Placerville is the county seat of El Dorado County, California. The population was 10,389 at the 2010 census, up from 9,610 at the 2000 census, it is part of the Sacramento–Arden-Arcade–Roseville Metropolitan Statistical Area. After the discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill in nearby Coloma, California, by James W. Marshall in 1848 sparked the California Gold Rush, the small town now known as Placerville was known as Dry Diggin's after the manner in which the miners moved cartloads of dry soil to run water to separate the gold from the soil. In 1849, the town earned its most common historical name, "Hangtown", because of the numerous hangings that had occurred there. According to the museum guide at the Fountain & Tallman Museum, there were only three hangings that occurred after three men on horseback came into town with guns ablaze; the name stuck after that. By about 1850, the temperance league and a few local churches had begun to request that a more friendly name be bestowed upon the town; the name was not changed until 1854.
At its incorporation, Placerville was the third largest town in California. In 1857 the county seat was moved from Coloma to Placerville, where it remains today. Placerville was a central hub for the Mother Lode region's mining operations; the town had many services, including transportation, lodging and had a market and general store. The history of hard-rock mining is evidenced by an open and accessible Gold Bug Park & Mine, now a museum with tours and books; the Southern Pacific Railroad once had a branch line. The track was abandoned in the 1980s; the Camino and Lake Tahoe Railroad operated an 8-mile shortline that operated between Camino and Placerville until June 17, 1986. As of March 29, 2007, 52 miles of the right-of-way have been purchased by the city of Folsom, 18 miles of track have been restored. Plans are in motion for a tourist train along the route by 2015; the town's first post office opened in 1850. Placerville is now registered as California Historical Landmark #701. Located on the corner of Main and Sacramento Street is the site of the Pony Express where 80 riders including William, "Buffalo Bill" Cody, relayed mail by horseback between Missouri and Sacramento.
The Pony Express ran from April 1860 through June 1861. The Cary House Hotel is located at 300 Main Street and was built in 1857; the three-story hotel was built out of brick to help prevent the devastation, served upon several local hotels that were destroyed during the fires that destroyed a large portion of Placerville in 1857. The Cary House was the hub of the Wells Fargo stage lines. It's estimated that more than $900 million of gold and silver passed through the doors of the Cary House during the transfer between the Mother Lode and the Nevada Comstock. In 1908, John Augustus Raffetto bought the Cary House. In 1915, he demolished and rebuilt it with three stories that had fifty-four rooms, coffee shop, dining room, his oldest son, Lloyd Raffetto, renamed it the Raffles Hotel. When the Raffettos sold it, the new owners brought back the name "Cary House." Historical figures known to have stayed at the hotel include Mark Twain, President Ulysses S. Grant and John Studebaker. Hollywood figures, such as actress Bette Davis, have graced the hotel.
Most Brooke Shields and Lou Diamond Phillips filmed a movie at the hotel. California State Historic Landmark #141 indicates the site of the Hangman's Tree located at 305 Main Street; the 1849 hanging of robbers and murderers inspired "Hangtown" one of the town's early names. The Masonic lodge is located at 419 Main Street; the three-story brick building was constructed in 1893. This is the only still standing building, erected with three stories within the Placerville city limits. Prior to the building of the Masonic Lodge, the site was the home of the Nebraska Saloon and an undertaking business. Placerville Hardware is located at 441 Main Street and is the oldest continuously operating hardware store west of the Mississippi; the Bell Tower located near the center of Main Street was erected in 1865 to alert the fire fighters and townsmen in the event of a fire. The Fountain and Tallman Soda Works is located at 542 Main Street and is constructed of brick and stone survived the fire of 1856. Spring water obtained from a fresh water spring behind the building was sold to miners.
John Studebaker's Shop was located at 543 Main Street. The former automobile maker, used to build wheelbarrows on Main Street Placerville; the wheelbarrows were used by miners during the California Gold Rush. The building no longer exists, but the City of Placerville pays homage to this historic figure by holding a wheelbarrow race during the annual El Dorado County Fair; the United States Department of the Interior placed the John Pearson Soda Works on the National Register of Historic Places in 1985. This property located at 594 Main Street was purchased in 1859 by John Pearson; the property included a mine. Pearson built a stone building around the mine taking advantage of cool temperature of the mine tunnel to store the ice. Pearson sold many other items including cream soda and syrups. After his death, Pearson's sons added the second story in 1897 to use as a bottling factory for the burgeoning soda business; the sons sold the business in 1904 and the new owners renamed the business Placerville Soda Works.
Corner of Main and Cedar Ravine The
Muir Grove is a giant sequoia grove in Sequoia National Park of the Tulare County, which covers about 215 acres. The grove, located in the northwest corner of the park, is accessed by the Muir Grove Trail which begins from the Dorst Creek Campground; because of its remote location in the park, it is less visited than the more popular groves of large sequoia trees in the park. The isolated atmosphere helps keep Muir Grove preserved. Muir Grove was named after author John Muir, his advocacy for the preservation of wilderness in the United States made him well known among environmentalists and politicians. His writing about nature and conservation efforts helped sway many political opinions, his attempts lead to the creation of General Grant National Parks. Muir Grove has a total of 629 coniferous trees; the giant sequoia reproduction is slim compared to other groves in the California National Parks. The high relative density of mature trees compensates for the lack of young trees. There is an increased reduction of trees between one and five feet in diameter compared to other mature groves.
Abies concolor dominates the grove, with 523 trees. The next most important species in the moderate-elevation grove is Pinus lambertiana, with 71 trees. There are 33 specimens of the well-known Sequoiadendron giganteum. There are Libocedrus decurrens, which grow on dry or rocky surfaces. There are 56 different species present in the ground-covered vegetation. It's moist, creating mesic conditions. There is only 16% land without vegetation in Muir Grove. Ground cover includes Chrysolepis sempervirens, Corylus cornuta var. californica, Cornus nuttallii. Muir Grove Trail is about a 4.2 mi hike. Beginning from the Dorst Creek Campground, hikers can travel west for 1.9 miles, which leads to the edge of the old-growth sequoia grove. Few travelers take the time to walk this trail to witness the mammoth sequoias. Along the trail, there are not many sequoias, but it has Sierra woodland scenery which people admire. There are two creeks and other large trees that encompass the scenery; as hikers reach Muir Grove, the trail stops and the grove becomes a shallow saddle around the outskirts.
There are abundant sequoias that scatter the grove making it an isolated domain
Wood shingles are thin, tapered pieces of wood used to cover roofs and walls of buildings to protect them from the weather. Shingles were split from straight grained, knot free bolts of wood. Today shingles are made by being cut which distinguishes them from shakes which are made by being split out of a bolt. Wooden shingle roofs were prevalent in the North American colonies, while in central and southern Europe at the same time, thatch and tile were the prevalent roofing materials. In rural Scandinavia, wood shingle roofs were a common roofing material until the 1950s. Wood shingles are susceptible to fire and cost more than other types of shingle so they are not as common today as in the past. Distinctive shingle patterns exist in various regions created by the size and application method. Special treatments such as swept valleys, combed ridges, decorative butt ends, decorative patterns impart a special character to each building. Wood shingles can be shaped by steam bending to create a thatch-like appearance, with unique roof details and contours.
Wooden shingles were thin narrow, of varying length, always planed or knifed smooth. The traditional method for making wooden shingles before the 19th century was to rive them from straight-grained knot-free sections of logs pre-cut to the desired length known as bolts; these bolts were split into wedges. A mallet and froe were used to rive out thin pieces of wood; the wood species varied according to available local woods, but only the more durable heartwood, or inner section, of the log was used. The softer sapwood was not used because it deteriorated quickly; because hand-split shingles were somewhat irregular along the split surface, it was necessary to dress or plane the shingles on a shaving horse with a drawknife or draw-shave to make them fit evenly on the roof. This reworking was necessary to provide a tight-fitting roof over open shingle lath or sheathing boards. Dressing, or smoothing of shingles, was universal, no matter what wood was used or in what part of the world the building was located, except in those cases where a temporary or utilitarian roof was needed.
Shingle fabrication was revolutionized in the early 19th century by steam-powered saw mills. Shingle mills made possible the production of uniform shingles in mass quantities; the sawn shingle of uniform taper and smooth surface eliminated the need to hand dress. The supply of wooden shingles was therefore no longer limited by local factors; these changes coincided with the popularity of architectural styles such as Carpenter Gothic, Queen Anne, Shingle style architecture that used shingles to great effect. Hand-split shingles continued to be used in many places well after the introduction of machine sawn shingles. There were, of course, other popular roofing materials, some regions rich in slate had fewer examples of wooden shingle roofs; some western "boom" towns used sheet metal because it was light and shipped. Slate and clay tile were used on ornate buildings and in cities that limited the use of flammable wooden shingles. Wooden shingles, were never abandoned. In the 20th century, architectural styles such as the Colonial Revival and Tudor Revival used wooden shingles.
The simplest form of wood shingle is a rectangle about 16 inches long. The sides and butt of a shingle are irregular. Shingles that have been processed so that the butt is square to the sides are called rebutted and re-squared or rebutted and re-jointed shingles abbreviated R&R. Shingles and shakes may be tapered, split or sawn and any combination of these except straight-tapered. Different species and quality of wood are used. Shakes and shingles may be treated with wood preservatives and fire retardants before or after installation. A shake is a basic wooden shingle made from split logs. Shakes have traditionally been used for siding applications around the world. Higher-grade shakes are used for roofing purposes, while the lower grades are used for siding. In either situation, properly installed shakes provide long-lasting weather protection and a rustic aesthetic, though they require more maintenance than some other more modern weatherproofing systems; the term shake is sometimes used as a colloquialism for all wood shingles, though shingles are sawn rather than split.
In traditional usage, "shake" refers to the board. Split wooden shingles are referred to as shag shingles. Modern wooden shingles, both sawn and split, continue to be made, but they differ from the historic ones. Modern commercially available shakes are thicker than the historic handsplit counterpart and are left "undressed" with a rough, corrugated surface; the rough-surface shake is considered to be more "rustic" and "historic", but in fact this is a modern fashion. Some modern shingles are produced in pre-cut decorative patterns, sometimes called fancy-cut shingles, are available pre-primed for painting; the sides of rectangular shingles may be re-squared and re-butted, which means they have been reworked so the sides are parallel and the butt is square to the sides. These are installed more neatly as a result. Shingles are less durable than shakes in wet climates.
Forester Pass is a mountain pass in the Sierra Nevada. Located on the Kings-Kern Divide on the boundary between Sequoia National Park and Kings Canyon National Park, Forester Pass connects the drainages of Bubbs Creek and the Kern River. At 13,153 feet, Forester Pass is the highest point along the Pacific Crest Trail. Discovered by a group of United States Forest Service workers, it was subsequently named in their honor. On August 26, 1930, four men, including 18-year-old Donald Downs were injured during construction of the trail over the pass. A boulder let loose during blasting of the trail crushed Mr. Downs' arm; the men were evacuated by Downs to Baxter Cabin and the others to Independence. Mr. Down’s arm was amputated, he died on Sept. 1930 from complications of surgery. A plane crashed at Tyndall Creek after dropping medicine for Downs. A plaque commemorating his death is found on the southern side of the pass, most seen while walking in a northerly direction
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
Tulare County, California
Tulare County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 442,179, its county seat is Visalia. The county is named for once the largest freshwater lake west of the Great Lakes. Drained for agricultural development, the site is now in Kings County, created in 1893 from the western portion of the larger Tulare County. Tulare County comprises CA Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county is located south of Fresno, spanning from the San Joaquin Valley east to the Sierra Nevada. Sequoia National Park is located in the county, as are part of Kings Canyon National Park, in its northeast corner, part of Mount Whitney, on its eastern border; as of the 2010 census, the population was 442,179, up from 368,021 at the 2000 census. The land was occupied for thousands of years by varying cultures of indigenous peoples. Beginning in the eighteenth century, Spain established missions to colonize California and convert the American Indians to Christianity. Comandante Pedro Fages, while hunting for deserters in the Central Valley in 1772, discovered a great lake surrounded by marshes and filled with rushes.
It is from this lake. The root of the name Tulare is found in the Nahuatl word tullin, designating cattail or similar reeds. After Mexico achieved independence, it continued to rule California. After the Mexican Cession and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848, the area became part of the United States. Tulare County was soon formed from parts of Mariposa County only 4 years in 1852. There were two early attempts to split off a new Buena Vista County in 1855, Coso County in 1864, but both failed. Parts of the county's territory were given to Fresno County in 1856, to Kern County and to Inyo County in 1866 and to Kings County in 1893; the infectious disease Tularemia caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis is named after Tulare County. In 1908 Colonel Allen Allensworth and associates founded Allensworth as a black farming community, they intended to develop a place. It was the only community in California founded and governed by African Americans. While its first years were successful, the community encountered environmental problems from dropping water tables which caused it to fail.
Today the historic area is preserved as the Colonel Allensworth State Historic Park, listed on the National Register of Historic Places. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 4,839 square miles, of which 4,824 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water. Fresno County—north Inyo County—east Kern County—south Kings County—west Blue Ridge National Wildlife Refuge Giant Sequoia National Monument Inyo National Forest Kings Canyon National Park Pixley National Wildlife Refuge Sequoia National Forest Sequoia National Park Sequoia National Park is a national park in the southern Sierra Nevada, east of Visalia, it was established in 1890 as the second U. S. national park, after Yellowstone. The park spans 404,051 acres. Encompassing a vertical relief of nearly 13,000 feet, the park contains among its natural resources the highest point in the contiguous 48 United States, Mount Whitney, at 14,505 feet above sea level; the park is south of and contiguous with Kings Canyon National Park.
Tulare County is a general law county under the California Constitution. That is, it does not have a county charter; the county is governed by a five-member Board of Supervisors. Supervisors are elected by districts for four-year terms. There are no term limits in effect; the Chairman and Vice-Chairman are elected annually by the Board of Supervisors from among its members. The Tulare County Sheriff provides court protection, county jail operation and detective functions in the unincorporated areas of the county. Incorporated towns have municipal police departments or contract with the Sheriff for their police operations. State Route 43 State Route 63 State Route 65 State Route 99 State Route 180 State Route 190 State Route 198 Tulare County Transit provides a countywide bus service linking the population centers. A connection to Delano in Kern County is operated; the cities of Tulare and Visalia have their own local bus services. Greyhound and Orange Belt Stages provide intercity bus service; the Porterville Municipal Airport located 3 nautical miles from Downtown Porterville has limited commercial passenger service with WestAir.
The airport offers general aviation to the public, it is home to Porterville Air Attack Base on the south part of the airport. The Visalia Municipal Airport is a city-owned airport for the city of California. Mefford Field is a city-owned general aviation airport located in Tulare; the nearest full operation commercial airports are Bakersfield's Meadows Field Airport to the South, Fresno's Fresno Yosemite International Airport to the North. The following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense; the 2010 United States Census reported that Tulare County had a population of 442,179. The racial makeup of Tulare County was 265,618 White, 7,196 African American, 6,993 Native American, 15,176 Asian, 509 Pacific Islander, 128,263 from other races, 18,424 from two or more races. There were 268,065 people of Hispanic or Latino
Mineral King is a subalpine glacial valley located in the southern part of Sequoia National Park, in the U. S. state of California. The valley lies at the headwaters of the East Fork of the Kaweah River, which rises at the eastern part of the valley and flows northwest. Accessed by a long and narrow winding road, the valley is popular with backpackers and hikers; the valley was inhabited by the Yokut tribe. In the 1870s, silver was discovered on the slopes of a mountain overlooking Mineral King. Mineral King Road was built in 1873 and was improved throughout the early 20th century. A proposal by Walt Disney Productions to build a ski resort called "Disney's Mineral King Ski Resort" in the valley in the 1960s was stopped by preservationists. In 1978, the valley became part of Sequoia National Park; the name Mineral King refers to the historic mining camps and towns in and near the valley, including Silver City and Cabin Cove. The settlements as a whole are referred to as the Mineral King Road Cultural Landscape, was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2003.
Mineral King is a 7.5-mile - 1-mile - wide glacial valley in the southern Sierra Nevada. The valley floor lies at an elevation of 7,400 feet, while the granite peaks rising above the head of the valley reach heights of 11,000 feet or more; as the crow flies, it is located about 20 miles southeast of Three Rivers, near the confluence of the East Fork Kaweah River and Middle Fork Kaweah River. The valley floor is an expanse of open meadows with a narrow strip of riparian vegetation, including short trees and bushes, along the East Fork Kaweah River; as the flat meadows give way to rocky slopes, there are many congregations of conifers that climb the slopes to the tree line. Above the tree line, there are sheer or sheer granite walls that slope up to form Sawtooth Peak, Empire Mountain, Mineral Peak, Hengst Peak and others. There are two prominent mountain passes leading out of Mineral King: Timber Gap, which leads into the Middle Fork Kaweah River drainage' and Farewell Gap at the valley head, which leads into the Kern River drainage.
The first half of the valley runs from south to north and the second half runs from east to west. Fed by snowmelt and abundant lakes in granite bowls at the upstream-most section of the valley, creeks plunge down the steep valley walls as long and twisting waterfalls; these include Tufa Falls, Crystal Creek Falls, Franklin Falls, in upstream order. This section of the valley is dotted with tributary gorges that fan out from the main canyon. Lakes in this section of the valley include the Mosquito Lakes, Eagle Lake, the Franklin Lakes, the Crystal Lakes. From the end of the valley, the East Fork Kaweah River drops over Mineral King Falls and East Fork Falls, before continuing down a steep and narrow gorge, following Mineral King Road. Mineral King is one of the oldest communities in the High Sierra, with many families owning cabins for six or seven generations. Many of the communities have been inhabited since. Evidence suggests that Native Americans long ago used Mineral King to hunt in; these Native American groups included the Tübatulabal.
The Yokuts' main settlements had their main villages in the broad valley adjoining and in the present-day site of Lake Kaweah. They created summer settlements on the valley floor and around the area, to be the site of Atwell Mill; the primary purpose of these summer settlements was hunting and trading with the Paiutes, who lived east of the Sierra Nevada. But prior to contact with white settlers, the valley became taboo to the Wikchúmni Yokut tribe, no humans had inhabited it for some time; the first explorer of European descent known to have visited Mineral King was the Irishman Harry "Parole" O'Farrell, in 1862. While employed as hunters for a trail crew building the Hockett toll trail from Visalia to Independence, O'Farrell and a Paiute companion found the valley from the south, over Farewell Gap. Attracted by the promise of mineral riches, O'Farrell returned to prospect and build a summer settlement on the East Fork of the Kaweah River, which came to be called Harry's Bend. In the 1870s and 1880s, assays of precious metals in White Chief Canyon and on Empire Mountain led to the boomtown of Beulah.
The first discovery of silver in the Mineral King Valley occurred in 1872, below Mineral Peak and Empire Mountain. Following the discovery, the Mineral King Wagon and Toll Road Company was established in December 1873 to build a wagon road; the first routing of Mineral King Road followed the East Fork Canyon's south side. Until access to Mineral King was by rough tracks. A second discovery of silver in 1878 drew more prospectors to the Mineral King area and a second Mineral King Road, following a different route up the north side of the canyon, was constructed in 1879; this created the route for much of the present-day Mineral King Road. The Mineral King Road passes through two groves of giant sequoias, the Redwood Creek Grove and the Atwell Grove. In 1890 the groves were included in the boundaries of the newly established Sequoia National Park, encompassing the central portion of the road. Mineral King itself was excluded from the new park; the Mineral King entrance was the most used gateway to the park until 1903.
A Tom Fowler purchased the Empire Mine the largest mine in the area, created the Empire Gold and Silver Mining Company. The lowermost part of the road was rebuilt in 1915 to its present-day route. Over time, the minerals were found to be unprofitable to extract from their ore and no significant mining took place, but the valley kept its hopeful name: Mineral King. By the 1920s and as