Aihole referred to as Aivalli, Ahivolal or Aryapura, is a historic site of ancient and medieval era Buddhist and Jain monuments in north Karnataka dated from the fourth century through the twelfth century CE. Located around an eponymous small village surrounded by farmlands and sandstone hills, Aihole is a major archaeological site featuring over one hundred and twenty stone and cave temples from this period, spread along the Malaprabha river valley, in Bagalakote district. Aihole is 22 miles from Badami and about 6 miles from Pattadakal, both of which are major centers of important Chalukya monuments. Aihole, along with nearby Badami, emerged by the 6th century as the cradle of experimentation with temple architecture, stone artwork, construction techniques; this resulted in 4 types of rock-cut shrines. The experimentation in architecture and arts that began in Aihole yielded the group of monuments at Pattadakal, a UNESCO world heritage site. Over one hundred Aihole temples are Hindu, a few are Jain and one is Buddhist.
These were coexisted in close proximity. The site is spread over about 5 square kilometres; the Hindu temples are dedicated to Shiva, Durga and other Hindu deities. The Jain Basadi temples are dedicated to Mahavira, Parshvanatha and other Jain Tirthankaras; the Buddhist monument is a monastery. Both Hindu and Jain monuments include monasteries, as well as social utilities such as stepwell water tanks with artistic carvings near major temples. Aihole monuments is located in the Indian state of Karnataka, about 190 kilometres southeast of Belgaum and 290 kilometres northeast from Goa; the monuments are about 14 miles from Badami and about 6 miles from Pattadakal, set midst rural villages, sandstone hills and Malprabha river valley. The Aihole site preserves over 120 Hindu and Buddhist monuments from the 4th—12th century CE; the region is a site for prehistoric dolmens and cave paintings. Aihole has no nearby airport, is about 4 hours drive from Sambra Belgaum Airport, with daily flights to Mumbai and Chennai.
Badami is the closest town connected by railway and highway network to major cities of Karnataka and Goa. It is a protected monument under the laws of the Indian government, managed by the Archaeological Survey of India. Aihole is referred to as Ayyavole and Aryapura in its inscriptions and Hindu texts from 4th to 12th century CE, as Aivalli and Ahivolal in colonial British era archaeological reports. Aihole has been a part of Hindu mythologies, it has a natural axe-shaped rock on the Malaprabha river bank north of the village, a rock in the river show a footprint. Parashurama, the sixth Vishnu avatar, is stated in these legends to have washed his axe here after killing abusive Kshatriyas who were exploiting their military powers, giving the land its red color. A 19th-century local tradition believed. A place near the Meguti hillocks show evidence of human settlement in prehistoric period. Aihole has been called a cradle of Hindu rock architecture; the documented history of Aihole is traceable to the rise of the Early Chalukya dynasty in 6th century.
It became, along with nearby Pattadakal and Badami, a major cultural center and religious site for innovations in architecture and experimentation of ideas. The Chalukyas sponsored artisans and built many temples in this region between the 6th and 8th centuries. Evidence of wooden and brick temples dating to 4th-century have been unearthed. Aihole started the experimentations with other materials such as stone around the 5th century when the Indian subcontinent saw a period of political and cultural stability under the Gupta Empire rulers. Badami refined it in 7th centuries; the experimentations culminated in Pattadakal in the 7th and 8th centuries becoming a cradle of fusion of ideas from South India and North India. After the Chalukyas, the region became a part of the Rashtrakuta kingdom who ruled in the 9th and 10th century from the capital of Manyakheta. In the 11th and 12th century, the Late Chalukyas ruled over this region. Though the area was not the capital or in immediate vicinity from 9th to 12th centuries, new temples and monasteries of Hinduism and Buddhism continued to be built in the region based on inscriptional and stylistic evidence.
This happened, states Michell, because the region was prosperous with a substantial population and surplus wealth. Aihole was fortified by Late Chalukya kings in the 11th and 12th centuries, in an approximate circle; this indicates the strategic and cultural importance of Aihole to the kings whose capital was far away. Aihole served as a hub of Hindu temple arts in this period with guild of artisans and merchants called the Ayyavole 500, celebrated for their talent and accomplishments in the historic texts of the Deccan region and South India. In the 13th century and thereafter, the Malprabha valley along with much of Deccan became a target of raids and plunder by the Delhi Sultanate armies devastating the region. From the ruins emerged the Vijayanagara Empire which built forts and protected the monuments, as evidenced by inscriptions in the fort at Badami. However, the region witnessed a series of wars between Vijayanagara Hindu kings and Bahmani Muslim sultans. After the collapse of Vijayanagara Empire in 1565, Aihole became a part of the Adil Shahi rule from Bijapur, with some of the Muslim commanders using the temples as residence and their compounds as garrison for storing weapons and supplies.
A Hindu temple dedicated to Shiva came to
The Delhi Sultanate was a sultanate based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years. Five dynasties ruled over the Delhi Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk dynasty, the Khalji dynasty, the Tughlaq dynasty, the Sayyid dynasty, the Lodi dynasty; the sultanate is noted for being one of the few states to repel an attack by the Mongols, enthroned one of the few female rulers in Islamic history, Razia Sultana, who reigned from 1236 to 1240. Qutb al-Din Aibak, a former Turkic Mamluk slave of Muhammad Ghori, was the first sultan of Delhi, his Mamluk dynasty conquered large areas of northern India. Afterwards, the Khalji dynasty was able to conquer most of central India, but both failed to conquer the whole of the Indian subcontinent; the sultanate reached the peak of its geographical reach during the Tughlaq dynasty, occupying most of the Indian subcontinent. This was followed by decline due to Hindu reconquests, states such as the Vijayanagara Empire and Mewar asserting independence, new Muslim sultanates such as the Bengal Sultanate breaking off.
During and in the Delhi Sultanate, there was a synthesis of Indian civilization with that of Islamic civilization, the further integration of the Indian subcontinent with a growing world system and wider international networks spanning large parts of Afro-Eurasia, which had a significant impact on Indian culture and society, as well as the wider world. The time of their rule included the earliest forms of Indo-Islamic architecture, increased growth rates in India's population and economy, the emergence of the Hindi-Urdu language; the Delhi Sultanate was responsible for repelling the Mongol Empire's devastating invasions of India in the 13th and 14th centuries. However, the Delhi Sultanate caused large scale destruction and desecration of temples in the Indian subcontinent. In 1526, the Sultanate was succeeded by the Mughal Empire; the context behind the rise of the Delhi Sultanate in India was part of a wider trend affecting much of the Asian continent, including the whole of southern and western Asia: the influx of nomadic Turkic peoples from the Central Asian steppes.
This can be traced back to the 9th century, when the Islamic Caliphate began fragmenting in the Middle East, where Muslim rulers in rival states began enslaving non-Muslim nomadic Turks from the Central Asian steppes, raising many of them to become loyal military slaves called Mamluks. Soon, Turks were becoming Islamicized. Many of the Turkic Mamluk slaves rose up to become rulers, conquered large parts of the Muslim world, establishing Mamluk Sultanates from Egypt to Afghanistan, before turning their attention to the Indian subcontinent, it is part of a longer trend predating the spread of Islam. Like other settled, agrarian societies in history, those in the Indian subcontinent have been attacked by nomadic tribes throughout its long history. In evaluating the impact of Islam on the subcontinent, one must note that the northwestern subcontinent was a frequent target of tribes raiding from Central Asia in the pre-Islamic era. In that sense, the Muslim intrusions and Muslim invasions were not dissimilar to those of the earlier invasions during the 1st millennium.
By 962 AD, Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms in South Asia were under a wave of raids from Muslim armies from Central Asia. Among them was Mahmud of Ghazni, the son of a Turkic Mamluk military slave, who raided and plundered kingdoms in north India from east of the Indus river to west of Yamuna river seventeen times between 997 and 1030. Mahmud of Ghazni raided the treasuries but retracted each time, only extending Islamic rule into western Punjab; the wave of raids on north Indian and western Indian kingdoms by Muslim warlords continued after Mahmud of Ghazni. The raids did not extend permanent boundaries of their Islamic kingdoms; the Ghurid sultan Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori known as Muhammad of Ghor, began a systematic war of expansion into north India in 1173. He sought to carve out a principality for himself by expanding the Islamic world. Muhammad of Ghor sought a Sunni Islamic kingdom of his own extending east of the Indus river, he thus laid the foundation for the Muslim kingdom called the Delhi Sultanate.
Some historians chronicle the Delhi Sultanate from 1192 due to the presence and geographical claims of Muhammad Ghori in South Asia by that time. Ghori was assassinated in 1206, by Ismāʿīlī Shia Muslims in some accounts or by Hindu Khokhars in others. After the assassination, one of Ghori's slaves, the Turkic Qutb al-Din Aibak, assumed power, becoming the first Sultan of Delhi. Qutb al-Din Aibak, a former slave of Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori, was the first ruler of the Delhi Sultanate. Aibak was of Cuman-Kipchak origin, due to his lineage, his dynasty is known as the Mamluk dynasty. Aibak reigned as the Sultan of Delhi for four years, from 1206 to 1210. After Aibak died, Aram Shah assumed power in 1210, but he was assassinated in 1211 by Shams ud-Din Iltutmish. Iltutmish's power was precarious, a number of Muslim amirs challenged his authority as they had been supporters of Qutb al-Din Aibak. After a series of conquests and brutal executions of opposition, Iltutmish consolidated his power, his rule was challenged a number of times, such as by Qubacha, this led to a series of wars.
Iltumish conquered Multan and Bengal from contesting Muslim rulers, as well as Ranthambore and Siwalik from the Hindu rulers. He
Karnataka is a state in the south western region of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, with the passage of the States Reorganisation Act. Known as the State of Mysore, it was renamed Karnataka in 1973; the state corresponds to the Carnatic region. The capital and largest city is Bangalore. Karnataka is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, Goa to the northwest, Maharashtra to the north, Telangana to the northeast, Andhra Pradesh to the east, Tamil Nadu to the southeast, Kerala to the south; the state covers an area of 191,976 square kilometres, or 5.83 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the sixth largest Indian state by area. With 61,130,704 inhabitants at the 2011 census, Karnataka is the eighth largest state by population, comprising 30 districts. Kannada, one of the classical languages of India, is the most spoken and official language of the state alongside Konkani, Tulu, Telugu, Malayalam and Beary. Karnataka contains some of the only villages in India where Sanskrit is spoken.
The two main river systems of the state are the Krishna and its tributaries, the Bhima, Vedavathi and Tungabhadra in North Karnataka Sharavathi in Shivamogga and the Kaveri and its tributaries, the Hemavati, Arkavati, Lakshmana Thirtha and Kabini, in the south. Most of these rivers flow out of Karnataka eastward. Though several etymologies have been suggested for the name Karnataka, the accepted one is that Karnataka is derived from the Kannada words karu and nādu, meaning "elevated land". Karu nadu may be read as karu, meaning "black" and nadu, meaning "region", as a reference to the black cotton soil found in the Bayalu Seeme region of the state; the British used the word Carnatic, sometimes Karnatak, to describe both sides of peninsular India, south of the Krishna. With an antiquity that dates to the paleolithic, Karnataka has been home to some of the most powerful empires of ancient and medieval India; the philosophers and musical bards patronised by these empires launched socio-religious and literary movements which have endured to the present day.
Karnataka has contributed to both forms of Indian classical music, the Carnatic and Hindustani traditions. The economy of Karnataka is the third-largest state economy in India with ₹15.88 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹174,000. Karnataka's pre-history goes back to a paleolithic hand-axe culture evidenced by discoveries of, among other things, hand axes and cleavers in the region. Evidence of neolithic and megalithic cultures have been found in the state. Gold discovered in Harappa was found to be imported from mines in Karnataka, prompting scholars to hypothesise about contacts between ancient Karnataka and the Indus Valley Civilisation ca. 3300 BCE. Prior to the third century BCE, most of Karnataka formed part of the Nanda Empire before coming under the Mauryan empire of Emperor Ashoka. Four centuries of Satavahana rule followed; the decline of Satavahana power led to the rise of the earliest native kingdoms, the Kadambas and the Western Gangas, marking the region's emergence as an independent political entity.
The Kadamba Dynasty, founded by Mayurasharma, had its capital at Banavasi. These were the first kingdoms to use Kannada in administration, as evidenced by the Halmidi inscription and a fifth-century copper coin discovered at Banavasi; these dynasties were followed by imperial Kannada empires such as the Badami Chalukyas, the Rashtrakuta Empire of Manyakheta and the Western Chalukya Empire, which ruled over large parts of the Deccan and had their capitals in what is now Karnataka. The Western Chalukyas patronised a unique style of architecture and Kannada literature which became a precursor to the Hoysala art of the 12th century. Parts of modern-day Southern Karnataka were occupied by the Chola Empire at the turn of the 11th century; the Cholas and the Hoysalas fought over the region in the early 12th century before it came under Hoysala rule. At the turn of the first millennium, the Hoysalas gained power in the region. Literature flourished during this time, which led to the emergence of distinctive Kannada literary metres, the construction of temples and sculptures adhering to the Vesara style of architecture.
The expansion of the Hoysala Empire brought minor parts of modern Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu under its rule. In the early 14th century and Bukka Raya established the Vijayanagara empire with its capital, Hosapattana, on the banks of the Tungabhadra River in the modern Bellary district; the empire rose as a bulwark against Muslim advances into South India, which it controlled for over two centuries. In 1565, Karnataka and the rest of South India experienced a major geopolitical shift when the Vijayanagara empire fell to a confederation of Islamic sultanates in the Battle of Talikota; the Bijapur Sultanate, which had risen after the demise of the Bahmani Sultanate of Bidar, soon took control of the Deccan. The Bahmani and Bijapur rulers encouraged Urdu and Persian literature and Indo-Saracenic architecture, the Gol Gumbaz being one of the high points of this style. During the sixteenth century, Konkani Hindus migrated to Karnataka from Salcette, while during the seventeenth and eighteenth century, Goan Catholics migrated to North Canara and South Canara from Bardes, Goa, as a result of food shortages and heavy taxation imposed by the Portuguese.
In the period that followed
Mysore Mysuru, is a city in the state of Karnataka, India. It is located in the foothills of the Chamundi Hills about 145.2 km towards the southwest of Bangalore and spread across an area of 152 km2. Mysore City Corporation is responsible for the civic administration of the city, the headquarters of the Mysore district and the Mysore division, it served as the capital city of the Kingdom of Mysore for nearly six centuries from 1399 until 1956. The Kingdom was ruled by the Wadiyar dynasty, with a brief period of interregnum in the 1760s and 70s when Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan were in power; the Wadiyars were patrons of art and culture and contributed to the cultural and economic growth of the city and the state. The cultural ambiance and achievements of Mysore earned it the sobriquet Cultural Capital of Karnataka. Mysore is noted for its heritage structures and palaces, including the Mysore Palace, for the festivities that take place during the Dasara festival when the city receives a large number of tourists from around the world.
It lends its name such as Mysore Dasara, Mysore Painting. Tourism is the major industry alongside the traditional industries. Mysore's inter-city public transportation includes rail and flights; the name Mysore is an anglicised version of Mahishūru, which means the abode of Mahisha in the vernacular Kannada. The common noun Mahisha, in Sanskrit, means buffalo, he was killed by the Goddess Chamundeshwari, whose temple is situated atop the Chamundi Hills, after whom it is named.'Mahishapura' became Mahisūru, came to be anglicised as Mysore by the British and Maisūru/Mysuru in the vernacular Kannada language. In December 2005, the Government of Karnataka announced its intention to change the English name of the city to Mysuru; this was approved by the Government of India in October 2014 and Mysore was renamed to "Mysuru" on 1 November 2014. The site where Mysore Palace now stands was occupied by a village named Puragere at the beginning of the 16th century; the Mahishūru Fort was constructed in 1524 by Chamaraja Wodeyar III, who passed on the dominion of Puragere to his son Chamaraja Wodeyar IV.
Since the 16th century, the name of Mahishūru has been used to denote the city. The Mysore Kingdom, governed by the Wodeyar family served as a vassal state of the Vijayanagara Empire. With the decline of the Vijayanagara Empire after the Battle of Talikota in 1565, the Mysore Kingdom achieved independence, by the time of King Narasaraja Wodeyar it had become a sovereign state. Seringapatam, near Mysore, was the capital of the kingdom from 1610; the 17th century saw a steady expansion of its territory and, under Narasaraja Wodeyar I and Chikka Devaraja Wodeyar, the kingdom annexed large expanses of what is now southern Karnataka and parts of Tamil Nadu, to become a powerful state in the southern Deccan. The kingdom reached the height of its military power and dominion in the latter half of the 18th century under the de facto rulers Hyder Ali and his son Tipu Sultan; the latter demolished parts of Mysore to remove legacies of the Wodeyar dynasty. During this time, Mysore kingdom came into conflict with the Marathas, the British and the Nizam of Golconda, leading to the four Anglo-Mysore wars, success in the first two of, followed by defeat in the third and fourth.
After Tipu Sultan's death in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War in 1799, the capital of the kingdom was moved back to Mysore from Seringapatam, the kingdom was distributed by the British to their allies of the Fourth Mysore war. The landlocked interior of the previous Mysore Kingdom was turned into a princely state under the suzerainty of the British Crown; the former Wodeyar rulers were reinstated as puppet monarchs, now styled Maharajas. The British administration was assisted locally by Diwan Purnaiah. Purnaiah is credited with improving Mysore's public works. Mysore lost its status as the administrative centre of the kingdom in 1831, when the British commissioner moved the capital to Bangalore, it regained that status in 1881 and remained the capital of the Princely State of Mysore within the British Indian Empire until India became independent in 1947. The Mysore municipality was established in 1888 and the city was divided into eight wards. In 1897 an outbreak of bubonic plague killed nearly half of the population of the city.
With the establishment of the City Improvement Trust Board in 1903, Mysore became one of the first cities in Asia to undertake planned development of the city. Public demonstrations and meetings were held there during the Quit India movement and other phases of the Indian independence movement. After Indian Independence, Mysore city remained as part of the Mysore State, now known as Karnataka. Jayachamarajendra Wodeyar king of Mysore, was allowed to retain his titles and was nominated as the Rajapramukh of the state, he was cremated in Mysore city. Over the years, Mysore became well known as a centre for tourism. Among the events that took place in Mysore
Bijapur is the district headquarters of BIJAPUR District of Karnataka state of India. It is the headquarters for Bijapur Taluka. Bijapur city is well known for its historical monuments of architectural importance built during the rule of the Adil Shahi dynasty, and it well known for the sports by the popular Karnataka premier league team as Bijapur Bulls. Bijapur is located 530 km northwest of the State Capital Bengaluru and about 550 km from Mumbai, 384 km west of the city of Hyderabad. Vijayapura, one of the popular heritage city located in the Karnataka state of India is one of the top ten populated cities in Karnataka; the Bijapur city has been declared as one of the corporations in the state of Karnataka last year. Bijapur urban population as per 2011 census is 326,000 the 9th biggest city in Karnataka. Bijapur Mahanagara Palike is the newest Municipal Corporation formed under the KMC act along with Shimoga and Tumkur Municipal Corporations; the other existing city corporations in Karnataka state in descending order of population are Bangalore, Hubli-Dharwad, Gulbarga, Mangalore and Bellary.
Administratively, Vijayapura district comes under Belgaum division along with Bagalkote, Dharwad, Gadag and Uttara Kannada districts. The civic administration of the city is managed by the Bijapur City Corporation and office of Deputy Commissioner in Bijapur; the office of Deputy Commissioner has the responsibility of rural areas in Bijapur, while the corporation administrates the city of Bijapur. Effective administration of the heritage city of Bijapur is the main intention behind all the activities of Bijapur City Corporation. Bijapur, the land of five rivers and the domain of different cultures, is an ancient city; the city established in the 10th and 11th centuries by the Chalukyas of Kalyani was known as Vijayapura. Vijayapura was the biggest district place of the state with 11 taluks, but after forming Bagalkote new district in 1997 Now it consists of five taluks viz. Basavan Bagevadi, Indi and Sindagi; the city was established in the 10th-11th centuries by the Kalyani Chalukyas and was known as Vijayapura.
The city was passed to Yadavas after Chalukya's demise. The city came under the influence of the Khalji Sultanate in Delhi by the late 13th century. In 1347, the area was conquered by the Bahmani Sultanate of Gulbarga. By this time, the city was being referred as Bijapur. In recent times due to political influences the name of Bijapur is referred as Vijaypura. Bara Kaman is the unfinished mausoleum of Ali Adil Shah II in Karnataka in India. Ali Adil Shah of the Adil Shahi dynasty wanted to build a mausoleum of unmatched architectural quality, it was planned that twelve arches would be placed vertically as well as horizontally surrounding the tomb of Ali Adil Shah. However, for unknown reasons the work on the structure was left incomplete: only two arches were raised vertically. Rumour has it that the construction of the mausoleum was stopped because once completed its shadow would touch the Gol Gombaz. Nowadays the remains of the twelve horizontally placed. It's situated Basveshwer CIRCLE Near Sukh Sagar Furniture In 1518, the Bahmani Sultanate split into five splinter states known as the Deccan sultanates, one of, Bijapur, ruled by the kings of the Adil Shahi dynasty.
The city of Vijayapura owes much of its greatness to Yusuf Adil Shah, the founder of the independent state of Bijapur. The rule of this dynasty ended in 1686, when Bijapur was conquered during the reign of Mughal badshah Aurangzeb, who has in 1684 turned Bijapur into a subah. In 1724 the Nizam of Hyderabad established his independence in the Deccan, included Bijapur within his dominions. In 1760, the Nizam suffered a defeat by the Marathas, ceded the region of Bijapur to the Maratha Peshwa. After the 1818 defeat of the Peshwa by the British in the Third Anglo-Maratha War, Bijapur passed into the hands of the British East India Company, was assigned to the Maratha princely state Satara. Bijapur district is traditionally and legendarily, one of the richest districts in the state; the evidence found. Many places of this district have legendary history; the history of this district is divided into four periods, from the Chalukya acquisition of Badami till the Muslim invasion. Early Western Chalukya period lasting from about A.
D. 535 to about A. D.757. Rastrakuta period from A. D. 757 to A. D.973 Kalachuri and Hoysala period from A. D. 973 to about A. D.1200 Devagiri Yadava period from A. D.1185 to the Muslim conquest of Devagiri in A. D. 1312. Bijapur came under Muslim influence, first under Allaudin Khalji, the Sultan of Delhi, towards the end of the 13th century, under the Bahamani kings of Bidar in 1347. In 1347, when the Bahamani dynasty was established, it included southern and eastern parts of Bijapur district; the supremacy of the Bahaman's may be said to have ceased by 1489. At that time five Shahi Dynasties were born and one of them was "Bijapur"; the Mughal emperor Aurangazeb conquered Bijapur in 1686 and it was under Mughal rule up to 1723. In 1724 the Nizam of Hyderabad established his independence in the Deccan and included Bijapur within his dominions. However, his acquisition on this portion was of brief duration, in 1760 it went into the hands of Marathas. In 1817, war broke out between the British and the Marathas.
By 1818, the whole of Bijapur was occupied by the British and was included in the territory assigned to the Raja of Satara. In 1848 the territory of Satara was obtained through the failure of heir and the British rule started. Till 1884, the Bijapu
Kolar The Golden city of India, is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka. It is the headquarters of Kolar District and is known for production of Milk, which surpassed Denmark, gold mining. Kolar is popularly known as the land of silk, milk and gold; the city is the location of the Kolaramma temple. Kolaramma is considered as goddess of city of Kolar. Kolar has APMC market Which is 2nd largest in Largest in South India. Kolar is leading India in production of Mango, Tomato,Milk which are exported to various other nations like UK, USA, UAE. List of tourist attractions in Kolar district It has many colleges in which vidya jyothi pu college is the leading college. Kolar is located at 13.13°N 78.13°E / 13.13. With an average elevation of 849 metres, it is located at a distance of about 70 kilometres from Bengaluru and 50 km from Bangalore International Airport 32 kilometres from Kolar Gold Fields. The city is located on the southern maidan region of Karnataka; the Ammerallikere, a tank, forms its eastern boundary.
To the north is the Kodikannur tank, the main source of water supply to the city. The nearest railway junction is Kolar. Kolar is having good road transportation, it is situated on the Bengaluru - Chennai National Highway-75. Kolar is The gateway for Tirumala Via National Highway 75 The Western Gangas sovereignty lasted from about 350 to 550 CE ruled from Kolar as their Capital City; the founder of the Western Ganga dynasty was Konganivarman Madhava, who built Kolar as his capital around 350 and ruled for about twenty years. He succeeded by his son Madhava I. Kolar, the headquarters of the Kolar district, was earlier known as Kuvalalapura known as Kolahala Pura. Kolar is said to be associated with the epic age, which recalls many legends associated with Avani in Mulbagal Taluk, called Avani Kshetra, it was once known as Avantika - a sacred place in Kolar district in Karnataka State. It was famous for its religious establishments from ancient times, it was once known as Aavanya, under the Ganga prince Madhava Muttarasa, who governed several districts.
In about A. D 890, its earliest grant relates that Tribhuvana Kartara Deva, who held the title of Kali Yuga Rudra, ruled over the Avaniya Thana for 40 years. During this period he constructed two large tanks. Maharshi Valmiki, author of the epic Ramayana, lived here; the legend goes further to establish that Seetha Devi, after being sent to exile, gave birth to her twins Lava and Kusha at Avani. The Avani continued to survive as a religious establishment from the 9th to 11th centuries. There are temples dedicated to Lord Rama; the hill to the west of Kolar, called the Shatasringa Parvata or'Hundred-Peaked Mountain' is'Antharagange', associated with the story of Parasurama and his fight with King Kartaviryarjuna over Surabhi, the divine cow. As the story goes, King Kartavirya Arjuna and his army visited Jamadagni, Parasurama's father, when the king demanded the magical cow from Jamadagni; when Jamadagni refused, the King sent his soldiers to take the cow, but Parashurama killed the entire army and the king with his axe.
In return, the princes beheaded Jamadagni. Thus, Parasurama took an oath to behead the entire Kshatriya race, said to have taken place on the hills, it is said that the'kolahala' on the death of Kartaviryarjuna gave its name to the town, which become Kolar. Kannada is the main languages spoken in the district of Kolar. Telugu is spoken. Gangas built the temple of Sri Uttameshwara temple in Uttanur Mulbagal Talluk. Old City of Kolar comprises the following Areas: 1. Udayagiri Nagar 2. Kurberpet 3. Kumbarpet 4. Kanakanapalya 5. Jayanagar 6. P. C. Halli 7. S. G. Layout 8. Dharmarayanagar 9. Big Bazaar 10. P. C. Extension 11. Kilaripet 12. Dr. Ambedkar Nagar 13. Old Extension 14. New Extension 15. Ammavaripet 16. Palasandram Layout 17. Gowripet 18. Autonagar 19. Harohalli 20. Mahalakshmi Layout 21. Gandhinagar 22. Gulpet 23. Shanthi Nagar 24. Chowdeshwari Nagar 25. Khushal Nagar 26. Nyamath 27. Noor Nagar 28. Gangammana Palya 29. RTO Nagar 30. Kataripalya 31. Karanjikatte 32. Shahinsha Nagar 33. Shahid Nagar 34. Sarige Nagar 35. Fort 36.
Muneshwara Nagar 37. Antaragange 38. Cottonpet 39. Keelukote 40. Khutub Gowri Mohalla 41. Kuvempu Nagar 42. Vibhutipura 43. Devangapet 44. Shukur Ulla Sha Makan 45. Tekal Road 46. Sahakar Nagar 47. Rahmath Nagar 48. Dargha shahi mohalla 49. Ammavarpet 50. Bi Dragah Mohalla 51. BEML Layout/ C. Byregowda Nagar Udayagiri Nagar Antaragange is one of the tourist attractions Of Kolar, it is known as "Dakshina Kashi Kshetra". In the temple is a pond which gets a continuous flow of underground water from the mouth of a Basava. There is a narrow path to the top of the mountain. There are seven villages on this mountain, including Therhalli, papanayakana halli, Kenchegowdana Halli and several others. On the occasion of full moon day, the cultural association called AADIMA arranges, cultural activities. Which is attended by many notable artistes of Kannada drama industry; the mountain consists of granite rocks and lot of caves around. Antaragange is 71 Kilometers away from State capital Bangalore. You can scale the heights of this mountain or hill by your own feet or Govt. of Karnataka laid a road to provide transportation facility to villagers who lives in the villages of hill and for the tourists.
In the hill you can find a Dargah also. Kolar was jagir part of Great Maratha warior Shahaji Raje and Shivaji brother Sambhaji and kolar was part of chhatrapati shivaji swarajya territory in karnatka region. Ant
Chitradurga is a city and the headquarters of Chitradurga district, located on the valley of the Vedavati river in the southern part of the Indian state of Karnataka. It is located about 200 km from the state capital Bengaluru. Chitradurga gets its name from Chitrakaldurga, an umbrella-shaped lofty hill found here. Chitradurga was known by the names Chitradurg, Chittaldurg. Chittaldrug was the official name used during the British rule. Known as Farkhabad during Tippu sultan rule. Chitradurga features bold rock hills and picturesque valleys, huge towering boulders in numerous shapes, it is known as the "stone fortress". According to the epic Mahabharatha, it is not confirmed about this story that a man-eating Rakshasa named Hidimba and his sister Hidimbi lived on the hill. Hidimba was a source of terror to everyone; when the Pandavas came with their mother Kunti in the course of their exile, Bhima had a duel with Hidimba in which Hidimba was killed. Thereafter Bhima married. Legend has it the boulders were part of the arsenal used during that duel.
In fact, the boulders on which major part of the city rests belong to the oldest rock formation in the country. Timmana Nayaka, a chieftain under the Vijayanagar Empire, rose to the rank of governor of Chitradurga as a reward from the Vijayanagara ruler, for his excellence in military services; this was the beginning of the rule of the Nayakas of Chitradurga. His son Obana Nayaka is known by the name Madakari Nayaka. Madakari Nayaka's son Kasturi Rangappa succeeded him and consolidated the kingdom to rule peacefully; as he had no heirs to succeed him, his adopted son, the apparent heir was enthroned but was killed in few months by the Dalavayis. Chikkanna Nayaka, the brother of Madakari Nayaka II sat on the throne, his brother succeeded him with the title Madakari Nayaka III in 1686; the unwillingness of Dalawayis to accept Madakari Nayaka III's rule gave an opportunity to one of their distant relatives, Bharamappa Nayaka to ascend the throne in 1689. He is known as the greatest of the Nayaka rulers.
The subjects of Chitradurga did not experience a good reign of the successive rulers as they ruled on the throne for brief periods. The Hiri Madakari Nayaka IV, Kasturi Rangappa Nayaka II, Madakari Nayaka V ruled this area but there is not much to mention of their rule. During the reign of Madakari Nayaka, the town of Chitradurga was besieged by the troops of Hyder Ali. A chance sighting of a woman entering the Chitradurga fort through an opening in the rocks led to a clever plan by Hyder Ali to send his soldiers through the hole; the guard on duty near that hole had gone home for lunch. The wife of that guard, Obavva was passing by the hole to collect water, when she noticed soldiers emerging out of this opening. Obavva was not perturbed, she was carrying with her an Onake. She killed Hyder Ali's soldiers one by one as they attempted to enter the fort through the opening and moved the dead. Over a short period of time hundreds of soldiers fell, without raising any suspicion. Obavva's husband, upon his return from his lunch was shocked to see Obavva standing with a blood stained Onake and hundreds of dead bodies of the enemy around her.
Together both wife and husband beat up most of the soldiers. But as both of them were about to finish off all the soldiers of Hyder Ali, Obavva dies; the opening in the rocks still remains as a historical witness for the story, beside The Tanniru doni the well which Obavva was making her way to, when she found the soldieres of Hyder Ali. Though her brave attempt saved the fort on that occasion, Madakari Nayaka could not repel Hyder Ali's attack in 1779. In the ensuing battle, the fort of Chitradurga was lost to Hyder Ali. Obavva, like Kittur Rani Chennamma remains a legend to the women of Karnataka. Chitradurga is located at 14.23°N 76.4°E / 14.23. It has an average elevation of 732 metres. Chitradurga city is well connected to Bengaluru, Mangaluru, Hubballi, Bellary, Tumakuru, Belagavi...etc. by Bus through KSRTC. Both NH-48 & NH-13 meets at Chitradurga City. Chitradurga city is well connected to Bengaluru, Delhi, Hospet, Tumakuru...etc through Railways. Mardihalli Pillow lavas national geo-monument at Mardihalli village near Hiriyur has been declared the National Geological Monuments of India by the Geological Survey of India, for their protection, maintenance and enhancement of geotourism.
The climate here is considered to be a local steppe climate. During the year, there is little rainfall in Chitradurga; the Köppen-Geiger climate classification is BSh. The temperature here averages 25.3 °C. The rainfall here averages 576 mm; as of 2011 India census, Chitradurga had a population of 1,25,170. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Chitradurga has an average literacy rate of 76%, higher than the national average of 59.5%. 11% of the population is under 6 years of age. Chitradurga city is administered by the Chitradurga city municipal council. Chitradurga situated in a hilly region is known to experience wind currents throughout the year making it a suitable place to set up wind mills and wind farms. There are several Wind-Power based power plants located around Chitradurga and most of the hills are embellished with wind mills which can be seen while entering the city; these wind farms have a total installed capacity of 49.7 MW and comprise a