications, although one was attached to it anyway, which drove its contentiousness at the conference. Foreign Minister Uchida stated in June 1919 that the racial equality proposal was not intended to demand universal racial equality of all coloured peoples, but only for members of the League of Nations. Though broadly supported, it did not become part of the Treaty of Versailles because of the opposition of Australia and the United States, two powers with long established de jure and de facto systems of racial discrimination and policies of white supremacy, its rejection led to the alienation of Japan from the other great powers and increased nationalism leading up to World War II. The principle of racial equality would be revisited after the Second World War and be incorporated into the United Nations Charter in 1945 as the fundamental principle of international justice.
Despite that several countries, including the two aforementioned powers would retain sanctioned racial laws and policies for decades afterwards. Japan attended the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 as one of the five great powers, as the only non-Western great power. For the Japanese, it was the culmination of a half century of an intensive national effort to create a modern state; the presence of Japan delegates in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles, signing the Treaty of Versailles on 28 June 1919 was a astonishing feat. Japan had become much part of the international scene. Prime Minister Hara Takashi had come into power in September 1918, he was determined that Japan should adopt a pro-western foreign policy at the forthcoming peace conference in Versailles; this was in consequence to the previous wartime governments under Prime Ministers Ōkuma Shigenobu and Terauchi Masatake following expansionist policies, which had the effect of alienating Japan from the United States and Britain. Hara was determined to support the creation of the League of Nations at the peace conference, in order to steer Japan back to the West.
However, there was a not insignificant degree of scepticism expressed towards the League in Japan. Domestically, opinion was divided into those who supported the League and those who opposed it, with the latter being more representative of national opinion. Hence, the proposal had the role of appeasing these opponents by making Japan's acceptance of the League conditional on having a racial equality clause inserted into the covenant of the League. After the end of seclusion in the 1850s, Japan signed unequal treaties but soon came to demand equal status with the Western powers. Correcting inequality became the most urgent international issue of the Meiji government. In this context, the Japanese delegation to the Paris peace conference proposed the "racial equality clause" in the Covenant of the League of Nations; the first draft was presented to the League of Nations Commission on 13 February as an amendment to Article 21: The equality of nations being a basic principle of the League of Nations, the High Contracting Parties agree to accord as soon as possible to all alien nationals of states, members of the League and just treatment in every respect making no distinction, either in law or in fact, on account of their race or nationality.
In a speech, the Japanese diplomat Makino Nobuaki stated that during the war men of different races had fought together on the Allied side, leading to say: "A common bond of sympathy and gratitude has been established to an extent never before experienced." The Japanese delegation did not realize the full ramifications of their proposal, since its adoption would have challenged aspects of the established norms of the international system of the day, which involved the colonial rule over non-white peoples. The intention of the Japanese was to secure equality of their nationals and the equality for members of the League of Nations. Lord Robert Cecil stated after Makino's speech that the Japanese proposal was a controversial one and he suggested that the matter was so controversial that it should not be discussed at all; the Greek Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos suggested that a clause banning religious discrimination should be removed as, a controversial matter, which led to objections from a Portuguese diplomat who stated that his country had never signed a treaty before that did not mention God, which caused Cecil to remark this time they would all just have to a take a chance that they would avoid the wrath of the Almighty by not mentioning Him.
Cecil removed all references to clauses that forbade racial and religious discrimination from the text of the peace treaty, but the Japanese made it clear that they would seek to have the racial equality clause restored. By this time, the racial equality clause was beginning to draw widespread public attention. Demonstrations in Japan demanded the end of the "badge of shame" as policies to exclude Japanese immigration in the United States, Canada and New Zealand received much media attention in Japan. In the United States, the racial equality clause received much negative media coverage on the Pacific coast and in the South, though for different
The Nihon Shoki, sometimes translated as The Chronicles of Japan, is the second-oldest book of classical Japanese history. The book is called the Nihongi, it is more elaborate and detailed than the Kojiki, the oldest, has proven to be an important tool for historians and archaeologists as it includes the most complete extant historical record of ancient Japan. The Nihon Shoki was finished in 720 under the editorial supervision of Prince Toneri and with the assistance of Ō no Yasumaro dedicated to Empress Genshō; the Nihon Shoki begins with the Japanese creation myth, explaining the origin of the world and the first seven generations of divine beings, goes on with a number of myths as does the Kojiki, but continues its account through to events of the 8th century. It is believed to record the latter reigns of Emperor Tenji, Emperor Tenmu and Empress Jitō; the Nihon Shoki focuses on the merits of the virtuous rulers as well as the errors of the bad rulers. It describes diplomatic contacts with other countries.
The Nihon Shoki was written in classical Chinese. The Kojiki, on the other hand, is written in a combination of Chinese and phonetic transcription of Japanese; the Nihon Shoki contains numerous transliteration notes telling the reader how words were pronounced in Japanese. Collectively, the stories in this book and the Kojiki are referred to as the Kiki stories; the tale of Urashima Tarō is developed from the brief mention in Nihon Shoki that a certain child of Urashima visited Horaisan and saw wonders. The tale has plainly incorporated elements from the famous anecdote of "Luck of the Sea and Luck of the Mountains" found in Nihon Shoki; the developed Urashima tale contains the Rip Van Winkle motif, so some may consider it an early example of fictional time travel. Chapter 01: Kami no Yo no Kami no maki. Chapter 02: Kami no Yo no Shimo no maki. Chapter 03: Kan'yamato Iwarebiko no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 04: Kamu Nunakawamimi no Sumeramikoto. Shikitsuhiko Tamatemi no Sumeramikoto. Ōyamato Hikosukitomo no Sumeramikoto.
Mimatsuhiko Sukitomo no Sumeramikoto. Yamato Tarashihiko Kuni Oshihito no Sumeramikoto. Ōyamato Nekohiko Futoni no Sumeramikoto. Ōyamato Nekohiko Kunikuru no Sumeramikoto. Wakayamato Nekohiko Ōbibi no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 05: Mimaki Iribiko Iniye no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 06: Ikume Iribiko Isachi no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 07: Ōtarashihiko Oshirowake no Sumeramikoto. Waka Tarashihiko no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 08: Tarashi Nakatsuhiko no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 09: Okinaga Tarashihime no Mikoto. Chapter 10: Homuda no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 11: Ōsasagi no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 12: Izahowake no Sumeramikoto. Mitsuhawake no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 13: Oasazuma Wakugo no Sukune no Sumeramikoto. Anaho no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 14: Ōhatsuse no Waka Takeru no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 15: Shiraka no Take Hirokuni Oshi Waka Yamato Neko no Sumeramikoto. Woke no Sumeramikoto. Oke no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 16: Ohatsuse no Waka Sasagi no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 17: Ōdo no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 18: Hirokuni Oshi Take Kanahi no Sumeramikoto.
Take Ohirokuni Oshi Tate no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 19: Amekuni Oshiharaki Hironiwa no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 20: Nunakakura no Futo Tamashiki no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 21: Tachibana no Toyohi no Sumeramikoto. Hatsusebe no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 22: Toyomike Kashikiya Hime no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 23: Okinaga Tarashi Hihironuka no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 24: Ame Toyotakara Ikashi Hitarashi no Hime no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 25: Ame Yorozu Toyohi no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 26: Ame Toyotakara Ikashi Hitarashi no Hime no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 27: Ame Mikoto Hirakasuwake no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 28: Ama no Nunakahara Oki no Mahito no Sumeramikoto, Kami no maki. Chapter 29: Ama no Nunakahara Oki no Mahito no Sumeramikoto, Shimo no maki. Chapter 30: Takamanohara Hirono Hime no Sumeramikoto; the background of the compilation of the Nihon Shoki is that Emperor Tenmu ordered 12 people, including Prince Kawashima, to edit the old history of the empire. Shoku Nihongi notes that "先是一品舍人親王奉勅修日本紀。至是功成奏上。紀卅卷系圖一卷" in the part of May, 720.
It means "Up to that time, Prince Toneri had been compiling Nihongi on the orders of the emperor. The process of compilation is studied by stylistic analysis of each chapter. Although written in classical Chinese character, some sections use styles characteristic of Japanese editors; the Nihon Shoki is a synthesis of older documents on the records, continuously kept in the Yamato court since the sixth century. It includes documents and folklore submitted by clans serving the court. Prior to Nihon Shoki, there were Tennōki and Kokki compiled by Prince Shōtoku and Soga no Umako, but as they were stored in Soga's residence, they were burned at the time of the Isshi Incident; the work's contributors refer to various sources
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, it was the longest and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is used as an example of how intensely the world's economy can decline; the Great Depression started in the United States after a major fall in stock prices that began around September 4, 1929, became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929. Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide gross domestic product fell by an estimated 15%. By comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession; some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s. However, in many countries the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the beginning of World War II; the Great Depression had devastating effects in countries both poor. Personal income, tax revenue and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%.
Unemployment in the U. S. rose to 25% and in some countries rose as high as 33%. Cities around the world were hit hard those dependent on heavy industry. Construction was halted in many countries. Farming communities and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by about 60%. Facing plummeting demand with few alternative sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as mining and logging suffered the most. Economic historians attribute the start of the Great Depression to the sudden devastating collapse of U. S. stock market prices on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. However, some dispute this conclusion and see the stock crash as a symptom, rather than a cause, of the Great Depression. After the Wall Street Crash of 1929 optimism persisted for some time. John D. Rockefeller said "These are days. In the 93 years of my life, depressions have gone. Prosperity has always returned and will again." The stock market turned upward in early 1930. This was still 30% below the peak of September 1929.
Together and business spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the corresponding period of the previous year. On the other hand, many of whom had suffered severe losses in the stock market the previous year, cut back their expenditures by 10%. In addition, beginning in the mid-1930s, a severe drought ravaged the agricultural heartland of the U. S. By mid-1930, interest rates had dropped to low levels, but expected deflation and the continuing reluctance of people to borrow meant that consumer spending and investment were depressed. By May 1930, automobile sales had declined to below the levels of 1928. Prices in general began to decline, although wages held steady in 1930. A deflationary spiral started in 1931. Farmers faced a worse outlook. At its peak, the Great Depression saw nearly 10% of all Great Plains farms change hands despite federal assistance; the decline in the U. S. economy was the factor. Frantic attempts to shore up the economies of individual nations through protectionist policies, such as the 1930 U.
S. Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act and retaliatory tariffs in other countries, exacerbated the collapse in global trade. By 1933, the economic decline had pushed world trade to one-third of its level just four years earlier. Change in economic indicators 1929–32 The two classical competing theories of the Great Depression are the Keynesian and the monetarist explanation. There are various heterodox theories that downplay or reject the explanations of the Keynesians and monetarists; the consensus among demand-driven theories is that a large-scale loss of confidence led to a sudden reduction in consumption and investment spending. Once panic and deflation set in, many people believed they could avoid further losses by keeping clear of the markets. Holding money became profitable as prices dropped lower and a given amount of money bought more goods, exacerbating the drop in demand. Monetarists believe that the Great Depression started as an ordinary recession, but the shrinking of the money supply exacerbated the economic situation, causing a recession to descend into the Great Depression.
Economists and economic historians are evenly split as to whether the traditional monetary explanation that monetary forces were the primary cause of the Great Depression is right, or the traditional Keynesian explanation that a fall in autonomous spending investment, is the primary explanation for the onset of the Great Depression. Today the controversy is of lesser importance since there is mainstream support for the debt deflation theory and the expectations hypothesis that building on the monetary explanation of Milton Friedman and Anna Schwartz add non-monetary explanations. There is consensus that the Federal Reserve System should have cut short the process of monetary deflation and banking collapse. If they had done this, the economic downturn would have been much shorter. British economist John Maynard Keynes argued in The General Theory of Employment and Money that lower aggregate expenditures in the economy contributed to a massive decline in income and to employment, well below the average.
In such a situation, the economy reached equilibrium at low levels of economic activity and high unemployment. Keynes' basic idea was simple
Miyazaki is the capital city of Miyazaki Prefecture on the island of Kyushu in Japan. Located on the coast and crossed by several rivers, Miyazaki City enjoys scenic views of both ocean and nearby, verdant mountains. A popular resort destination for Japanese tourists, the city offers many attractions, including the SeaGaia event center, the Phoenix Zoo, many large hotels and onsens; the city is the primary shopping destination for eastern Kyushu residents in smaller towns around the prefecture. The city was founded on April 1, 1924; as of this merger, the city has an estimated population of 365,311 and a population density of 612 persons per km². The total area is 596.68 km². As of December 2010, the current population is 399,834. Miyazaki Airport and Miyazaki seaport serve the city. In 1940, the imperialist Shōwa regime constructed the 37 meter Hakkō Ichiu pillar upon the legendary site of Emperor Jimmu's palace. Located near Miyazaki, it was intended to symbolize the divine right of the Empire of Japan to "unify the eight corners of the world".
The tower is now the center piece of the Heiwadai-koen peace park. On January 1, 2006, the towns of Sadowara and Tano, the town of Takaoka were merged into Miyazaki. On March 23, 2010, the town of Kiyotake was merged into Miyazaki. Miyazaki District was dissolved as a result of this merger. Skynet Asia Airways has its headquarters in Miyazaki. Asiana Airlines operates a sales office on the sixth floor of the Miyazaki Daiichi Seimei Building in Miyazaki. Dell Inc has their two call centers in Japan had opened the one on the 5th floor of Carino Miyazaki Building in Miyazaki. Miyazaki Prefectural Office became famous as a tourist spot when Hideo Higashikokubaru, a national celebrity, became the prefectural governor of Miyazaki. Miyazaki-jingū, a shrine in the city's center, is one of Miyazaki's sacred dedications to Japan's first emperor, Jinmu. Heiwadai Tower or "Peace Tower", in the expansive Heiwadai park, is a must-see for tourists; the "Tower of the Emperor," symbolizing Japanese imperial expansion, it was renamed for peace after the events of World War II.
Aoshima Island and shrine, only minutes south of the city, boasts some rare rock formations known as the Devil's Washboard among a peaceful beach setting, is a popular relaxation and play destination for locals and travelers alike. The fascinating Aoshima Subtropical Botanical Garden is located nearby; the Tom Watson Golf Course was produced by an American professional golfer. Miyazaki-city Phoenix Zoo The Citizen's Forest. A Large park near Phoenix Zoo. Located on its grounds is the Misogi-ike, Pond of Purification, that according to legend is the birthplace of the sun goddess Amaterasu; the Ikimen Burial Mounds are located in Miyazaki and include the Ikime-no-mori Yukokan, Activity Centre, where visitors learn the history of the burial mounds and learn about ancient activities. Miyazaki City is known for its excellent surfing conditions year-round, Kisakihama Beach, Aoshima Beach, Shirahama Beach are popular surfing spots all within the city limits; the JR Kyushu Nichinan Line serves the area.
The city is served by Miyazaki Airport. Miyazaki has five sister cities: Kashihara, Nara Tano, Kōchi Daisen, Akita Waukegan, United States, since May 3, 1990 Virginia Beach, United States, since May 25, 1992 Boeun County, North Chungcheong, South Korea, since August 6, 1993 Huludao, China, since May 16, 2004 Yui Asaka Shinzo Koroki Kosei Inoue Ryunosuke Haga University of Miyazaki Miyazaki Prefectural Nursing University Miyazaki Municipal University Miyazaki Sangyo-keiei University Minami Kyushu University Miyazaki International College Minami Kyushu Junior College Miyazaki has a humid subtropical climate with hot, humid summers and cool winters. During the summer, the city is prone to typhoons, one of which drenched the city with 587.2 millimetres of rain in one day on 16 October 1939. The wettest month since records began has been September 1886 with 1,259.3 millimetres and the driest December 1988, which stands as the only month with no measurable precipitation. Official website
Immigration Act of 1924
The Immigration Act of 1924, or Johnson–Reed Act, including the Asian Exclusion Act and National Origins Act, was a United States federal law that prevented immigration from Asia, set quotas on the number of immigrants from the Eastern Hemisphere, provided funding and an enforcement mechanism to carry out the longstanding ban on other immigrants. The 1924 act supplanted earlier acts to ban all immigration from Asia and set a total immigration quota of 165,000 for countries outside the Western Hemisphere, an 80% reduction from the pre-World War I average. Quotas for specific countries were based on 2% of the U. S. population from that country as recorded in 1890. As a result, populations poorly represented in 1890 were prevented from immigrating in proportionate numbers—especially affecting Italians, Greeks and other Slavs. According to the U. S. Department of State Office of the Historian, the purpose of the act was "to preserve the ideal of U. S. homogeneity." Congressional opposition was minimal.
A key element of the act was its provisions for enforcement. The act provided funding and legal instructions to courts of deportation for immigrants whose national quotas were exceeded; the act was revised in the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 and replaced by the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965. The Naturalization Act of 1790 declared that only people of white descent were eligible for naturalization, but was modified in 1870, when eligibility was extended to people of African descent in the wake of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments. Chinese and Japanese people were barred from immigrating to the U. S. in the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act and the Gentlemen's Agreement of 1907, respectively. According to historian Mae Ngai, before World War I, the United States had "virtually open borders". A limitation on Southern and Eastern European immigration was first proposed in 1909 by Senator Henry Cabot Lodge; the Immigration Act of 1917 further restricted immigration from Asia. In the wake of the post-World War I recession, many Americans believed that bringing in more immigrants from other nations would only make the unemployment rate higher.
The Red Scare of 1919–1921 had fueled xenophobic fears of foreign radicals migrating to undermine American values and provoke an uprising like Russia's 1917 Bolshevik Revolution. The number of immigrants entering the United States decreased for about a year from July 1919 to June 1920 but doubled the year after that. Congressman Albert Johnson and Senator David Reed were the two main architects of the act. In the wake of intense lobbying, it passed with strong congressional support. There were nine dissenting votes in the Senate and a handful of opponents in the House, the most vigorous of whom was freshman Brooklyn Representative and Jewish-American Emanuel Celler. Decades he pointed out the act's "startling discrimination against central and southern Europe". Proponents of the act sought to establish a distinct American identity by preserving its ethnic homogeneity. Reed told the Senate that earlier legislation "disregards those of us who are interested in keeping American stock up to the highest standard—that is, the people who were born here".
He believed that immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe, most of them Catholics or Jews, arrived sick and starving and therefore less capable of contributing to the American economy, unable to adapt to American culture. Eugenics was used as justification for the act's restriction of certain races or ethnicities of people in order to prevent the spread of perceived feeblemindedness in American society. Samuel Gompers, a Jewish immigrant and founder of the American Federation of Labor, supported the act because he opposed the cheap labor that immigration represented, despite the fact that the act would reduce Jewish immigration. Both the AFL and Ku Klux Klan supported the act. Lobbyists from the West Coast, where a majority of Japanese and other East Asian immigrants had settled, were concerned with excluding Asian immigrants. An 1882 law had put an end to Chinese immigration, but as Japanese laborers began arriving and putting down roots in western states, an exclusionary movement formed in reaction to the "Yellow Peril".
Valentine S. McClatchy, founder of The McClatchy Company and a leader of the anti-Japanese movement, argued, "They come here and professedly for the purpose of colonizing and establishing here permanently the proud Yamato race," citing their supposed inability to assimilate to American culture and the economic threat they posed to white businessmen and farmers. Despite some hesitation from President Calvin Coolidge and strong opposition from the Japanese government, with whom the U. S. government had maintained a cordial economic and political relationship, the act was signed into law on May 24, 1924. The immigration act made permanent the basic limitations on immigration into the United States established in 1921 and modified the National Origins Formula established then. In conjunction with the Immigration Act of 1917, it governed American immigration policy until the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, which revised it completely; the act provided that no alien ineligible to become a citizen could be admitted to the United States as an immigrant.
This was aimed at Japanese aliens, but without explicitly naming them in the act. It imposed fines on transportation companies who landed aliens in violation of U. S. immigration laws. It defined the term "immigrant" and designated all other alien entries into the United States as "non-immigrant", that is, temporary visitors, it established classes of admission for such non-immi
Nichiren Buddhism is a branch of Mahayana Buddhism based on the teachings of the 13th-century Japanese Buddhist priest Nichiren and is one of the Kamakura Buddhism schools. Its teachings derive from some 300–400 extant letters and treatises attributed to Nichiren. With the advent, proselytizing efforts, of the Soka Gakkai International, called "the most prominent Japanese'export' religion to draw significant numbers of non-Japanese converts, Nichiren Buddhism has spread throughout the world. Within Nichiren Buddhism there are two major divisions which fundamentally differ over whether Nichiren should be regarded as a bodhisattva of the earth, a saint, great teacher—or the actual Buddha of the third age of Buddhism. Several Japanese new religions are Nichiren-inspired lay groups, it is practiced worldwide, with practitioners throughout the United States and Europe, as well as in South Korea and southeast Asia. The largest sects are the Soka Gakkai/, Nichiren Shu, Nichiren Shoshu. Nichiren Buddhism focuses on the Lotus Sutra doctrine that all people have an innate Buddha-nature and are therefore inherently capable of attaining enlightenment in their current form and present lifetime.
Nichiren proposed a classification system that ranks the quality of religions and various Nichiren schools can be either accommodating or vigorously opposed to any other forms of Buddhism or religious beliefs. There are three essential aspects to Nichiren Buddhism: The undertaking of faith; the practice of chanting Nam Myoho Renge Kyo accompanied by selected recitations of the Lotus Sutra and teaching others to do the same. The study of Nichiren's scriptural writings called Gosho; the Nichiren Gohonzon is a calligraphic image, prominently displayed in the home or temple buildings of its believers. The Gohonzon used in Nichiren Buddhism is composed of the names of key bodhisattvas and Buddhas in the Lotus Sutra as well as Namu-Myoho-Renge-Kyo written in large characters down the center. After his death, Nichiren left to his followers the mandate to propagate the Gohonzon and Daimoku in order to secure the peace and prosperity of society. Traditional Nichiren Buddhist temple groups are associated with Nichiren Shoshu and varying Nichiren Shu schools.
There are modern 21st-century lay groups not affiliated with temples such as Soka Gakkai, Shoshinkai, Risshō Kōsei Kai, Honmon Butsuryū-shū. Nichiren's teachings encompass a great many concepts; the basic practice of Nichiren Buddhism is chanting the invocation Nam-myoho-renge-kyo to a mandala inscribed by Nichiren, called the Gohonzon. Embracing Nam-myoho-renge-kyo entails both having the mind of faith. Both the invocation and the Gohonzon, as taught by Nichiren, embody the title and essence of the Lotus Sutra, which he taught as the only valid scripture for The Latter Day of the Law, as well as the life state of Buddhahood inherent in all life. Nichiren considered that in the Latter Day of the Law – a time of human strife and confusion, when Buddhism would be in decline – Buddhism had to be more than the theoretical or meditative practice it had become, but was meant to be practiced "with the body", that is, in one's actions and the consequent results that are manifested. More important than the formality of ritual, he claimed, was the substance of the practitioner's life in which the spiritual and material aspects are interrelated.
He considered conditions in the world to be a reflection of the conditions of the inner lives of people. He considered his disciples the "Bodhisattvas of the Earth" who appeared in the Lotus Sutra with the vow to spread the correct teaching and thereby establish a peaceful and just society. For Nichiren, enlightenment is not limited to one's inner life, but is "something that called for actualization in endeavors toward the transformation of the land, toward the realization of an ideal society."The specific task to be pursued by Nichiren's disciples was the widespread propagation of his teachings in a way that would effect actual change in the world's societies so that the sanctuary, or seat, of Buddhism could be built. Nichiren saw this sanctuary as a specific seat of his Buddhism, but there is thought that he meant it in a more general sense, that is, wherever his Buddhism would be practiced; this sanctuary, along with the invocation and Gohonzon, comprise "the three great secret laws" found in the Lotus Sutra.
Nichiren Buddhism originated in 13th-century feudal Japan. It is one of six new forms of Shin Bukkyo of "Kamakura Buddhism." The arrival of these new schools was a response to the social and political upheaval in Japan during this time as power passed from the nobility to a shogunate military dictatorship led by the Minamoto clan and to the Hōjō clan. A prevailing pessimism existed associated with the perceived arrival of the Age of the Latter Day of the Law; the era was marked by an intertwining relationship between Buddhist schools and the state which included clerical corruption. By Nichiren's time the Lotus Sūtra was established in Japan. From the ninth century, Japanese rulers decreed that the Lotus Sūtra be recited in temples for its "nation-saving" qualities, it was the most read and recited sutra by the literate lay class and its message was disseminated through art, folk tales and theater. It was held that it had powers to bestow spiritual and worldly benefits to individuals; however Mount Hiei, the seat of Tia
Seishirō Itagaki was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army in World War II and a War Minister. Convicted of war crimes, he was executed in 1948. Itagaki was born in Morioka city, Iwate prefecture into a samurai class family serving the Nanbu clan of Morioka Domain, he graduated from the Imperial Japanese Army Academy in 1904. He fought in the Russo-Japanese War in 1904–1905. From 1924-1926, Itagaki was a military attaché assigned to the Japanese embassy in China. On his return to Japan, he held a number of staff positions within the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff during 1926–1927 before being given a field command as commanding officer of the IJA 33rd Infantry Brigade based in China, his brigade was attached to the IJA 10th Division from 1927–1928. Itagaki was transferred to command the IJA 33rd Infantry Regiment in China from 1928–1929, under the aegis of the Kwantung Army. Itagaki rose to become Chief of the Intelligence Section of the Kwantung Army from 1931, in which capacity he helped plan the 1931 Mukden Incident that led to the Japanese seizure of Manchuria.
He was subsequently a military advisor to Manchukuo from 1932–1934. Itagaki became Vice Chief of Staff of the Kwantung Army from 1934, Chief of Staff in 1936. From 1937 to 1938 Itagaki was commander of the IJA 5th Division in China during the early part of the Second Sino-Japanese War, his Division took a leading part in the Battle of Beiping-Tianjin, Operation Chahar, the Battle of Taiyuan. However, in the Battle of Xuzhou his forces were repulsed during the Battle of Taierzhuang in the vicinity of Linyi that prevented them from coming to the aid of Rensuke Isogai's IJA 10th Division. Recalled to Japan in 1938, Itagaki served as War Minister from 1938-1939. On December 6, 1938, Itagaki proposed a national policy in accordance with Hakko Ichiu at the Five Ministers Conference, the Japanese highest decision making council, the council made a decision of prohibiting the expulsion of the Jews in Japan and China as Japanese national policy. Itagaki returned to China again as chief of staff of the China Expeditionary Army from 1939-1941.
However, the defeat of Japanese forces against the Soviet Red Army at Nomonhan in the summer of 1939 was a major blow to his career, he was reassigned to command the Chosen Army in Korea considered a backwater post. As the war situation continued to deteriorate for Japan, the Chosen Army was elevated to the Japanese Seventeenth Area Army in 1945, with Itagaki still as commander in chief, he was reassigned to the Japanese Seventh Area Army in Singapore and Malaya in April 1945. He surrendered Japanese forces in Southeast Asia to British Admiral Louis Mountbatten in Singapore on 12 September 1945. After the war, he was taken into custody by the SCAP authorities and charged with war crimes in connection with the Japanese seizure of Manchuria, his escalation of the war against the Allies during his term as War Minister, for allowing inhumane treatment of prisoners of war during his term as commander of Japanese forces in Southeast Asia, he was found guilty on counts 1, 27, 29, 31, 32, 35, 36 and 54 and was condemned to death in 1948 by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East.
Itagaki was hanged on 23 December 1948 at Tokyo. Bruno Birolli "Ishiwara, l'homme qui déclencha la guerre", ARTE éditions/Armand Colin. Ammenthorp, Steen. "Itagaki Seishiro". The Generals of World War II. Budge, Kent. "Itagaki Seishiro". Pacific War Online Encyclopedia