The Seikan Tunnel or 青函隧道 Seikan Zuidō, is a 53.85 km dual gauge railway tunnel in Japan, with a 23.3 km long portion under the seabed. The track level is about 100 m below 240 m below sea level, it extends beneath the Tsugaru Strait — connecting Aomori Prefecture on the main Japanese island of Honshu with the northern island of Hokkaido — as part of the standard gauge Hokkaido Shinkansen and the narrow gauge Kaikyō Line portion of the Hokkaido Railway Company's Tsugaru-Kaikyō Line. The name Seikan comes from combining the on'yomi readings of the first characters of Aomori, the nearest major city on the Honshu side of the strait, Hakodate, the nearest major city on the Hokkaido side; the Seikan Tunnel is the world's longest tunnel with an undersea segment. It is the second deepest and the second longest main-line railway tunnel after the Gotthard Base Tunnel in Switzerland opened in 2016. Connecting the islands Honshu and Hokkaido by a fixed link had been considered since the Taishō period, but serious surveying commenced only in 1946, induced by the loss of overseas territory at the end of World War II and the need to accommodate returnees.
In 1954, five ferries, including the Tōya Maru, sank in the Tsugaru Strait during a typhoon, killing 1,430 passengers. The following year, Japanese National Railways expedited the tunnel investigation. Of concern was the increasing traffic between the two islands. A booming economy saw traffic levels on the JNR-operated Seikan Ferry double to 4,040,000 passengers/year from 1955 to 1965, cargo levels rose 1.7 times to 6,240,000 tonnes/year. Inter-island traffic forecast projections made in 1971 predicted increasing growth that would outstrip the ability of the ferry pier facility, constrained by geographical conditions. In September 1971, the decision was made to commence work on the tunnel. A Shinkansen-capable cross section was selected, with plans to extend the Shinkansen network. Arduous construction in difficult geological conditions proceeded. Thirty-four workers were killed during construction. On 27 January 1983, Japanese Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone pressed a switch that set off a blast that completed the pilot tunnel.
On 10 March 1985, Minister of Transport Tokuo Yamashita symbolically bored through the main tunnel. The necessity for the project was questioned at times during construction, as the 1971 traffic predictions were overestimates. Instead of the traffic rate increasing as predicted to a peak in 1985, it peaked earlier in 1978 and proceeded to decrease; the decrease was attributed to the slowdown in Japan's economy since the first oil crisis in 1973 and to advances made in air transport facilities and longer-range sea transport. The tunnel was opened on 13 March 1988, having cost a total of ¥1.1 trillion to construct 12 times the original budget, much of, due to inflation over the years. Once the tunnel was completed, all railway transport between Honshu and Hokkaido used it. However, for passenger transport, 90 % of people use air travel due to cost. For example, to travel between Tokyo and Sapporo by train takes eight hours, with transfer from Shinkansen to narrow-gauge express train at Hakodate.
By air, the journey is thirty minutes, including airport access times. Deregulation and competition in Japanese domestic air travel has brought down prices on the Tokyo-Sapporo route, making rail more expensive in comparison; the Hokutosei overnight train service began after the completion of the Seikan Tunnel, a and more luxurious Cassiopeia overnight train service was fully booked. Both were withdrawn following the commencement of Hokkaido Shinkansen services in March 2016, with freight trains being the only regular service utilising the narrow gauge line since that time. JR Hokkaido is exploring the use of "Train on Train" technology to remove the threat that the shock wave created in front of Shinkansen trains traveling at full speed pose to freight trains operating on Japanese standard narrow-gauge track in a tunnel setting. If successful, it will allow the Hokkaido Shinkansen to travel at full speed inside the tunnel in the future. Shinkansen trains operate through the tunnel to Shin-Hakodate-Hokuto Station in Hakodate, connecting Tokyo and Shin-Hakodate-Hokuto stations in four hours and two minutes, at a maximum speed of 140 km/h within the tunnel and 260 km/h outside it, 320 km/h to the south of Morioka.
It is expected. The final stage is proposed to open to Sapporo Station in 2031 and is expected to shorten the Tokyo-Sapporo rail journey to five hours; the Hokkaido Shinkansen will be operated by JR Hokkaido. 24 April 1946: Geological surveying begins. 26 September 1954: The train ferry Tōya Maru sinks in the Tsugaru Strait. 23 March 1964: Japan Railway Construction Public Corporation is established. 28 September 1971: Construction on the main tunnel begins. 27 January 1983: Pilot tunnel breakthrough. 10 March 1985: Main tunnel breakthrough. 13 March 1988: The tunnel opens. 26 March 2016: Shinkansen services commence operation through the tunnel, regular narrow gauge passenger services through the tunnel cease. Surveying started in 1946, construction began in 1971. By August 1982, less than 700 metres of the tunnel remained to be excavated. First contact between the two sides was in 1983; the Tsugaru Strait has eastern and western necks, both 20 km across. Initial surveys undertaken in 1946 indicated that the eastern neck was up to 200
Railway electrification system
A railway electrification system supplies electric power to railway trains and trams without an on-board prime mover or local fuel supply. Electric railways use electric locomotives to haul passengers or freight in separate cars or electric multiple units, passenger cars with their own motors. Electricity is generated in large and efficient generating stations, transmitted to the railway network and distributed to the trains; some electric railways have their own dedicated generating stations and transmission lines but most purchase power from an electric utility. The railway provides its own distribution lines and transformers. Power is supplied to moving trains with a continuous conductor running along the track that takes one of two forms: overhead line, suspended from poles or towers along the track or from structure or tunnel ceilings. Both overhead wire and third-rail systems use the running rails as the return conductor but some systems use a separate fourth rail for this purpose. In comparison to the principal alternative, the diesel engine, electric railways offer better energy efficiency, lower emissions and lower operating costs.
Electric locomotives are usually quieter, more powerful, more responsive and reliable than diesels. They have an important advantage in tunnels and urban areas; some electric traction systems provide regenerative braking that turns the train's kinetic energy back into electricity and returns it to the supply system to be used by other trains or the general utility grid. While diesel locomotives burn petroleum, electricity can be generated from diverse sources including renewable energy. Disadvantages of electric traction include high capital costs that may be uneconomic on trafficked routes. Different regions may use different supply voltages and frequencies, complicating through service and requiring greater complexity of locomotive power; the limited clearances available under overhead lines may preclude efficient double-stack container service. Railway electrification has increased in the past decades, as of 2012, electrified tracks account for nearly one third of total tracks globally. Electrification systems are classified by three main parameters: Voltage Current Direct current Alternating current Frequency Contact system Third rail Fourth rail Overhead lines Overhead lines plus linear motor Four rail system Five rail systemSelection of an electrification system is based on economics of energy supply and capital cost compared to the revenue obtained for freight and passenger traffic.
Different systems are used for intercity areas. Six of the most used voltages have been selected for European and international standardisation; some of these are independent of the contact system used, so that, for example, 750 V DC may be used with either third rail or overhead lines. There are many other voltage systems used for railway electrification systems around the world, the list of railway electrification systems covers both standard voltage and non-standard voltage systems; the permissible range of voltages allowed for the standardised voltages is as stated in standards BS EN 50163 and IEC 60850. These take into account the number of trains drawing their distance from the substation. Increasing availability of high-voltage semiconductors may allow the use of higher and more efficient DC voltages that heretofore have only been practical with AC. 1,500 V DC is used in Japan, Hong Kong, Republic of Ireland, France, New Zealand, the United States. In Slovakia, there are two narrow-gauge lines in the High Tatras.
In the Netherlands it is used on the main system, alongside 25 kV on the HSL-Zuid and Betuwelijn, 3000 V south of Maastricht. In Portugal, it is used in Denmark on the suburban S-train system. In the United Kingdom, 1,500 V DC was used in 1954 for the Woodhead trans-Pennine route; the system was used for suburban electrification in East London and Manchester, now converted to 25 kV AC. It is now only used for the Wear Metro. In India, 1,500 V DC was the first electrification system launched in 1925 in Mumbai area. Between 2012-2016, the electrification was converted to 25 kV 50 Hz AC, the countrywide system. 3 kV DC is used in Belgium, Spain, the northern Czech Republic, Slovenia, South Africa, former Soviet Union countries and the Netherlands. It was used by the Milwaukee Road from Harlowton, Montana to Seattle-Tacoma, across the Continental Divide and including extensive branch and loop lines in Montana, by the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad in the United States, the Kolkata suburban railway in India, before it was converted to 25 kV 50 Hz AC. DC volt
Japanese National Railways
Japanese National Railways, abbreviated Kokutetsu or "JNR", was the business entity that operated Japan's national railway network from 1949 to 1987. As of June 1, 1949, the date of establishment of JNR, it operated 19,756.8 km of narrow gauge railways in all 46 prefectures of Japan. This figure expanded to 21,421.1 km in 1981, but reduced to 19,633.6 km as of March 31, 1987, the last day of JNR. JNR operated both freight services. Shinkansen, the world's first high-speed railway was debuted by JNR in 1964. By the end of JNR in 1987, four lines were constructed: Tōkaidō Shinkansen 515.4 km, completed in 1964 Sanyō Shinkansen 553.7 km, completed in 1975 Tōhoku Shinkansen 492.9 km, as of 1987 Jōetsu Shinkansen 269.5 km, completed in 1982 JNR operated bus lines as feeders, supplements or substitutions of railways. Unlike railway operation, JNR Bus was not superior to other local bus operators; the JR Bus companies are the successors of the bus operation of JNR. JNR operated ferries to connect railway networks separated by sea or to meet other local demands: Kanmon Ferry Shimonoseki Station – Mojikō Station Miyajima Ferry Miyajimaguchi Station – Miyajima Station Nihori Ferry Nigata Station – Horie Station Ōshima Ferry Ōbatake Station – Komatsukō Station Seikan Ferry Aomori Station – Hakodate Station Ukō Ferry Uno Station – Takamatsu Station Out of three routes assigned to JR companies in 1987, only the Miyajima Ferry remains active as of 2010.
A number of unions represented workers at JNR, including the National Railway Workers' Union, the National Railway Locomotive Engineers' Union, Doro-Chiba, a break-away group from Doro. The term Kokuyū Tetsudō "state-owned railway" referred to a network of railway lines operated by 17 private companies that were nationalized following the Railway Nationalization Act of 1906 and placed under the control of the Railway Institute; the Ministry of Railways and the Ministry of Transportation and Communications took over control of the network. The ministries used. During World War II, many JGR lines were dismantled to supply steel for the war effort. On June 1, 1949 by a directive of the U. S. General HQ in Tokyo, JGR was reorganized into Japanese National Railways, a state-owned public corporation. JNR enjoyed many successes, including the October 1, 1964 inauguration of high-speed Shinkansen service along the Tōkaidō Shinkansen line. However, JNR was not a state-run corporation. Rural sections without enough passengers began to press its management, pulling it further and further into debt.
In 1983, JNR started to close its unprofitable 83 local lines. By 1987, JNR's debt was over ¥27 trillion and the company was spending ¥147 for every ¥100 earned. By an act of the Diet of Japan, on April 1, 1987 JNR was privatized and divided into seven railway companies, six passenger and one freight, collectively called the Japan Railways Group or JR Group. Long-term liabilities of JNR were taken over by the JNR Settlement Corporation; that corporation was subsequently disbanded on October 22, 1998, its remaining debts were transferred to the national budget's general accounting. By this time the debt has risen to ¥30 trillion. Many lawsuits and labor commission cases were filed over the decades from the privatization in 1987. Kokuro and the National Railway Locomotive Engineers' Union, both prominent Japanese railway unions, represented a number of the JNR workers. Lists of workers to be employed by the new organizations were drawn up by JNR and given to the JR companies. There was substantial pressure on union members to leave their unions, within a year, the membership of the National Railway Workers' Union fell from 200,000 to 44,000.
Workers who had supported the privatization, or those who left Kokuro, were hired at higher rates than Kokuro members. There was a government pledge that no one would be "thrown out onto the street", so unhired workers were classified as "needing to be employed" and were transferred to the JNR Settlement Corporation, where they could be assigned for up to three years. Around 7,600 workers were transferred in this way, around 2,000 of them were hired by JR firms, 3,000 found work elsewhere. Mitomu Yamaguchi, a former JNR employee from Tosu in Saga prefecture, transferred to the JNR Settlement Corporation stated that their help in finding work consisted of giving him photocopies of recruitment ads from newspapers; this period ended in April 1990, 1,047 were dismissed. This included 966 Kokuro members. Twenty-three years after the original privatization, on June 28, 2010, the Supreme Court settled the dispute between the workers and the Japan Railway Construction and Technology Agency, the successor body to the JNR Settlement Corporation.
The agency said it would pay 20 billion yen 22 million yen per worker, to 904 plaintiffs. However, as the workers were not reinstated, it was not a full
Same Station is a railway station on the Hachinohe Line in Hachinohe, Japan, operated by East Japan Railway Company. Same Station is served by the Hachinohe Line, is 11.8 rail kilometers from the starting point of the line at Hachinohe Station. Same Station has one side platform and one island platform serving three tracks, connected by a footbridge; the station building has a Midori no Madoguchi staffed ticket office in addition to automatic ticket machines. Same Station opened on November 1924, as a station on the Japanese Government Railways. With the privatization of the Japanese National Railways on April 1, 1987, it came under the operational control of JR East. Hachinohe-Same Post office List of Railway Stations in Japan JR East station information page
The Komachi is a high-speed shinkansen service between Tokyo and Akita in Japan, operated by the East Japan Railway Company since March 1997. It is the only shinkansen service that runs on the Akita Shinkansen, uses E6 series and E3 series trains. Between Tokyo Station and Morioka, it couples with Tohoku Shinkansen E5 series Hayabusa and E2 series for E3 series. After Morioka, the Komachi service continues along standard gauge tracks that were converted from narrow gauge; because it runs on tracks that have grade crossings, its maximum speed from Morioka to Akita is 130 km/h, compared to 320 km/h on the Tohoku Shinkansen. The Komachi service was named after a famous poet from the area, Ono no Komachi, whose name is synonymous with "belle" or "beauty" in Japanese. Komachi services stop at the following stations on the Akita Shinkansen between Akita. For details of station stops between Tokyo and Morioka, see the Hayabusa articles. Morioka Shizukuishi* Tazawako Kakunodate Ōmagari Akita Not served by all trains.
Since 15 March 2014, most Komachi services have operated by seven-car E6 series trainsets with running at a maximum speed of 320 km/h on the Tohoku Shinkansen coupled to E5 series Hayabusa trainsets. Car 11, the "Green" car, is at the Tokyo end. All seats are no-smoking. Komachi services are operated by five-car E3 series trainsets; these sets were formed as shown below, with the "Green" car, at the Tokyo end. All seats were no-smoking. Komachi services began on the newly opened Akita Shinkansen line from the start of the revised timetable on 22 March 1997 using a fleet of 16 new 5-car E3 series trains running at a maximum speed of 275 km/h on the Tohoku Shinkansen; the name Komachi was announced in July 1996. Services consisted of 13 return workings daily between Tokyo and Akita, one return working between Sendai and Akita. Most trains ran coupled with 200 series Yamabiko trainsets between Tokyo and Morioka, but three return workings ran coupled with newly introduced E2 series sets, running at a maximum speed of 275 km/h between Utsunomiya and Morioka, giving a fastest journey time of 3 hours 49 minutes between Tokyo and Akita.
The train services proved popular, from the December 1998 timetable revision, an addition return working was added, the E3 series trains were lengthened to six cars each. From the December 1999 timetable, all Komachi services ran together with E2 series Yamabiko trains, allowing overall journey times to be reduced, with a typical journey time of 4 hours 4 minutes. From 16 March 2013, new Super Komachi services started, using new E6 series trains running at a maximum speed of 300 km/h on the Tohoku Shinkansen. A fleet of four trains was used to operate four return services daily between Tokyo and Akita; the fastest journey time was reduced to 3 hours 45 minutes, 5 minutes faster than the fastest previous Komachi services. From the start of the revised timetable on 15 March 2014, all services were operated by E6 series trains, the name was returned to Komachi. At the same time, the maximum speed on the Tohoku Shinkansen was further raised to 320 km/h. Akita Relay, a temporary limited express service that operated to Akita while the Akita Shinkansen was being constructed List of named passenger trains of Japan JR East E6 series Komachi
Hayate is a high-speed Shinkansen service operated in Japan, on the Tohoku Shinkansen by East Japan Railway Company since 2002 and on the Hokkaido Shinkansen by JR Hokkaido since 26 March 2016. It operates as far as the northern terminus of Shin-Hakodate-Hokuto, it is the second-fastest service on the Tohoku Shinkansen, operating at a top speed of 275 km/h between Utsunomiya and Morioka; these services were inaugurated with the opening of the Tohoku Shinkansen extension to Hachinohe on 1 December 2002. The name "Hayate" has not been used on any train service in Japan; the name was chosen with input from the public. In December 2002, the Tohoku Shinkansen extended to Hachinohe; as a result, the Hayate was introduced, in order to serve the newly extended section between Morioka and Hachinohe. Hayate trains ran between Tokyo and Hachinohe, skips all stations between Ōmiya and Sendai; the Hayate was established as the fastest service on the Tohoku Shinkansen at that time, which established its position as the predecessor of the Hayabusa.
All seats in Hayate trains require reservation, due to the popularity of Shinkansen services from Tokyo to the Tohoku region. Hayate trains were operated by 10-car E2 series units. On 4 December 2010, the Tohoku Shinkansen extended again to Shin-Aomori, and in 19 November 2011, E5 series trainsets, with maximum speeds of 320 km/h, were introduced to the line, with some of them used on Hayate services. The introduction of the E5 series resulted in the introduction of the Hayabusa, which replaced the Hayate's role as the fastest train on the line. In addition E5 series Hayate services still run at a top speed of 275 km/h. JR East have reduced Hayate services over the years, unify the discontinued Hayate services to Hayabusa services, it now serves as a complementary service to the Hayabusa. From 26 March 2016, with the opening of the Hokkaido Shinkansen from Shin-Aomori to Shin-Hakodate-Hokuto, the Hayate name is used for services operating between Morioka, Shin-Aomori, Shin-Hakodate-Hokuto; as of March 2016, one return service operates daily between Morioka and Shin-Hakodate-Hokuto, one return service daily operates between Shin-Aomori and Shin-Hakodate-Hokuto.
These services are formed of 10-car H5 series trainsets. JR East has published the timetable revisions for March 2019, it announced that on 16 March 2019, the Hayate 119 will be discontinued, unified with the Hayabusa. With this, Hayate trains will no longer operate south of Morioka on a regular basis, there will be only 4 regular Hayate services remaining. In the past Hayate services used to couple with Komachi services from Tokyo to Morioka, where the Komachi cars are uncoupled and proceed to Akita Station via the Akita Shinkansen; however all Komachi train now couple with Hayabusa trains, so all Hayate trains now run alone. Hayate services stop at the following stations. Tokyo - Morioka: 2 hours 55 minutes - 3 hours Morioka - Shin-Hakodate-Hokuto: 2 hours 9 minutes Shin-Aomori - Shin-Hakodate-Hokuto: 1 hour 6 minutes E2 series E5 series H5 series Hayate services are operated by 10-car JR East E2 series or E5 series trainsets, or JR Hokkaido H5 series, with car 1 at the Tokyo end. All seats are no-smoking.
List of named passenger trains of Japan JR East E2 series Hayate JR East E5 series Hayabusa/Hayate/Yamabiko/Nasuno