Fashion is a popular style in clothing, lifestyle, makeup and body. Fashion is a distinctive and constant trend in the style in which people present themselves. A fashion can become the prevailing style in behaviour or manifest the newest creations of designers, technologists and design managers; because the more technical term costume is linked to the term "fashion", the use of the former has been relegated to special senses like fancy-dress or masquerade wear, while the word "fashion" refers to clothing, including the study of clothing. Although aspects of fashion can be feminine or masculine, some trends are androgynous. High-flying trendsetters in fashion can aspire to the label haute couture. Early Western travelers, traveling whether to India, Turkey or China, would remark on the absence of change in fashion in those countries; the Japanese shōgun's secretary bragged to a Spanish visitor in 1609 that Japanese clothing had not changed in over a thousand years. However, there is considerable evidence in Ming China of changing fashions in Chinese clothing.
Changes in costume took place at times of economic or social change, as occurred in ancient Rome and the medieval Caliphate, followed by a long period without major changes. In 8th-century Moorish Spain, the musician Ziryab introduced to Córdoba sophisticated clothing-styles based on seasonal and daily fashions from his native Baghdad, modified by his own inspiration. Similar changes in fashion occurred in the 11th century in the Middle East following the arrival of the Turks, who introduced clothing styles from Central Asia and the Far East. Additionally, there is a long history of fashion in West Africa. Cloth was used as a form of currency in trade with the Portuguese and Dutch as early as the 16th Century. Locally produced cloth and cheaper European imports were assembled into new styles to accommodate the growing elite class of West Africans and resident gold and slave traders. There was an strong tradition of cloth-weaving in Oyo and the areas inhabited by the Igbo people; the beginning in Europe of continual and rapid change in clothing styles can be reliably dated.
Historians, including James Laver and Fernand Braudel, date the start of Western fashion in clothing to the middle of the 14th century, though they tend to rely on contemporary imagery and illuminated manuscripts were not common before the fourteenth century. The most dramatic early change in fashion was a sudden drastic shortening and tightening of the male over-garment from calf-length to covering the buttocks, sometimes accompanied with stuffing in the chest to make it look bigger; this created the distinctive Western outline of a tailored top worn over trousers. The pace of change accelerated in the following century, women and men's fashion in the dressing and adorning of the hair, became complex. Art historians are therefore able to use fashion with confidence and precision to date images to within five years in the case of images from the 15th century. Changes in fashion led to a fragmentation across the upper classes of Europe of what had been a similar style of dressing and the subsequent development of distinctive national styles.
These national styles remained different until a counter-movement in the 17th to 18th centuries imposed similar styles once again originating from Ancien Régime France. Though the rich led fashion, the increasing affluence of early modern Europe led to the bourgeoisie and peasants following trends at a distance, but still uncomfortably close for the elites – a factor that Fernand Braudel regards as one of the main motors of changing fashion. In the 16th century, national differences were at their most pronounced. Ten 16th century portraits of German or Italian gentlemen may show ten different hats. Albrecht Dürer illustrated the differences in his actual contrast of Nuremberg and Venetian fashions at the close of the 15th century; the "Spanish style" of the late 16th century began the move back to synchronicity among upper-class Europeans, after a struggle in the mid-17th century, French styles decisively took over leadership, a process completed in the 18th century. Though different textile colors and patterns changed from year to year, the cut of a gentleman's coat and the length of his waistcoat, or the pattern to which a lady's dress was cut, changed more slowly.
Men's fashions were derived from military models, changes in a European male silhouette were galvanized in theaters of European war where gentleman officers had opportunities to make notes of foreign styles such as the "Steinkirk" cravat or necktie. Though there had been distribution of dressed dolls from France since the 16th century and Abraham Bosse had produced engravings of fashion in the 1620s, the pace of change picked up in the 1780s with increased publication of French engravings illustrating the latest Paris styles. By 1800, all Western Europeans were dressing alike. Although tailors and dressmakers were no doubt responsible for many innovations, the textile industry led many trends, the history of fashion design is understood to date from 1858 when the English-born Charles Frederick Worth opened the first true haute couture house in Paris; the Haute house was the name established by government for the fashion houses that met the standards of industry. These fashion houses have to adhere to standards such as keeping at least twenty employees
The Windsor knot referred to as a Full Windsor or as a Double Windsor to distinguish it from the half-Windsor, is a method of tying a necktie. The Windsor knot, compared to other methods, produces a wide symmetrical triangular knot; the knot is thought to be named after the Duke of Windsor. It is however, that it was invented by his father, George V; the Duke preferred a wide knot and had his ties specially made with thicker cloth in order to produce a wider knot when tied with the conventional four-in-hand knot. The Windsor knot was invented to emulate the Duke's wide knot with ties made from normal thickness cloth; the Windsor knot is suited for a spread or cutaway collar that can properly accommodate a larger knot. For correct wear, the tie used for a Windsor knot should be about 4 centimetres or 1.6 inches longer than a conventional tie. When tied the knot is tight and does not slip away from the collar during wear, it is comfortable to wear, as the knot itself will hold the tie in place while still keeping space between the collar and the neck.
The knot is symmetrical, well-balanced, self-releasing. It is a large knot, which amply displays the fabric and design of the tie when wearing a closed jacket or coat, helps keep the throat area warm during the colder winter months. A large knot can distract attention away from the wearer's face. To tie the Windsor, place the tie around your neck and cross the broad end of the tie in front of the narrow end. Fold the broad end behind the narrow end and push it up through the inside of the loop around your neck; the left and right sides of the narrow end, the inside of the loop, now form a triangle. The third and fourth folds should complete one rotation around the outside of the knot; the fifth fold brings the broad end over the top of the knot from the front to the back. The sixth and seventh folds again complete one rotation around the knot; the eighth fold should again bring the broad end up over the top of the knot from behind. If the tie is unbalanced, untie the knot and try again giving yourself more or less length to work with.
In The 85 Ways to Tie a Tie, by Thomas Fink and Yong Mao, the Windsor knot is listed as "knot 31" and tied, in that book's notation, as follows: Li Co Ri Lo Ci Ro Li Co TFink and Mao list the following as common variations on the Windsor: Li Co Li Ro Ci Lo Ri Co T Li Co Ri Lo Ci Lo Ri Co T Li Co Li Ro Ci Ro Li Co T. The instructions for tying a Windsor knot are shown below. We assume; the figures below are mirror images. They are. At the beginning, the wide end of the tie should be on your right side and the other end should be on your left side. Cross the wide end over the other end. Now three regions are formed. Bring the wide end under the narrow end to the Center region. Bring the wide end over to the Right region. Bring the wide end underneath the narrow end from Right to Left. Bring the wide end up to the Center region. Bring the wide end under the knot from Center to Right. Bring the wide end over the front to the Left region. Bring the wide end under the narrow part from Left to Center. Bring the wide end down and pass the loop in front.
Ensure that the knot is tightened. Use one hand to pull the narrow end down and use the other hand to move the knot up until it reaches the center of the collar; the Windsor knot is the only tie knot, to be used by all personnel in the Royal Air Force and the Royal Air Force Cadets in the UK when wearing their black tie while in uniform. However, the Windsor Knot is frowned upon in other Armed Services or Regiments of the British Forces through its association with the Duke of Windsor, who became a potential pretender to the throne following his abdication; the Windsor and four-in-hand knots are authorized for use by all services of the Canadian Forces. In Ian Fleming's novel From Russia, with Love, Chapter 25 is entitled "A tie with a Windsor knot". James Bond, traveling on the Orient Express, is met by a supposed fellow British agent, who wears "the dark blue and red zigzagged tie of the Royal Artillery, tied with a Windsor knot". Fleming describes in detail Bond's reaction: "Bond mistrusted anyone who tied his tie with a Windsor knot.
It showed too much vanity. It was the mark of a cad". However, "Bond decided to forget his prejudice". Four-in-hand knot Half-Windsor or Single-Windsor List of knots Neckties at Curlie
A knot is an intentional complication in cordage which may be useful or decorative. Practical knots may be classified as hitches, splices, or knots. A hitch fastens a rope to another object. A knot in the strictest sense serves as a stopper or knob at the end of a rope to keep that end from slipping through a grommet or eye. Knots have excited interest since ancient times for their practical uses, as well as their topological intricacy, studied in the area of mathematics known as knot theory. There is a large variety of each with properties that make it suitable for a range of tasks; some knots are used to attach the rope to other objects such as another rope, ring, or stake. Some knots are used to constrict objects. Decorative knots bind to themselves to produce attractive patterns. While some people can look at diagrams or photos and tie the illustrated knots, others learn best by watching how a knot is tied. Knot tying skills are transmitted by sailors, climbers, cavers, rescue professionals, fishermen and surgeons.
The International Guild of Knot Tyers is an organization dedicated to the promotion of knot tying. Truckers in need of securing a load may use a trucker's hitch, gaining mechanical advantage. Knots can save spelunkers from being buried under rock. Many knots can be used as makeshift tools, for example, the bowline can be used as a rescue loop, the munter hitch can be used for belaying; the diamond hitch was used to tie packages on to donkeys and mules. In hazardous environments such as mountains, knots are important. In the event of someone falling into a ravine or a similar terrain feature, with the correct equipment and knowledge of knots a rappel system can be set up to lower a rescuer down to a casualty and set up a hauling system to allow a third individual to pull both the rescuer and the casualty out of the ravine. Further application of knots includes developing a high line, similar to a zip line, which can be used to move supplies, injured people, or the untrained across rivers, crevices, or ravines.
Note the systems mentioned require carabiners and the use of multiple appropriate knots. These knots include the bowline, double figure eight, munter hitch, munter mule, prusik and clove hitch, thus any individual who goes into a mountainous environment should have basic knowledge of knots and knot systems to increase safety and the ability to undertake activities such as rappelling. Knots can be applied in combination to produce complex objects such as netting. In ropework, the frayed end of a rope is held together by a type of knot called a whipping knot. Many types of textiles use knots to repair damage. Macramé, one kind of textile, is generated through the use of knotting, instead of knits, weaves or felting. Macramé can produce self-supporting three-dimensional textile structures, as well as flat work, is used ornamentally or decoratively. Knots weaken the rope; when knotted rope is strained to its breaking point, it always fails at the knot or close to it, unless it is defective or damaged elsewhere.
The bending and chafing forces that hold a knot in place unevenly stress rope fibers and lead to a reduction in strength. The exact mechanisms that cause the weakening and failure are complex and are the subject of continued study. Relative knot strength called knot efficiency, is the breaking strength of a knotted rope in proportion to the breaking strength of the rope without the knot. Determining a precise value for a particular knot is difficult because many factors can affect a knot efficiency test: the type of fiber, the style of rope, the size of rope, whether it is wet or dry, how the knot is dressed before loading, how it is loaded, whether the knot is loaded, so on; the efficiency of common knots ranges between 40—80% of the rope's original strength. In most situations forming loops and bends with conventional knots is far more practical than using rope splices though the latter can maintain nearly the rope's full strength. Prudent users allow for a large safety margin in the strength of rope chosen for a task due to the weakening effects of knots, damage, shock loading, etc.
The working load limit of a rope is specified with a significant safety factor, up to 15:1 for critical applications. For life-threatening applications, other factors come into play. If the rope does not break, a knot may still fail to hold. Knots that hold firm under a variety of adverse conditions are said to be more secure than those that do not. Repeated, dynamic loads will cause every knot to fail; the main ways knots fail to hold are: The load creates tension that pulls the rope back through the knot in the direction of the load. If this continues far enough, the working end fails; this behavior can worsen when the knot is strained and let slack, dragged over rough terrain, or struck against hard objects such as masts and flagpoles. With secure knots, slippage may occur when the knot is first put under real tension; this can be mitigated by leaving plenty of rope at the working end outside of the knot, by dressing the knot cleanly and tightening it as much as possible before loading. Sometimes, the use of a stopper knot or better, a backup knot can prevent the working end from passing through the knot.
Life-critical applications require backup knots to maximize safety. To capsize (or spil
A necktie, or a tie, is a long piece of cloth, worn by men, for decorative purposes around the neck, resting under the shirt collar and knotted at the throat. Variants include the ascot tie, bow tie, bolo tie, zipper tie, Knit Tie and clip-on tie; the modern necktie and bow tie are descended from the cravat. Neckties are unsized, but may be available in a longer size. In some cultures men and boys wear neckties as part of formal wear; some women wear them as well but not as as men. Neckties can be worn as part of a uniform, whereas some choose to wear them as everyday clothing attire. Neckties are traditionally worn with the top shirt button fastened, the tie knot resting between the collar points. There is a long history of neckwear worn by Persian soldiers, whether as part of a uniform or as a symbol of belonging to a particular group; some form of neckwear other than the outdoor scarf can be traced intermittently through many centuries. Historical studies indicate that the Croats started migrating from the Iranian homeland to Croatia and Bosnia about 3,000 years ago.
However, a much larger migration took place about 1,700 years ago. The believed explanation for this migration was the suppression of the followers of Manichean faith during the Sassanian era; the early immigrants called themselves Khoravat or Croat in order to distinguish with other tribes of that region. These Iranian-origin immigrants did something more to stress the difference: they tied a handkerchief around their necks, something which gained global popularity under the name of Cravat; the modern necktie that spread from Europe traces back to Croatian mercenaries serving in France during the Thirty Years' War. These mercenaries from the Croatian Military Frontier, wearing their traditional small, knotted neckerchiefs, aroused the interest of the Parisians; because of the difference between the Croatian word for Croats and the French word, the garment gained the name cravat. The boy-king Louis XIV began wearing a lace cravat around 1646, when he was seven, set the fashion for French nobility.
This new article of clothing started a fashion craze in Europe. From its introduction by the French king, men wore lace cravats, or jabots, that took a large amount of time and effort to arrange; these cravats were tied in place by cravat strings, arranged neatly and tied in a bow. International Necktie Day is celebrated on October 18 in Croatia and in various cities around the world, e.g. in Dublin, Tübingen, Tokyo and other towns. The Battle of Steenkerque took place in 1692. In this battle, the princes, while hurriedly dressing for battle, wound these cravats around their necks, they twisted the ends of the fabric together and passed the twisted ends through a jacket buttonhole. These cravats were referred to as Steinkirks. In 1715, another kind of neckwear, called "stocks" made its appearance; the term referred to a leather collar, laced at the back, worn by soldiers to promote holding the head high in a military bearing. The leather stock afforded some protection to the major blood vessels of the neck from saber or bayonet attacks.
General Sherman is seen wearing a leather stock in several American Civil War-era photographs. Stock ties were just a small piece of muslin folded into a narrow band wound a few times round the shirt collar and secured from behind with a pin, it was fashionable for the men to wear their hair past shoulder length. The ends were tucked into a black silk bag worn at the nape of the neck; this was known as the bag-wig hairstyle, the neckwear worn with it was the stock. The solitaire was a variation of the bag wig; this form had matching ribbons stitched around the bag. After the stock was in place, the ribbons would be brought forward and tied in a large bow in front of the wearer. Sometime in the late 18th century, cravats began to make an appearance again; this can be attributed to a group of young men called the macaronis. These were young Englishmen who returned from Europe and brought with them new ideas about fashion from Italy; the French contemporaries of the macaronis were the incroyables. At this time, there was much interest in the way to tie a proper cravat and this led to a series of publications.
This began in 1818 the publication of with Neckclothitania, a style manual that contained illustrated instructions on how to tie 14 different cravats. Soon after, the immense skill required to tie the cravat in certain styles became a mark of a man's elegance and wealth, it was the first book to use the word tie in association with neckwear. It was about this time, their popularity eclipsed the white cravat, except for evening wear. These remained popular through to the 1850s. At this time, another form of neckwear worn was the scarf; this was where a neckerchief or bandana was held in place by slipping the ends through a finger or scarf ring at the neck instead of using a knot. This may have been adopted from them. With the industrial revolution, more people wanted neckwear, easy to put on, was comfortable, would last an entire workday. Neckties were designed long and easy to knot, they did not come undone; this is the necktie design still worn by millions of men. By this time, the sometimes complicated array of knots and styles of neckwear gave way to the neckties and bow ties, the latter a much smaller, more convenient version of the cravat.
Another type of neckwear, the Ascot tie, was considered de rig
The small knot, or oriental knot or Kent knot, is the simplest method of tying a necktie, though some claim the simple knot is an alternative name for the four-in-hand knot. The small knot is not well known despite its simplicity. One of the reasons may be that the small knot is not self-releasing, may annoy people accustomed to four-in-hand and Windsor knots who pull at the tie to untangle the knot. Additionally, some prefer that, if the thin end of the tie should become visible, that it not be "inside out", the small knot will be this way. Using the notation from The 85 Ways to Tie a Tie, the knot is tied Lo Ri Co T. Four-in-hand knot Pratt knot Half-Windsor knot Windsor knot List of knots Neckties at Curlie
The four-in-hand knot is a method of tying a necktie. It is known as a simple knot or schoolboy knot, due to its simplicity and style; some reports state that carriage drivers tied their reins with a four-in-hand knot, while others claim that the carriage drivers wore their scarves in the manner of a four-in-hand, but the most etymology is that members of the Four-in-Hand Club in London began to wear the neckwear, making it fashionable. The knot produced by this method is on the narrow side, notably asymmetric, appropriate for most, but not all occasions. For United States Army uniforms, United States Navy uniforms that include a necktie, the four-in-hand knot is one of three prescribed options for tying the necktie, the other two being the half-Windsor and Windsor; the four-in-hand knot is tied by placing the tie around the neck and crossing the broad end of the tie in front of the narrow end. The broad end is folded behind the narrow end and brought forward on the opposite side, passed across the front horizontally, folded behind the narrow end again, brought over the top of the knot from behind, tucked behind the horizontal pass, the knot pulled snug.
The knot is slid up the narrow end of the tie until snug against the collar. Using the notation of The 85 Ways to Tie a Tie, by Thomas Fink and Yong Mao, the four-in-hand knot is tied Li Ro Li Co T. In more utilitarian settings, the four-in-hand knot is known as the buntline hitch, it was used by sailors throughout the age of sail for the rigging of ships and remains a useful working knot today. Although topologically identical, when the knot is made in the manner used to fasten a flat necktie, it appears somewhat different from when tied in cylindrical cordage for load-bearing purposes. A variant of the four-in-hand, with the long end of the tie passed back around and above the just-tied knot, was employed by Aristotle Onassis, who caused it to become fashionable in some circles. Fink and Mao record this variant as Knot 2on. Small knot – a lesser known but somewhat simpler necktie knot Half-Windsor knot – a more symmetric and broader knot Windsor knot – a more symmetric and bulkier knot List of knots Neckties at Curlie