The Mohawk people are the most easterly tribe of the Haudenosaunee, or Iroquois Confederacy. They are an Iroquoian-speaking indigenous people of North America; the Mohawk were based in the valley of the Mohawk River in present-day upstate New York west of the Hudson River. As one of the five original members of the Iroquois League, the Mohawk were known as the Keepers of the Eastern Door. For hundreds of years, they guarded the Iroquois Confederation against invasion from that direction by tribes from the New England and lower New York areas, their current major settlements include areas around Lake Ontario and the St Lawrence River in Canada and New York. In the Mohawk language, the people say; the Mohawk became wealthy traders as other nations in their confederacy needed their flint for tool making. Their Algonquian-speaking neighbors, the people of Muh-heck Haeek Ing, a name transliterated by the Dutch as Mahican or Mahican, referred to the people of Ka-nee-en Ka as Maw Unk Lin, meaning "bear people".
The Dutch heard and wrote this term as Mohawk, referred to the Mohawk as Egil or Maqua. The French colonists adapted these latter terms as Maqui, respectively, they referred to the people by the generic Iroquois, a French derivation of the Algonquian term for the Five Nations, meaning "the snake people". The Algonquians and Iroquois were traditional enemies. In the upper Hudson and Mohawk Valley regions, the Mohawk long had contact with the Algonquian-speaking Mahican people, who occupied territory along the Hudson River, as well as other Algonquian and Iroquoian tribes to the north around the Great Lakes; the Mohawk had extended their own influence into the St. Lawrence River Valley, which they maintained for hunting grounds, they are believed to have defeated the St. Lawrence Iroquoians in the 16th century, kept control of their territory. In addition to hunting and fishing, for centuries the Mohawk cultivated productive maize fields on the fertile floodplains along the Mohawk River, west of the Pine Bush.
In the seventeenth century the Mohawk encountered both the Dutch, who went up the Hudson River and established a trading post in 1614 at the confluence of the Mohawk and Hudson rivers, the French, who came south into their territory from New France. The Dutch were merchants and the French conducted fur trading. During this time the Mohawk fought with the Huron in the Beaver Wars for control of the fur trade with the Europeans, their Jesuit missionaries were active among First Nations and Native Americans, seeking converts to Catholicism. In 1614, the Dutch opened a trading post at New Netherland; the Dutch traded for furs with the local Mahican, who occupied the territory along the Hudson River. Following a raid in 1626 when the Mohawk resettled along the south side of the Mohawk River, in 1628, they mounted an attack against the Mahican, pushing them back to the area of present-day Connecticut; the People of Ka-nee-en Ka gained a near-monopoly in the fur trade with the Dutch by prohibiting the nearby Algonquian-speaking tribes to the north or east to trade with them but did not control this.
European contact resulted in a devastating smallpox epidemic among the Mohawk in 1635. By 1642 they had regrouped from four into three villages, recorded by Catholic missionary priest Isaac Jogues in 1642 as Ossernenon and Tionontoguen, all along the south side of the Mohawk River from east to west; these were recorded by speakers of other languages with different spellings, historians have struggled to reconcile various accounts, as well as to align them with archeological studies of the areas. For instance, Johannes Megapolensis, a Dutch minister, recorded the spelling of the same three villages as Asserué, Thenondiogo. Late 20th-century archeological studies have determined that Ossernenon was located about 9 miles west of the current city of Auriesville. While the Dutch established settlements in present-day Schenectady and Schoharie, further west in the Mohawk Valley, merchants in Fort Nassau continued to control the fur trading. Schenectady was established as a farming settlement, where Dutch took over some of the former Mohawk maize fields in the floodplain along the river.
Through trading, the Mohawk and Dutch became allies of a kind. During their alliance, the Mohawks allowed Dutch Protestant missionary Johannes Megapolensis to come into their tribe and teach the Christian message, he operated from the Fort Nassau area about six years, writing a record in 1644 of his observations of the Mohawk, their language, their culture. While he noted their ritual of torture of captives, he recognized that their society had few other killings compared to the Netherlands of that period; the trading relations between the Mohawk and Dutch helped them maintain peace during the periods of Kieft's War and the Esopus Wars, when the Dutch fought localized battles with other tribes. In addition, Dutch trade partners equipped the Mohawk with guns to fight against other First Nations who were allied with the French, including the Ojibwe, Huron-Wendat, Algonquin. In 1
Thomas Ridout was a political figure in Upper Canada. He was born in Sherborne, England in 1754 and came to Maryland in 1774. In 1787, he was travelling to Kentucky, he settled with his family at Newark. Ridout started work in 1793 as clerk for the Surveyor-General of Upper Canada and as interim Surveyor-General with William Chewett 1804 to 1805, it was in that position. He had been named registrar for York County in 1796 and justice of the peace in the Home District in 1806 and Chairman of the Home District Council from 1811 to 1829. In 1812, he was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada representing East York and Simcoe, he served on the board set up to deal with claims for compensation for losses sustained during the War of 1812. In 1825, he was named to the Legislative Council. In 1827, he was appointed to the first board of King's College, he died in York in 1829. His sons, Samuel Smith Ridout, George Ridout, John Ridout and Thomas Gibbs Ridout, were prominent members of Upper Canada society.
His granddaughter, Matilda Ridout Edgar, was a historian and feminist. In 1890 she published Ten years of Upper Canada in peace and war, 1805–1815, an edited collection of letters between Ridout and his sons George and Thomas Gibbs; this is a valuable source of information about life in Toronto and about the battles of the War of 1812. Citations Sources Jack Dwyer: Dorset Pioneers: The History Press: 2009: ISBN 978-0-7524-5346-0 Thomas Ridout family fonds, Archives of Ontario
Guy Johnson was an Irish-born military officer and diplomat for the Crown during the American War of Independence. He had migrated to the Province of New York as a young man and worked with his uncle, Sir William Johnson, British Superintendent of Indian Affairs of the northern colonies, he was appointed as his successor in 1774. The following year, Johnson relocated with Loyalist supporters to Canada as tensions rose in New York before the American Revolutionary War, he directed joint militia and Mohawk military actions in the Mohawk Valley. Accused of falsifying reports, he went to London to defend himself after the war, died there in 1788. Guy was the son of either Warren Johnson of Smithstown, Dunshaughlin, Co.. Meath, each younger brothers of Sir William Johnson; the Johnsons were descendants of the O'Neill dynasty of Ireland. In 1756, he sailed from Ireland and joined his uncle William in the Mohawk Valley of the Province of New York, he assisted his uncle, British Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the northern colonies.
He was agent to the Iroquois, with. On 1763, Guy Johnson married William's daughter Mary, one of his children by his first consort, Catherine Weisenberg, his uncle gave them a square mile of land on the Mohawk River, located in. In 1773, their first home was destroyed by a lightning strike, they replaced it in 1774 with a large limestone house in the Georgian style, which they called Guy Park. Soon after, they were forced to leave because of rising tensions in the area prior to the American Revolution. With other Loyalists, they went to Canada to settle near Fort Niagara. On the way, Polly Johnson died at Oswego. Guy Johnson became a deputy to Sir William in his uncle's position as British Superintendent of Indian Affairs, he learned much about the Iroquois. When William died in 1774 on the eve of the war, Guy succeeded him as superintendent. Guy Johnson served as a county judge, a colonel in the Tryon County militia, an elected member of the Province of New York Assembly; when the New York Committee of Safety committed the colony to armed resistance following the Battles of Lexington and Concord in 1775, Johnson remained loyal to the Crown and worked to control the Tryon County courts, assisted by fellow loyalists Sir John Johnson and Colonel Daniel Claus.
These three commanded three regiments of the Tryon County militia. But, American Patriots in the Mohawk Valley soon drove the three Loyalists out of power. Johnson received a letter from British commander General Gage, ordering him to take as many Iroquois warriors as he could recruit to Canada to join forces with General Carleton for a joint attack on New England. In May 1775, Johnson fled with about 120 other Loyalists, along with 90 Mohawk under chief John Deseronto, to British-controlled Canada. Along the way, he worked to secure the allegiance of the Iroquois League at a council at Oswego, New York in July. Johnson's wife Polly had died at Oswego, he and the remainder of his party reached Montreal on 17 July. In September 1775, John Campbell was appointed in Montreal as the Superintendent of the Canadian Indians. General Guy Carleton, Governor-in-Chief of Quebec, told Johnson that he had no authority over any Indians in Canada and that the Iroquois were not to fight outside the Province of Quebec.
Johnson decided to travel to England in November 1775, accompanied by the Mohawk leader Joseph Brant, to appeal his case directly with the British lords. The Lords appointed Johnson as the permanent Superintendent for Indian Affairs in the northern colonies, but with no authority in Canada. Johnson and Brant returned to North America, landing in New York City in July 1776 after the city had been retaken by the British, he was ordered to stay in New York. Johnson persuaded his superiors to let him do his "duty," and he returned to Canada in 1779, he led forces against the colonials in the Mohawk Valley frontier, his subordinates carried out the actions in what the Americans called massacres at Wyoming and Cherry valleys. This was known as the "Burning of the Valleys". Back at Fort Niagara in 1779, Johnson helped to provide for the many Iroquois refugees made homeless by the Sullivan Expedition that year, which laid waste to their villages and food stores in western New York, he organized counter-raids.
In 1781, General MacLean reported that Johnson's wartime accounts were "Extravagant, wonderful & fictitious, the quality of articles so extraordinary, new & uncommon". Johnson was suspended as superintendent and summoned to Montreal, where the Governor-in-Chief Frederick Haldimand criticized his conduct as "reprehensible". Although never convicted, Johnson was in limbo, he remained there. He died in 1788. Sir John Johnson took over Fort Niagara as superintendent of Indian affairs in his cousin's absence; the state of New York sold the house after the war. While in private hands, the house was used as a stagecoach stop during the extensive nineteenth-century westward migration through New York State. Since the early twentieth century, the house has been preserved as a state historic site. Used as the Walter Elwood Museum for local history, it was damaged in late August 2011 by the flooding caused by Hurricane Irene. Notes BooksKelsay, Isabel. Joseph Brant, 1743–1807: Man of Two Worlds. 1984. ISBN 0-8156-0182-4 O'Toole, Fintan.
White Savage: William Johnson and the Invention of America. New York: Farrar, Straus and G
The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their sub-divisions. Ill-defined, the term has different meanings depending on context, it is used to designate the monarch in either a personal capacity, as Head of the Commonwealth, or as the king or queen of his or her realms. It can refer to the rule of law. A corporation sole, the Crown is the legal embodiment of executive and judicial governance in the monarchy of each country; these monarchies are united by the personal union of their monarch. The concept of the Crown developed first in England as a separation of the literal crown and property of the kingdom from the person and personal property of the monarch, it spread through English and British colonisation and is now rooted in the legal lexicon of the United Kingdom, its Crown dependencies, the other 15 independent realms. It is not to be confused with any physical crown, such as those of the British regalia; the term is found in various expressions such as "Crown land", which some countries refer to as "public land" or "state land".
The concept of the Crown took form under the feudal system. Though not used this way in all countries that had this system, in England, all rights and privileges were bestowed by the ruler. Land, for instance, was granted by the Crown to lords in exchange for feudal services and they, in turn, granted the land to lesser lords. One exception to this was common socage—owners of land held as socage held it subject only to the Crown; when such lands become owner-less they are said to escheat. Bona vacantia is the royal prerogative; the monarch is the living embodiment of the Crown and, as such, is regarded as the personification of the state. The body of the reigning sovereign thus holds two distinct personas in constant coexistence: that of a natural-born human being and that of the state as accorded to him or her through law; the terms the state, the Crown, the Crown in Right of, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of, similar are all synonymous and the monarch's legal personality is sometimes referred to as the relevant jurisdiction's name.
As such, the king or queen is the employer of all government officials and staff, the guardian of foster children, as well as the owner of all state lands and equipment, state owned companies, the copyright for government publications. This is all in his or her position as sovereign, not as an individual; the Crown represents the legal embodiment of executive and judicial governance. While the Crown's legal personality is regarded as a corporation sole, it can, at least for some purposes, be described as a corporation aggregate headed by the monarch. Whilst the Crown refers to the monarch, this reference is made in re the monarch this reference is to the monarch in their capacity as monarch, does not refer to that individual in their totality of ownership interests and actions; the monarch can act in a private capacity. This duality of characterisation can be illustrated in several ways. In property ownership for example, although both are royal residences, Buckingham Palace is the property of the Crown via the Crown Estate whilst Balmoral Castle is the property of Elizabeth II and not of the Crown.
The latter property can be alienated by the Queen, whereas any disposition of the former property would need to be done via instrument of government as an act of state. The Queen's bank accounts at Coutts contain components of her private wealth only, whilst the resources of the monarch acting as the Crown are dispensed from HM Treasury and the Crown Estate to the Royal Household. A third example is in employment relationships; however those who assist as employees of the monarch as the Crown do so on employment from the Royal Household, the official department charged with supporting the monarch. Those who a
John Butler (pioneer)
John Butler was a Loyalist who led an irregular militia unit known as Butler's Rangers on the northern frontier in New York during the American Revolutionary War. Born in Connecticut, he moved to New York with his family, where he learned several Iroquoian languages and worked as an interpreter in the fur trade, he was well-equipped to work with Mohawk and other Iroquois Confederacy warriors who became allies of the British during the rebellion. During the War, Butler led Cayuga forces in the Saratoga campaign in New York, he raised and commanded a regiment of rangers, which included affiliated Mohawk and other Iroquois nations' warriors. They conducted raids in central New York west of Albany, including what became known among the rebels as the Cherry Valley Massacre. After the war Butler resettled in Upper Canada, where he was given a grant of land by the Crown for his services. Butler continued his leadership in the developing province, helping to found the Anglican Church and Masonic Order, serving in public office.
John Butler was born to Walter Butler and Deborah Dennison, née Ely, in New London, Connecticut in 1728. In 1742, his father moved the family to Fort Hunter on the frontier in the Mohawk Valley near the modern village of Fonda, New York. In 1752, John Butler married Catharine Bradt, of Dutch ancestry; the couple raised five children. Having learned several Iroquois and other Indian languages, Butler was employed as an interpreter in the lucrative fur trade. In 1755, John Butler was appointed to the rank of Captain in the Indian Department of the British colonial government, he served in the French and Indian War under Sir William Johnson. In 1758, he saw action with James Abercromby at Fort Ticonderoga and John Bradstreet at the Battle of Fort Frontenac. In 1759, he was made second in command of the Indians with Johnson at the Battle of Fort Niagara. In 1760, he continued as a second in command of the Indians in Jeffery Amherst's force at Montreal. After the war Butler returned to the Mohawk Valley in New York.
He acquired more land, building an estate of 26,000 acres at Butlersbury near the major Mohawk village of Caughnawaga. He was second only to Sir William Johnson, British Superintendent of Indian Affairs, as a wealthy frontier land owner, worked under Johnson for the British. Butler was appointed a judge in the Tryon County court and was commissioned Lt.-Colonel of Guy Johnson's regiment of Tryon County militia. Butler was elected as one of the two members representing Tryon County in the New York assembly. John Butler returned to service, as a Loyalist, when the American Revolution turned to war in 1775. In May 1775, he left for Canada in the company of Daniel Claus, Walter Butler, Hon Yost Schuyler and Joseph Brant, a Mohawk leader. On July 7, they in August, Montreal. Butler participated in the defense of Montreal against an attack led by Ethan Allen. In November, Carleton sent him to Fort Niagara with instructions to keep the Indians neutral, his oldest son, Walter Butler served with him, but his wife and other children were detained by the American rebels.
In March 1777, John Butler sent a party of about 100 allied Indians to Montreal to force the Americans out of Quebec. In May, Butler received instructions to use a warrior party of the Six Nations in an attack on New York. On June 5 he received instructions to send as many Indians as he could to Fort Oswego for an attack on Fort Stanwix as a part of the Saratoga campaign, he was put second in command of the Indians warriors of bands of four nations of the Iroquois, under Daniel Claus. John Butler led the Indians and a small number of Loyalists, in a successful ambush, of rebel militia and Oneida warriors in the Battle of Oriskany; as a result, after this expedition he was commissioned a lieutenant colonel and given authority to raise his own regiment, which became known as Butler's Rangers with a strength of eight companies. He traveled back to Fort Niagara, completed recruiting the first company in December. In July 1778, John Butler led his rangers and Iroquois allies at the Battle of Wyoming, in which he defeated Zebulon Butler and took Forty Fort.
The Patriots suffered heavy losses, after the battle Butler's Rangers burned many of the colonists' homes in the area. The battle was referred to as the Wyoming Valley massacre because some of the victorious Loyalists and Iroquois were said to have executed and scalped prisoners and fleeing enemy soldiers; that year, after the burning of Tioga, his son Captain Walter Butler led two companies of rangers and 300 Iroquois warriors in a raid, referred to as the Cherry Valley massacre. The name of Butler was thereafter anathema to the rebels. John Butler's unit of rangers was spread, through frontier outposts, from Niagara to Illinois County, Virginia. Butler commanded his rangers from his headquarters of Fort Niagara. In 1779, he was defeated, by the Sullivan Expedition, at the Battle of Newtown, withdrew to Fort Niagara. At the end of the Revolution, John Butler was given a land grant in the Niagara region by the Crown for his services during the war and as compensation for his property in New York having been confiscated.
He developed it for agriculture. He became one of the political leaders of Upper Canada called Ontario, he was appointed as a Deputy Superintendent for the Indian Department, a Justice of the Peace, the local militia commander. He was prominent in establishing the Anglican Church and Masonic Order in Ontario. Butler died, at his home, at age 68 in Niagara, Upper Canada, British Canada, now Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, on May 12, 1796, his wife had died three years before. Butler was survived by daughter. John Butl
Sir Frederick Haldimand, KB was a military officer best known for his service in the British Army in North America during the Seven Years' War and the American Revolutionary War. From 1778 to 1786, he served as Governor of the Province of Quebec, during which time he oversaw military operations against the northern frontiers in the war, engaged in fruitless negotiations to establish the independent Vermont Republic as a new British province, his administration of Quebec was at times harsh, with the detention of numerous political dissidents and agitators. Haldimand was born in Switzerland. Baptized François-Louis-Frédéric Haldimand, he was the son of a civil servant, he became interested in the military at an early age, the poor prospects for advancement in Switzerland led him to join foreign armies. His first service appears to have been in the army of Prussia during the War of the Austrian Succession, with whom he fought at Mollwitz and also at Hohenfriedberg and Kesselsdorf, he next joined the Swiss Guards of the Dutch Republic, where he rose to the rank of lieutenant colonel.
There he formed a friendship with Henry Bouquet, another Swiss military man, with whom he would serve in North America. In 1755, as the Seven Years' War was in its early stages and Bouquet joined a British regiment composed of German and Swiss men recruited at first from the armies of Europe, but also from German-speaking settlers in North America. Formation of the regiment, known as the Royal American, took two years, was beset by culture clashes with the rest of the British Army. In spite of this and Bouquet both earned the respect of the British military establishment with their dedicated professionalism. While Haldimand's battalion was sent to Louisbourg in 1758, Haldimand himself served under General James Abercrombie at the disastrous Battle of Carillon, where he suffered minor wounds. After spending the winter in command of the forward British position at Fort Edward, he was made second in command on the 1759 expedition of John Prideaux against Fort Niagara; when Prideaux was killed early during the Battle of Fort Niagara, Haldimand went to assume command of the operation, but William Johnson, the Indian agent on the expedition who took over, refused to relinquish control.
Haldimand returned to Oswego. In 1760 he joined General Jeffery Amherst's army as it descended the Saint Lawrence River, was the officer who formally took control of Montreal on September 8 following the French surrender, he was given the responsibility for working with the outgoing French leadership as they prepared to depart for France, serving first under Amherst and under General Thomas Gage. In 1762, Amherst promoted him to colonel, temporarily gave him the military governorship of Trois-Rivières while its governor, Ralph Burton, was called to serve in the Caribbean. At Trois-Rivières he oversaw the development of the ironworks at nearby Saint Maurice, arranged for his nephew to serve under James Murray the military governor of Quebec City. In 1764, the province of Quebec was turned over to a civil administration, Haldimand's role was reduced to that of a troop commander. Denied leave to return to Europe, he remained in Quebec until 1765, when his command was merged into another, he traveled to New York with the intention of returning to Europe, but the death of his friend Bouquet led to his promotion to brigadier general and assignment to Bouquet's post as military head of the Southern Department, with responsibility for military affairs in East and West Florida.
He remained in this post, which he characterized as "the most disagreeable" of his life, until 1773. Despite good relations with the civil governors, he had ongoing problems with supply and funding, the high cost of living there put him into debt, he was promoted to colonel commandant of the Royal American in 1772, received a pro forma promotion to major general that year. He undertook in 1772 the steps necessary to become a British subject. General Gage called Haldimand to New York in 1773 to temporarily act as commander-in-chief of North America while he went to England on leave. While Haldimand's command was uneventful, the political climate in the provinces noticeably declined, he resisted bringing troops in conflict with the population, refusing to get involved in the jurisdictional disputes over the New Hampshire Grants, refusing to protect tea shipments after the Boston Tea Party unless requested to do so; when Gage returned to Boston in 1774, Haldimand remained in command of the troops in New York, which Gage ordered to Boston in September 1774 in the wake of the colonial uprising known as the Powder Alarm.
While Gage was occupied with his duties as Governor of Massachusetts, Haldimand commanded the army in Boston, although Gage did not notify him of the expedition that led to the Battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775. With the arrival additional military leadership in Boston after that event, Haldimand was advised that, due to his status as a foreigner, it was inappropriate for him to exercise command in what was viewed as an internal civil conflict, he sailed from Boston in June 1775, arrived in London in August. Haldimand became Governor of the Province of Quebec in 1778, serving through the American Revolution. Haldimand built up Quebec's defenses in reaction to repeated rumo
Minister of Crown–Indigenous Relations
The Minister of Crown-Indigenous Relations administers the Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada, mandated to "renew the nation-to-nation, Inuit-Crown, government-to-government relationship between Canada and First Nations, Inuit and Métis. Two Ministers of the Crown, CIRNAC, whose portfolio includes treaty rights and land negotiations, the Minister of Indigenous Services, whose portfolio includes health care and other services to Indigenous communities, of the Canadian Cabinet are responsible for overseeing the federal Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada, they were established on August 28, 2017 by Prime Minister Trudeau when he announced the federal government's intention of abolishing the Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada. The Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development is administered by the Indian Act and other legislation dealing with "Indians and lands reserved for the Indians" under subsection 91 of the Constitution Act, 1867; the applied title of the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, under the Federal Identity Program is Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada.
INAC is responsible for policies relating to Aboriginal peoples in Canada, that comprise the First Nations, Inuit and Métis. The title has been changed over the last decade from "Minister of Indigenous and Northern Affairs" to a working title of "Minister of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development" on May 18, 2011 during the cabinet shuffle under then-Prime Minister Stephen Harper, back to "Minister of Indigenous and Northern Affairs" during the 29th Canadian Ministry on November 4, 2015; the current working title under CIRNAC was introduced in the 29th Ministry on August 28, 2017 in which Prime Minister Justin Trudeau announced that the Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada would be abolished. According to their website, the mandate of the Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada is to "renew the nation-to-nation, Inuit-Crown, government-to-government relationship between Canada and First Nations, Inuit and Métis. In their July 5, 2018 document, CIRNAC wrote that the concept of Aboriginal nation in Canada, based on the 1996 Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, refers to "a sizeable body of Aboriginal people with a shared sense of national identity that constitutes the predominant population in a certain territory or collection of territories.
There are three elements in this definition: collective sense of identity. The first element, a collective sense of identity, can be based on a variety of factors, it is grounded in a common heritage, which comprises such elements as a common history, culture, political consciousness, governmental structures, ancestry, homeland or adherence to a particular treaty."According to the 1985 Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development Act the term "Indian" remained in the department's legal name, although the term "Indigenous" is used in its applied title under the Federal Identity Program. According to a 2004 AADNC Government of Canada document, the term "First Nation", has been used since the 1970s instead of the word "Indian", which some people found offensive; the term "Indian" is used for legal and historical documents such as Status Indians as defined by the Indian Act. For example, the term "Indian" continues to be used in the historical and legal document, the Canadian Constitution and federal statutes.
The term "Aboriginal" is used when referring to the three groups of indigenous peoples as a whole, First Nations, Inuit and Métis. It is used by Aboriginal people who live within Canada who claim rights of sovereignty or Aboriginal title to lands. In 1983, the Penner Report by the Special Parliamentary Committee on Indian Self-Government, chaired by Liberal MP Keith Penner, had recommended the phasing out of the Indian Act and the Department of Indian Affairs and the introduction of Native self-government. Then-Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, had dismissed the report in 1984. Reports and commissions following the Penner Report including the "Report on the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission Calls to Action, the Principles Respecting the Government of Canada’s Relationship with Indigenous Peoples, Recognition of Indigenous Rights and Self-Determination discussions, the national engagement—] ]—led by the Minister of Crown-Indigenous Relations", confirmed that "changes are needed to ensure that policies respond to the needs and interests of Indigenous communities" and that policies need to be aligned "with evolving laws and the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, including the concept of free and informed consent."
On February 14, 2018, during a speech in the House of Commons, Trudeau announced the formation of the Recognition and Implementation of Indigenous Rights Framework, intended to "enshrine Section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982— which affirms Indigenous rights — in federal law" and to "fill the gap between federal government policies and multiple court decisions on Indigenous rights." It was to be undertaken in "full part