San Francisco the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. San Francisco is the 13th-most populous city in the United States, the fourth-most populous in California, with 884,363 residents as of 2017, it covers an area of about 46.89 square miles at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, making it the second-most densely populated large US city, the fifth-most densely populated U. S. county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. San Francisco is part of the fifth-most populous primary statistical area in the United States, the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area; as of 2017, it was the seventh-highest income county in the United States, with a per capita personal income of $119,868. As of 2015, San Francisco proper had a GDP of $154.2 billion, a GDP per capita of $177,968. The San Francisco CSA was the country's third-largest urban economy as of 2017, with a GDP of $907 billion.
Of the 500+ primary statistical areas in the US, the San Francisco CSA had among the highest GDP per capita in 2017, at $93,938. San Francisco was ranked 14th in the world and third in the United States on the Global Financial Centres Index as of September 2018. San Francisco was founded on June 29, 1776, when colonists from Spain established Presidio of San Francisco at the Golden Gate and Mission San Francisco de Asís a few miles away, all named for St. Francis of Assisi; the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856. San Francisco's status as the West Coast's largest city peaked between 1870 and 1900, when around 25% of California's population resided in the city proper. After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a major port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater.
It became the birthplace of the United Nations in 1945. After the war, the confluence of returning servicemen, significant immigration, liberalizing attitudes, along with the rise of the "hippie" counterculture, the Sexual Revolution, the Peace Movement growing from opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, other factors led to the Summer of Love and the gay rights movement, cementing San Francisco as a center of liberal activism in the United States. Politically, the city votes along liberal Democratic Party lines. A popular tourist destination, San Francisco is known for its cool summers, steep rolling hills, eclectic mix of architecture, landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge, cable cars, the former Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary, Fisherman's Wharf, its Chinatown district. San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Gap Inc. Fitbit, Salesforce.com, Reddit, Inc. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation and Weather Underground.
It is home to a number of educational and cultural institutions, such as the University of San Francisco, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco State University, the De Young Museum, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the California Academy of Sciences. As of 2019, San Francisco is the highest rated American city on world liveability rankings; the earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. The Yelamu group of the Ohlone people resided in a few small villages when an overland Spanish exploration party, led by Don Gaspar de Portolà, arrived on November 2, 1769, the first documented European visit to San Francisco Bay. Seven years on March 28, 1776, the Spanish established the Presidio of San Francisco, followed by a mission, Mission San Francisco de Asís, established by the Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the mission system ended, its lands became privatized.
In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, near a boat anchorage around what is today Portsmouth Square. Together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War, Captain John B. Montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, Mexico ceded the territory to the United States at the end of the war. Despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography; the California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers. With their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849; the promise of great wealth was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor.
Some of these 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels.
Half Moon Bay State Beach
Half Moon Bay State Beach is a 4-mile stretch of protected beaches in the state park system of California, USA, on Half Moon Bay. From north to south it comprises Roosevelt, Dunes and Francis Beaches; the 181-acre park was established in 1956. The broad, sandy beaches are used for sunbathing and picnicking. A campground provides accommodations for those; this Pacific Ocean beach, located south of Pillar Point Harbor and the town of Princeton-by-the-Sea, is used by surfers, who utilize its unusual waves that are influenced by reflective action from the harbor jetty. At the north end of the bay there is a county park in the lee of Pillar Point Harbor with a well-maintained trail that allows hikers and bikers access to the ocean below the point; some of the tallest surf in California occurs offshore of Pillar Point following big storms. The area is famous for the annual Mavericks Surf Contest. Francis Beach has a campground with 52 individual sites. RV hookups are not available; the Native American culture of the Ohlone people lived along the San Mateo County coast for many thousands of years, in small and scattered villages because of the limited availability of food.
The native way of life changed during the late 18th century when the first Europeans arrived. The first European land exploration of Alta California, the Spanish Portolà expedition, passed through the area on its way north, camping on October 28–29, 1769 near the shore either at Frenchman Creek or Pilarcitos Creek, both of which reach the bay along this beach. Franciscan missionary Juan Crespi described nearby Pillar Point in his diary, "In this place there are many geese, for this reason the soldiers named it the plain of'Los Ansares'. From the camp the...point lies to the north-northwest, the high rocks look like two thick Farallones of an irregular and pointed shape."With the founding of Mission Dolores in 1776, the San Mateo coast area came into use for grazing of mission livestock. Following secularization of the missions in 1834, most mission lands were subdivided into large grants called ranchos. Cattle ranching was the primary agricultural activity, the hide and tallow trade was the main economic activity.
South of Pilarcitos Creek, the beach was part of Rancho Miramontes, granted in 1841. To the north of Pilarcitos Creek was Rancho Corral de Tierra, granted in 1839; the first Americans arrived in this area in the 1850s. The Mexican settlement known as Spanishtown, a commercial center for the rancheros, was called "Halfmoon" by these Anglos. In 1867 the local post office was identified as "Halfmoon Bay", the spelling was changed to Half Moon Bay in 1905. Agriculture developed in Half Moon Bay by the turn of the 20th century, with crops such as brussels sprouts and mushrooms along with dairy products; the Ocean Shore Railroad was incorporated in 1905 and was running along the coast from Half Moon Bay to San Francisco by the end of 1908. During the 1920s the gentle beaches of Half Moon Bay were ideally suited for the needs of the bootlegger. Rum Ships cruised off shore, unloading millions of dollars worth of illegal booze across Half Moon Bay where Francis Beach was a perfect spot for unloading the cargo.
During World War II an army post was set up at the beach to protect from Japanese invasion and bombing raids, further north bunkers and long range cannons were built to support the coastline. Half Moon Bay State Beach is well known for its rare western snowy plover colony. A variety of fish species have been identified in the marine environment, the most abundant fish including flatfish, the commercially important English sole, surfperch, Pacific herring, herring. Poplar Beach, a municipal beach south of the State Beach, open to horses and leashed dogs. List of beaches in California List of California state parks Half Moon Bay State Beach
Santa Clara County, California
Santa Clara County the County of Santa Clara, is California's 6th most populous county, with a population of 1,781,642, as of the 2010 census. The county seat and largest city is San Jose, the 10th most populous city in the United States and California's 3rd most populous city. Home to Silicon Valley, Santa Clara County is an economic center for high technology and has the third highest GDP per capita in the world, according to the Brookings Institution; the county's concentration of wealth due to the tech industry, has made it the most affluent county on the West Coast of the United States and one of the most affluent places in America. Santa Clara County is part of the San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area. Located at the southern end of the San Francisco Bay, the urbanized Santa Clara Valley within Santa Clara County is known as Silicon Valley. Santa Clara is the most populous county in the San Francisco Bay Area and in Northern California, is one of the most affluent counties in the United States.
Santa Clara County is named for Mission Santa Clara, established in 1777 and was in turn named for Saint Clare of Assisi. Santa Clara County was one of the original counties of California, formed in 1850 at the time of statehood; the original inhabitants included the Ohlone, residing on Calaveras Creek. Part of the county's territory was given to Alameda County in 1853. In 1882, Santa Clara County tried to levy taxes upon property of the Southern Pacific Railroad within county boundaries; the result was the U. S. Supreme Court case of Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad, 118 U. S. 394, in which the Court extended Due Process rights to artificial legal entities. In the early 20th Century, the area was promoted as the "Valley of the Heart's Delight" due to its natural beauty, including a significant number of orchards; the first major technology company to be based in the area was Hewlett-Packard, founded in a garage in Palo Alto in 1939. IBM selected San Jose as its West Coast headquarters in 1943.
Varian Associates, Fairchild Semiconductor, other early innovators were located in the county by the late 1940s and 1950s. The U. S. Navy had a large presence in the area and began giving large contracts to Silicon Valley electronics companies; the term "Silicon Valley" was coined in 1971. The trend accelerated in the 1980s and 1990s, agriculture has since been nearly eliminated from the northern part of the county. Today, Santa Clara County is the headquarters for 6500 high technology companies, including many of the largest tech companies in the world, among them hardware manufacturers AMD, Cisco Systems and Intel and consumer electronics companies Apple Inc. and Hewlett-Packard, internet companies eBay and Yahoo!. Most of what is considered to be Silicon Valley is located within the county, although some adjoining tech regions in San Mateo and Santa Cruz counties are considered a part of Silicon Valley. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,304 square miles, of which 1,290 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water.
Counties which border with Santa Clara County are, Santa Cruz County, San Mateo County, San Joaquin, Stanislaus and San Benito. Santa Clara County shared borders with Contra Costa, Monterey, Turlock counties until 1853, 1874, 1854 respectively; the San Andreas Fault runs along the Santa Cruz Mountains in the west of the county. Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge In 1978, California Department of Fish and Game warden Henry Coletto urged the department to choose the Mount Hamilton area as one of California's relocation sites under a new statewide effort to restore tule elk. While other ranchers refused, tech pioneers Bill Hewlett and David Packard allowed Coletto and state biologists to translocate 32 tule elk from the Owens Valley in the eastern Sierra onto the 28,000-acre San Felipe Ranch, which the families jointly own, in the hills east of Morgan Hill. From the three original 1978–1981 translocations to the Mount Hamilton region of the Diablo Range, there are multiple herds in different locations including the Isabel Valley, San Antonio Valley, Livermore area, San Felipe Ranch, Metcalf Canyon, Coyote Ridge, Anderson Lake, surrounding areas.
As of 2012, an estimated 400 tule elk roam 1,875 square kilometres in northeastern Santa Clara County and southeastern Alameda County. As of 2017 there are four herds in the Coyote Ridge area visible from U. S. Highway 101, according to Craige Edgerton retired executive director of the Silicon Valley Land Conservancy and local naturalist Michael Hundt; the Nature Conservancy "Mount Hamilton Project" has acquired or put under conservation easement 100,000 acres of land towards its 500,000 acres goal for habitat conservation within a 1,200,000 acres area encompassing much of eastern Santa Clara County as well as portions of southern Alameda County, western Merced and Stanislaus Counties, northern San Benito County. Acquisitions to date include the 1,756-acre Rancho Cañada de Pala, straddling the Alameda Creek and Coyote Creek watersheds for California tiger salamander habitat.
Mavericks is a surfing location in northern California outside Pillar Point Harbor, just north of the town of Half Moon Bay at the village of Princeton-by-the-Sea. After a strong winter storm in the northern Pacific Ocean, waves can crest at over 25 feet and top out at over 60 feet. Waves that break can be recorded on seismometers; the break is caused by an unusually shaped underwater rock formation. Mavericks is a winter destination for some of the world's best big wave surfers. An invitation-only contest is held there most winters. In early March 1967, Alex Matienzo, Jim Thompson, Dick Notmeyer surfed the distant waves of Pillar Point. With them was Matienzo's roommate's white-haired German Shepherd, accustomed to swimming with his owner and Matienzo while they were surfing; the three surfers left Maverick on shore. Finding the conditions unsafe for the dog, Matienzo tied him up before rejoining the others; the riders had limited success that day as they surfed overhead peaks about 1/4 mile from shore, just along the rocks that are visible from shore.
The surfers named the location after Maverick, who seemed to have gotten the most pleasure from the experience. Sea-floor maps released by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in 2007 revealed the mechanisms behind Mavericks' waves. A long, sloping ramp leads to the surface; the ramp slows the propagation of the wave over it. The wave over the deep troughs on each side of the ramp continues at full speed forming two angles in the wavefront centered over the boundaries between the ramp and the troughs; the result of this is a U-shaped or V-shaped wavefront on the ramp that contains the wave energy from the full width of the ramp. This U-shaped or V-shaped wave collapses into a small area at the top center of the ramp with tremendous force; the left at Mavericks is ridden, as the wave tends to be unreliable. It can be a much faster ride than the right, shooting riders down a quicker pipe barrel. Surfline says the left is "a short-lived explosion of hell and spitfire." Jeff Clark grew up in Half Moon Bay, watching Mavericks from Half Moon Bay High School and Pillar Point.
At that time the location was thought too dangerous to surf. He conceived the possibility of riding Hawaii-sized waves in Northern California. In 1975 at age 17 and with the waves topping out at 20–24 feet, Clark paddled out alone to face the break, he caught multiple left-breaking waves, thereby becoming the first documented person to tackle Mavericks head-on. Other than a few of Clark's friends who had paddled out and seen Mavericks themselves, no big wave surfers believed in its existence. Popular opinion held that there were no large waves in California. Dave Schmidt and Tom Powers, both from Santa Cruz, were two of the next people to surf at Mavericks, surfing with Clark on January 22, 1990. John Raymond, from Pacifica, Johathan Galili, from Tel Aviv and Mark Renneker, from San Francisco, surfed Mavericks a few days later. In 1990, a photo of Mavericks taken by Clark's friend Steve Tadin was published in Surfer magazine; this triggered interest in Mavericks. More photos of Mavericks appeared in surfing magazines, before long, filmmaker Gary Medeiros released a movie, Waves of Adventure in the Red Triangle.
As news of Mavericks spread, many big-wave surfers surfed there. On December 23, 1994, during a week of huge swells, notable Hawaiian big-wave riders Mark Foo, Ken Bradshaw, Brock Little, Mike Parsons, Evan Slater visited Mavericks. In the late morning, Foo rode on a late takeoff into an 18-foot wave, caught the edge of his surfboard on the surface, fell forward into a wipe out near the bottom of the wave. A few hours a fellow surfer traveling back to shore on a boat noticed a body in the water, identified as Foo; the only visible injury was a small cut on the forehead. Many surfers believe that the fall knocked the wind out of Foo and he was tied down by his leash to a rock formation. News of Foo's death traveled to the far reaches of the surfing community; the accident afforded Mavericks greater notoriety and prompted the formation of the Mavericks Water Patrol by Frank Quirarte and Clark. The accident triggered a continuing discourse around the safe use of surfboard leashes while surfing extreme waves.
Many believed. Leash proponents defend it as a useful convenience and as insurance against losing the surfboard, a form of flotation device, a means for a fallen surfer to find the surface by following the leash cord to the buoyant board. Opponents argue that a leash can cause the rider to collide with his board in a wipe out and that the leash can loop around the surfer's arms, legs or the neck when underwater. Quick-release velcro leashes have since become standard surfing equipment to address some of these risks. Sion Milosky, an accomplished big-wave surfer, died at Mavericks on March 16, 2011. Milosky, 35, of Kalaheo, Hawaii drowned after enduring a two-wave hold down around 6:30 PM. Twenty minutes after the incident, Nathan Fletcher found Milosky's body floating at the Pillar Point Harbor mouth. Milosky had been named the North Shore Underground Surfer of the Year in February 2011, he used some of his $25,000 prize to travel to Half Moon Bay to catch one of the last big swells of the season at Mavericks.
The first surfing contest at Mavericks, now known as Mavericks Invitational, was held in 1999, has been held nine times through 2014. The organizers invite 24 big wave surfers annually to compete in the one-day event, but it is only held if wave conditions a
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl
The lingcod or ling cod known as the buffalo cod or cultus cod, is a fish of the greenling family Hexagrammidae. It is the only extant member of the genus Ophiodon. A larger, extinct species, Ophiodon ozymandias, is known from fossils from the Late Miocene of Southern California. Ophiodon elongatus is native to the North American west coast from Shumagin Islands in the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California, Mexico, it has been observed up to a weight of 59 kilograms. It is spotted in various shades of grey; the lingcod is a popular eating fish, is thus prized by anglers. Though not related to either ling or cod, the name "lingcod" originated because it somewhat resembles those fish. Around 20% of lingcods have blue-green to turquoise flesh.p. 298 The colour is destroyed by cooking. The colour may be due to biliverdin. Lingcod are endemic to the west coast of North America, with the center of abundance off the coast of British Columbia, they are found on the bottom, with most individuals occupying rocky areas at depths of 10 to 100 m.
Tagging studies have shown lingcod are a nonmigratory species, with colonization and recruitment occurring in localized areas only. Starting in October, lingcod migrate to nearshore spawning grounds; the males migrate first, establish nest sites in strong current areas in rock crevices or on ledges. Spawning takes place between December and March, females leave the nest site after depositing eggs. Males defend the nest from predators until the eggs hatch in early March through late April; the larvae are pelagic until early June, when they settle to the bottom as juveniles. They inhabit eelgrass beds move to flat, sandy areas that are not the typical habitat of older lingcod, they settle in habitats of similar relief and substrate as older lingcod, but remain at shallower depths for several years. Females and males mature at age three to two years of age, respectively. An adult male can be distinguished externally from a female by the presence of a small, conical papilla behind the anal vent. Up to age two and females grow at similar rates, with both reaching an average length of 45 centimetres.
After age two, females grow faster than males, with the growth of males tapering off at about age eight, females continuing to grow until about age 12 to 14. Lingcod live a maximum of about 36 years. Off the coast of Alaska, many reach 70 pounds. Lingcod are voracious predators, feeding on nearly anything they can fit in their mouths, including invertebrates and many species of fish, such as herring and Pacific hake. One of their favorite foods is smaller octopuses, they readily devour large rockfish. Lingcod that survive the larval stages have few predators themselves, are vulnerable to marine mammals, such as sea lions and harbor seals. In 1977, Dr. Dick Beamish and Doris Chilton of the Pacific Biological Station published an article showing that cross sections of the fourth to eighth fin rays from the second dorsal fin provided a method for estimating the age of lingcod; this method has since been validated by a mark-recapture study in which lingcod received an injection of oxytetracycline.
Other methods of aging, such as those using scales and otoliths, were found to underestimate ages for older fish. Ages are determined from fins in much the same manner as for other aging structures: sections of varying thickness are examined under a microscope, the annuli, or rings, that are formed for each year of growth are counted and used to estimate the age; the cross sections must be made at right angles to the length of the fin ray, it is therefore important that fins be dried flat, with the cut surface at right angles to the fin rays. In addition, the distance the section is cut from the fin ray base is important, so all fins should be collected with the bases intact. One problem associated with using fin rays to age older fish is the center may be resorbed, resulting in the loss of the first two annuli, it is therefore necessary to determine an average width for the first two annuli by examining the fins from juvenile fish. This measurement can be used to estimate the position of the third annulus on older fish.
This article incorporates material from Oceans Canada. This reproduction was not done in affiliation with or with the endorsement of Fisheries and Oceans Canada. Lingcod NOAA FishWatch. Retrieved 5 November 2012
Guadalupe River (California)
The Guadalupe River mainstem is an urban, northward flowing 14 miles river in California whose much longer headwater creeks originate in the Santa Cruz Mountains. The river mainstem now begins on the Santa Clara Valley floor when Los Alamitos Creek exits Lake Almaden and joins Guadalupe Creek just downstream of Coleman Road in San Jose, California. From here it flows north through San Jose, where it receives a major tributary; the Guadalupe River serves as the eastern boundary of the City of Santa Clara and the western boundary of Alviso, after coursing through San José, it empties into south San Francisco Bay at the Alviso Slough. The Guadalupe River is the southernmost major U. S. river with a Chinook salmon run. Much of the river is surrounded by parks; the river's Los Alamitos and Guadalupe Creek tributaries are, in turn, fed by smaller streams flowing from Almaden Quicksilver County Park, home to former mercury mines dating back to when the area was governed by Mexico. The Guadalupe River watershed carries precipitation from the slopes of Loma Prieta and Mount Umunhum, the two major peaks of the Sierra Azul, the historical Spanish name for that half of the Santa Cruz Mountains south of California Highway 17.
Two of the Guadalupe River's major tributaries, Los Gatos Creek and Guadalupe Creek have their sources in the Sierra Azul Open Space Preserve on the western and eastern flanks of the Sierra Azul. The Guadalupe River was named by the Juan Bautista de Anza Expedition on March 30, 1776, Río de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe, in honor of the Virgin of Guadalupe, the principal patron saint of the expedition. Juan Bautista de Anza camped along the banks of the Guadalupe River at Expedition Camp 97 on March 30, 1776 near the present-day site of Agnews State Hospital; the historic de Anza Expedition explored much of Santa Clara County, traversing western areas en route from Monterey to San Francisco, traveling around the south end of San Francisco Bay and thence through the eastern portions of the county on the return trip after exploration of parts of the East Bay. In 1777, the original Mission Santa Clara de Thamien and el Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe were established on the banks of Mission Creek, un tiro de escopeta from its confluence with the Guadalupe River.
Both had to be moved away from the river because of mosquitoes in the summertime and flooding during the winter. Today Santa Clara Mission is 2 miles away from the original location; the Guadalupe River was shorter, originating several miles further north, at the downstream end of a large willow swamp, now Willow Glen. Its main tributary was known as Arroyo Seco de Guadalupe on 1860 maps and as Arroyo Seco de Los Capitancillos on the 1876 Thompson & West maps. On July 9, 2005, the fossilized bones of a juvenile Columbian mammoth were discovered by San Jose resident, Roger Castillo, in the Lower Guadalupe River near the Trimble Road overcrossing. Roger founded the Salmon and Steelhead Restoration Group conservation organization and has served as a Board member of the Guadalupe–Coyote Resource Conservation District; the Pleistocene mammoth was nicknamed "Lupe" by area residents and Lupe's fossils are exhibited at Children's Discovery Museum of San Jose. The Guadalupe River flowed into Guadalupe Slough, 1.0 mile west of its current drainage into Alviso Slough.
To make it easier to get sailboats up the Guadalupe River to the port of Alviso, the river was redirected into the straighter Alviso Slough by the 1870s. Alviso Slough known as Steamboat Slough was straight, while Guadalupe Slough meandered extensively through the marshes. Alviso Slough was not fed by any upland streams, but carried tidewater in and out of the extensive salt marshes; the re-routing of the river to Alviso Slough in the 1870s disconnected it from several tributaries, had the effect of shrinking the Guadalupe River Watershed. San Tomas Aquino Creek and its Saratoga Creek tributary and Calabazas Creek, used to enter the Guadalupe River upstream of Alviso; these tributaries were disconnected from the river and re-routed directly into Guadalupe Slough between 1876 and 1890 according to historic maps. Saratoga Creek had steelhead and coho salmon runs. Large portions of the tributaries of the river were straightened and armored starting in the late 19th century and continuing through the 20th century first by farmers and by the Santa Clara Valley Water District and its predecessor organizations.
They now go dry in the summer months and their lower segments have become denuded ditches requiring continuous maintenance. Mission Creek used to harbor trout and salmon but today it is buried in a culvert; the historic watershed can be viewed in the West 1876 maps. The Guadalupe Watershed today drains an area of 171 square miles. Below its origination at the confluence of Guadalupe Creek and Los Alamitos Creek, the mainstem is joined by three other tributaries: Ross and Los Gatos Creeks; the SCVWD manages water flows and provides flood control on the river, has started to promote watershed stewardship. Six major reservoirs exist in the watershed: Calero Reservoir on Calero Creek, Guadalupe Reservoir on Guadalupe Creek, Almaden Reservoir on Alamitos Creek, Vasona Reservoir, Lexington Reservoir, Lake Elsman on Los Gatos Creek. Ending nine years of study and passionate debate about the future of the San Jose/Alviso waterfront, the Santa Clara Valley Water District in November, 2009 voted to approve a $6 million project to clear bul