A suspension bridge is a type of bridge in which the deck is hung below suspension cables on vertical suspenders. The first modern examples of this type of bridge were built in the early 1800s. Simple suspension bridges, which lack vertical suspenders, have a long history in many mountainous parts of the world; this type of bridge has cables suspended between towers, plus vertical suspender cables that carry the weight of the deck below, upon which traffic crosses. This arrangement allows the deck to arc upward for additional clearance. Like other suspension bridge types, this type is constructed without falsework; the suspension cables must be anchored at each end of the bridge, since any load applied to the bridge is transformed into a tension in these main cables. The main cables continue beyond the pillars to deck-level supports, further continue to connections with anchors in the ground; the roadway is supported by called hangers. In some circumstances, the towers may sit on a bluff or canyon edge where the road may proceed directly to the main span, otherwise the bridge will have two smaller spans, running between either pair of pillars and the highway, which may be supported by suspender cables or may use a truss bridge to make this connection.
In the latter case there will be little arc in the outboard main cables. The earliest suspension bridges were ropes slung across a chasm, with a deck at the same level or hung below the ropes such that the rope had a catenary shape; the Tibetan saint and bridge-builder Thangtong Gyalpo originated the use of iron chains in his version of simple suspension bridges. In 1433, Gyalpo built eight bridges in eastern Bhutan; the last surviving chain-linked bridge of Gyalpo's was the Thangtong Gyalpo Bridge in Duksum en route to Trashi Yangtse, washed away in 2004. Gyalpo's iron chain bridges did not include a suspended deck bridge, the standard on all modern suspension bridges today. Instead, both the railing and the walking layer of Gyalpo's bridges used wires; the stress points. Before the use of iron chains it is thought that Gyalpo used ropes from twisted willows or yak skins, he may have used bound cloth. The first iron chain suspension bridge in the Western world was the Jacob's Creek Bridge in Westmoreland County, designed by inventor James Finley.
Finley's bridge was the first to incorporate all of the necessary components of a modern suspension bridge, including a suspended deck which hung by trusses. Finley patented his design in 1808, published it in the Philadelphia journal, The Port Folio, in 1810. Early British chain bridges included the Dryburgh Abbey Bridge and 137 m Union Bridge, with spans increasing to 176 m with the Menai Bridge, "the first important modern suspension bridge"; the first chain bridge on the German speaking territories was the Chain Bridge in Nuremberg. The Clifton Suspension Bridge is one of the longest of the parabolic arc chain type; the current Marlow suspension bridge was designed by William Tierney Clark and was built between 1829 and 1832, replacing a wooden bridge further downstream which collapsed in 1828. It is the only suspension bridge across the non-tidal Thames; the Széchenyi Chain Bridge, spanning the River Danube in Budapest, was designed by William Clark and it is a larger scale version of Marlow bridge.
An interesting variation is Thornewill and Warham's Ferry Bridge in Burton-on-Trent, where the chains are not attached to abutments as is usual, but instead are attached to the main girders, which are thus in compression. Here, the chains are made from flat wrought iron plates, eight inches wide by an inch and a half thick, rivetted together; the first wire-cable suspension bridge was the Spider Bridge at Falls of Schuylkill, a modest and temporary footbridge built following the collapse of James Finley's nearby Chain Bridge at Falls of Schuylkill. The footbridge's span was 124 m. Development of wire-cable suspension bridges dates to the temporary simple suspension bridge at Annonay built by Marc Seguin and his brothers in 1822, it spanned only 18 m. The first permanent wire cable suspension bridge was Guillaume Henri Dufour's Saint Antoine Bridge in Geneva of 1823, with two 40 m spans; the first with cables assembled in mid-air in the modern method was Joseph Chaley's Grand Pont Suspendu in Fribourg, in 1834.
In the United States, the first major wire-cable suspension bridge was the Wire Bridge at Fairmount in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Designed by Charles Ellet, Jr. and completed in 1842, it had a span of 109 m. Ellet's Niagara Falls Suspension Bridge was abandoned before completion, it was used as scaffolding for John A. Roebling's double decker railroad and carriage bridge; the Otto Beit Bridge was the first modern suspension bridge outside the United States built with parallel wire cables. The main forces in a suspension bridge of any type are tension in the cables and compression in the pillars. Since all the force on the pillars is vertically downwards and they are stabilized by the main cables, the pillars can be made quite slender, as on the Severn Bridge, on the Wales-England border. In a suspended deck bridge, cables suspended via towers hold up the road deck; the weight is transferred by the cables to the towers, which in turn transfer the weight to the ground. Assuming a negligible weight as compared to the weight of the deck and vehicles being supported, the main cables of a suspension bridge will form a parabola (very similar
Air draft is the distance from the surface of the water to the highest point on a vessel. This is similar to the "deep draft" of a vessel, measured from the surface of the water to the deepest part of the hull below the surface, but air draft is expressed as a height, not a depth; the vessel's "clearance" is the distance in excess of the air draft which allows a vessel to pass safely under a bridge or obstacle such as power lines, etc. A bridge's "clearance below" is most noted on charts as measured from the surface of the water to the under side of the bridge at Mean Highest High Water, the most restrictive clearance; the height of the tide at any time below its highest point at MHHW will increase the clearance under the bridge. In 2014, the United States Coast Guard reported that 1.2% of the collisions it investigated in the recent past were due to vessels attempting to pass underneath structures with insufficient clearance. At several bridges, such as the Gerald Desmond Bridge in Long Beach, California, NOAA has installed an "Air Gap" measuring device that measures the distance from its sensor on the bridge to the water surface and can be accessed by marine pilots and ship's masters to aid them in making real time determination of clearance.
The Bridge of the Americas in Panama limits which ships can traverse the Panama Canal due to its height at 61.3 m above the water. The world's largest cruise ships, Oasis of the Seas, Allure of the Seas and the Harmony of the Seas will fit within the canal's new widened locks, but they are too tall to pass under the Bridge of the Americas at low tide, unless the Bridge of the Americas is raised or replaced in the future. New ships are built not clearing 65 m; the Suez Canal Bridge has a 70-metre clearance over the canal, 8.7 m higher than Panama. The Bayonne Bridge is an arch bridge connecting New Jersey with New York City, the roadbed was raised to 66 m, a height suitable for larger container ships to pass, the modification cost $1.32 billion. Structural clearance Structure gauge Tower Bridge Cargo ship Size categories Chart datum
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Muroran is a city and port located in Iburi Subprefecture, Japan. It is the capital city of Iburi Subprefecture; as of February 29, 2012, the city has an estimated population of 93,716, with 47,868 households and a population density of 1,162.01 people per km2. The total area is 80.65 km2. The origin of Muroran's name is derived from the Ainu word "Mo Ruerani", which means "the bottom of a little slope"; the little slope, in front of the former Senkai Temple in Sakimori-cho, is noted in connection with the name of Muroran. In the late 16th century, the Muroran region came under the administration of the Matsumae clan. Muroran was developed as a trading post between the Matsumae clan people. In 1892, the Port of Muroran was opened for the wooden bridge construction at Kaigan. An Imperial decree in July 1899 established Muroran as an open port for trading with the United States and the United Kingdom. With the opening of a ship route from Muroran to Mori and railroad extension to Iwamizawa, Muroran's municipality was started on August 1, 1922 as the core of the major land and sea traffic in the pioneer era of Hokkaido.
Since Muroran has been developing as an important transportation hub and a center of the steel industry. This earned the town's industrial plants a bombardment by some of the newest American battleships in July 1945, in the closing days of World War II. Today, there are large cement factories, steel mills, oil refineries, shipyards clustered around the port of Muroran. Muroran features an oceanic climate, a climate type, rare in Japan. Despite it being located on Hokkaido, Muroran does not see the cold winters that the majority of the island is known for, yet it does experience some snowfall in the course of the year, averaging 210 cm of snow per season. Summers in Muroran are mild by Japanese standards, not nearly as hot as summers in other Japanese cities. Average high temperatures in August, the city's warmest month, is around 24 °C. Hakucho Bridge is the largest suspension bridge in eastern Japan. Mount Washibetsu Itanki BeachMuroran holds eight specific scenic sights called Muroran-Hakke.
The most famous of them is the Earth Cape. There are five JR Hokkaido stations in Muroran, starting from Higashi Muroran and ending in downtown Muroran, which can be used to access both Hakodate to the South West, Sapporo to the North East. Muroran Main Line: Sakimori - Moto-Wanishi - Higashi-Muroran Muroran Branch Line: Higashi-Muroran - Wanishi - Misaki - Bokoi - Muroran Japan Steel Works has its global headquarters in Muroran. Muroran houses one of the most prominent Marine Biology institutes in Japan, the Institute of Algological Research of Hokkaido University. Muroran Institute of Technology Hokkaido Muroran Sakae High School Hokkaido Muroran Shimizugaoka High School Hokkaido Muroran Tosho High School Hokkaido Muroran Technical High School Hokkaido Ootani Muroran High School Kaisei Gakuin High School Ikuta Toma - Actor, singer Natsumi Abe - idol, actress. Hello! Project soloist. Former Morning Musume member. Asami Abe - singer, actress. Younger sister of Natsumi Abe. Kaori Iida - singer. Hello!
Project soloist. Former Morning Musume member. Satoru Iwata - Previous CEO of Nintendo, Former HAL lab CEO and Game Designer Shizuoka, since 1976 Knoxville, since 1991 Joetsu, since 1995 Official Website