The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of the Earths oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west, the Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 metres. Both the center of the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean, the oceans current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favourable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means peaceful sea, important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan and therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but apparently not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims.
In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality, from 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean. The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and he named it Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. Later, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific East to West on a Castilian expedition of world circumnavigation starting in 1519, Magellan called the ocean Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters. The ocean was often called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century, sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands, the Aru Islands, and Papua New Guinea. In 1542–43 the Portuguese reached Japan, in 1564, five Spanish ships consisting of 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi and sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands.
The Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries linking Manila and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history, Spanish expeditions discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, and the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the 16th and 17th century Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a Mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers, as the only known entrance from the Atlantic the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western end of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines, Spain sent expeditions to the Pacific Northwest reaching Vancouver Island in southern Canada, and Alaska. The French explored and settled Polynesia, and the British made three voyages with James Cook to the South Pacific and Australia and the North American Pacific Northwest, one of the earliest voyages of scientific exploration was organized by Spain in the Malaspina Expedition of 1789–1794.
It sailed vast areas of the Pacific, from Cape Horn to Alaska and the Philippines, New Zealand and the South Pacific. Growing imperialism during the 19th century resulted in the occupation of much of Oceania by other European powers, and later, Japan, in Oceania, France got a leading position as imperial power after making Tahiti and New Caledonia protectorates in 1842 and 1853 respectively. After navy visits to Easter Island in 1875 and 1887, Chilean navy officer Policarpo Toro managed to negotiate an incorporation of the island into Chile with native Rapanui in 1888, by occupying Easter Island, Chile joined the imperial nations
The Brussels sprout is a member of the Gemmifera Group of cabbages, grown for its edible buds. The leafy green vegetables are typically 2. 5–4 cm in diameter, the Brussels sprout has long been popular in Brussels and may have originated and gained its name there. Forerunners to modern Brussels sprouts were likely cultivated in Ancient Rome, Brussels sprouts as they are now known were grown possibly as early as the 13th century in what is now Belgium. The first written reference dates to 1587, during the 16th century, they enjoyed a popularity in the Southern Netherlands that eventually spread throughout the cooler parts of Northern Europe. Brussels sprouts grow in temperature ranges of 7–24 °C, with highest yields at 15–18 °C, fields are ready for harvest 90 to 180 days after planting. The edible sprouts grow like buds in helical patterns along the side of long, thick stalks of about 60 to 120 cm in height, each stalk can produce 1.1 to 1.4 kg, although the commercial yield is about 900 g per stalk.
Harvest season in temperate zones of the northern latitudes is September to March, in the home garden, harvest can be delayed as quality does not suffer from freezing. Sprouts are considered to be sweetest after a frost, Brussels sprouts are a cultivar group of the same species as cabbage, in the same family as collard greens, broccoli and kohlrabi, they are cruciferous. Many cultivars are available, some being purple in colour, such as Ruby Crunch or Red Bull, in Continental Europe, the largest producers are the Netherlands, at 82,000 metric tons, and Germany, at 10,000 tons. The United Kingdom has production comparable to that of the Netherlands, production of Brussels sprouts in the United States began in the 18th century, when French settlers brought them to Louisiana. The first plantings in Californias Central Coast began in the 1920s, the harvest season lasts from June through January. Total American production is approximately 32,000 tons, with a value of $27 million, about 80% to 85% of US production is for the frozen food market, with the remainder for fresh consumption.
Once harvested, sprouts last three to five weeks under ideal near-freezing conditions before wilting and discolouring, and about half as long at refrigerator temperature, American varieties are generally 2. 5–5 cm in diameter. Brussels sprouts, as with broccoli and other brassicas, contain sulforaphane, although boiling reduces the level of sulforaphane and stir frying do not result in significant loss. Consuming Brussels sprouts in excess may not be suitable for patients taking anticoagulants such as warfarin since they contain vitamin K, in one reported incident, eating too many Brussels sprouts precipitated hospitalization for an individual on blood-thinning therapy. The most common method of preparing Brussels sprouts for cooking begins with cutting the buds off the stalk, any surplus stem is cut away, and any loose surface leaves are peeled and discarded. Once cut and cleaned, the buds are typically cooked by boiling, stir frying, grilling, to ensure even cooking throughout, buds of a similar size are usually chosen.
Some cooks will make a cut or a cross in the center of the stem to aid the penetration of heat
A mushroom is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source. These gills produce microscopic spores that help the fungus spread across the ground or its occupant surface, by extension, the term mushroom can designate the entire fungus when in culture, the thallus of species forming the fruiting bodies called mushrooms, or the species itself. Identifying mushrooms requires an understanding of their macroscopic structure. Their spores, called basidiospores, are produced on the gills, at the microscopic level the basidiospores are shot off basidia and fall between the gills in the dead air space. As a result, for most mushrooms, if the cap is cut off and placed gill-side-down overnight, the color of the powdery print, called a spore print, is used to help classify mushrooms and can help to identify them. Spore print colors include white, black, purple-brown, pink and creamy, but almost never blue, green, or red. The presence of juices upon breaking, bruising reactions, tastes, shades of color, habit and smelling mushrooms carries its own hazards because of poisons and allergens.
Chemical tests are used for some genera. In general, identification to genus can often be accomplished in the using a local mushroom guide. However, over-mature specimens lose features and cease producing spores, many novices have mistaken humid water marks on paper for white spore prints, or discolored paper from oozing liquids on lamella edges for colored spored prints. Typical mushrooms are the bodies of members of the order Agaricales, whose type genus is Agaricus and type species is the field mushroom. Other mushrooms are not gilled, so the mushroom is loosely used. Some have pores underneath, others have spines, such as the mushroom and other tooth fungi. Mushroom has been used for polypores, jelly fungi, coral fungi, bracket fungi, thus, the term is more one of common application to macroscopic fungal fruiting bodies than one having precise taxonomic meaning. Approximately 14,000 species of mushrooms are described, the terms mushroom and toadstool go back centuries and were never precisely defined, nor was there consensus on application.
Between 1400 and 1600 AD, the terms mushrom, muscheron, mussheron, the term mushroom and its variations may have been derived from the French word mousseron in reference to moss. However, delineation between edible and poisonous fungi is not clear-cut, so a mushroom may be edible, cultural or social phobias of mushrooms and fungi may be related. The term fungophobia was coined by William Delisle Hay of England, the word toadstool has apparent analogies in Dutch paddestoel and German Krötenschwamm
The opossums, known as possums, are marsupial mammals of the order Didelphimorphia /daɪˌdɛlfᵻˈmɔːrfiə/). The largest order of marsupials in the Western Hemisphere, it comprises 103 or more species in 19 genera, opossums originated in South America, and entered North America in the Great American Interchange following the connection of the two continents. Their unspecialized biology, flexible diet, and reproductive habits make them successful colonizers and survivors in diverse locations and conditions, the word opossum is borrowed from the Powhatan language and was first recorded between 1607 and 1611 by John Smith and William Strachey. Both men encountered the language at the British settlement of Jamestown, stracheys notes describe the opossum as a beast in bigness of a pig and in taste alike, while Smith recorded it hath an head like a swine. Tail like a rat. of the bigness of a cat, the Powhatan word ultimately derives from a Proto-Algonquian word meaning white dog or dog-like beast. The opossum is known as a possum, particularly in the Southern United States.
Didelphimorphia refers to the fact that, like all marsupials, these animals have two wombs, didelphimorphs are small to medium-sized marsupials, ranging in size from a small mouse to a large house cat. They tend to be omnivores, although there are many exceptions. Most members of this taxon have long snouts, a braincase. By mammalian standards, this is an unusually full jaw, the incisors are very small, the canines large, and the molars are tricuspid. Didelphimorphs have a stance and the hind feet have an opposable digit with no claw. Like some New World monkeys, opossums have prehensile tails, like all marsupials, the fur consists of awn hair only, and the females have a pouch. The tail and parts of the feet bear scutes, the stomach is simple, with a small cecum. Notably, the male opossum has a forked penis bearing twin glandes, opossums have a remarkably robust immune system, and show partial or total immunity to the venom of rattlesnakes and other pit vipers. Opossums are about eight times less likely to carry rabies than wild dogs, although all living opossums are essentially opportunistic omnivores, different species vary in the amount of meat and vegetation they include in their diet.
Members of the Caluromyinae are essentially frugivorous, whereas the lutrine opossum, the yapok is particularly unusual, as it is the only living semi-aquatic marsupial, using its webbed hindlimbs to dive in search of freshwater mollusks and crayfish. As a marsupial, the female opossum has a system that includes a bifurcated vagina, a divided uterus and a marsupium. The average estrous cycle of the opossum is about 28 days, opossums do possess a placenta, but it is short-lived, simple in structure, unlike that of placental mammals, is not fully functional
The European rabbit or common rabbit is a species of rabbit native to southwestern Europe and northwest Africa. It has been introduced elsewhere, often with devastating effects on local biodiversity. However, its decline in its range, has caused the decline of its highly dependent predators, the Iberian lynx. It is known as a species because it has been introduced to countries on all continents with the exception of Antarctica. Australia has the most problems with European rabbits, due to the lack of natural predators there, the European rabbit is well known for digging networks of burrows, called warrens, where it spends most of its time when not feeding. Unlike the related hares, rabbits are altricial, the young being born blind and furless, in a fur-lined nest in the warren, much of the modern research into wild rabbit behaviour was carried out in the 1960s by two research centres. One was the naturalist Ronald Lockley, who maintained a number of enclosures for wild rabbit colonies, with observation facilities, in Orielton.
The other group was the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation in Australia, the European rabbit is a smallish, grey-brown mammal, although it ranks as medium-sized by lagomorph standards. It ranges from 34 to 50 cm in length, not counting a tail of 4 to 8 cm, weight can range from approximately 1.1 to 2.5 kg. As a lagomorph, it has four sharp incisors that grow throughout its life. Rabbits have long ears, large hind legs, and short and they move by hopping, using their long and powerful hind legs. To facilitate quick movement, a hind feet have a thick padding of fur to dampen the shock of rapid hopping. Their toes are long, and are webbed to keep from spreading apart as the animal jumps, rabbits are social animals, living in medium-sized colonies known as warrens. They are largely crepuscular, being most active around dawn and dusk, during the day, rabbits prefer to reside in vegetated patches, which they use for protection from predators. At night, they move into open prairie to feed, rabbit populations seem to be greatest in ecotone habitats and less in scrublands or grasslands.
Rabbits in grasslands are preyed on by carnivores, ecotone rabbits are preyed on by both. Rabbits require at least 55% water content in their diet to reproduce successfully, rabbits are essentially mixed-feeders, both grazing and browsing, but grass is their primary food source. They nevertheless have a diet of grasses, buds, tree bark
A beach is a landform along a body of water. It usually consists of particles, which are often composed of rock, such as sand, shingle, pebbles. The particles comprising a beach are occasionally biological in origin, such as shells or coralline algae. Some beaches have man-made infrastructure, such as posts, changing rooms. They may have hospitality venues nearby, wild beaches, known as undeveloped or undiscovered beaches, are not developed in this manner. Wild beaches can be valued for their beauty and preserved nature. Beaches typically occur in areas along the coast where wave or current action deposits, although the seashore is most commonly associated with the word beach, beaches are found by lakes and alongside large rivers. Beach may refer to, small systems where rock material moves onshore, offshore, or alongshore by the forces of waves and currents, the former are described in detail below, the larger geological units are discussed elsewhere under bars. There are several parts to a beach that relate to the processes that form.
The part mostly above water, and more or less influenced by the waves at some point in the tide, is termed the beach berm. The berm is the deposit of material comprising the active shoreline, the berm has a crest and a face — the latter being the slope leading down towards the water from the crest. At the very bottom of the face, there may be a trough, at some point the influence of the waves on the material comprising the beach stops, and if the particles are small enough, winds shape the feature. Where wind is the force distributing the grains inland, the deposit behind the beach becomes a dune and these geomorphic features compose what is called the beach profile. The beach profile changes seasonally due to the change in energy experienced during summer and winter months. In temperate areas where summer is characterised by calmer seas and longer periods between breaking wave crests, the profile is higher in summer. The gentle wave action during this season tends to transport sediment up the beach towards the berm where it is deposited, onshore winds carry it further inland forming and enhancing dunes.
Conversely, the profile is lower in the storm season due to the increased wave energy. The removal of sediment from the berm and dune thus decreases the beach profile
Northern fur seal
The northern fur seal is an eared seal found along the north Pacific Ocean, the Bering Sea, and the Sea of Okhotsk. It is the largest member of the fur seal subfamily and the living species in the genus Callorhinus. A single fossil species, Callorhinus gilmorei, is known from the Pliocene of Japan, Northern fur seals have extreme sexual dimorphism, with males being 30–40% longer and more than 4.5 times heavier than adult females. The head is foreshortened in both sexes because of the short, down-curved muzzle, and small nose, which extends slightly beyond the mouth in females. The pelage is thick and luxuriant, with a dense underfur in a creamy color, the underfur is obscured by the longer guard hairs, although it is partially visible when the animals are wet. Features of both fore and hind flippers are unique and diagnostic of the species, Fur is absent on the top of the fore flippers and an abrupt clean line is seen across the wrist where the fur ends. The hind flippers are proportionately the longest in any otariid because of extremely long, small claws are on digits 2–4, well back from the flap-like end of each digit.
The ear pinnae are long and conspicuous, and naked of dark fur at the tips in older animals, the mystacial vibrissae can be very long, and regularly extend beyond the ears. The eyes are large and conspicuous, especially on females, subadults. Adult males are stocky in build, and have enlarged necks, a mane of coarse, longer guard hairs extends from the lower neck to the shoulders. And covers the nape, neck and upper back, adult males have abrupt foreheads formed by the elevation of the crown from development of the sagittal crests, and thicker fur of the mane on the top of their heads. Canine teeth are longer and have a greater diameter in adult males than those found on adult females. Adult females and juveniles are moderate in build, distinguishing the sexes is difficult until about age five. The body is modest in size and the neck, adult females and subadults have more complex and variable coloration than adult males. They are dark silver-gray to charcoal above, the flanks, chest and underside of the neck, often forming a chevron pattern in this area, are cream to tan with rusty tones.
Variable cream to rust-colored areas are on the sides and top of the muzzle, chin, in contrast, adult males are medium gray to black, or reddish to dark brown all over. Their manes can have variable amounts of silver-gray or yellowish tinting on the guard hairs, pups are blackish at birth, with variable oval areas of buff on the sides, in the axillary area, and on the chin and sides of the muzzle. After three to four months, pups molt to the color of females and subadults
San Mateo County, California
San Mateo County is a county located in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 718,451, the county seat is Redwood City. San Mateo County is included in the San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, and is part of the San Francisco Bay Area and it covers most of the San Francisco Peninsula. San Francisco International Airport is located at the end of the county. The countys built-up areas are mostly suburban with some areas being very urban, San Mateo County was formed in 1856 after San Francisco County, one of the states 18 original counties since Californias statehood in 1850, was split apart. Until 1856, San Franciscos city limits extended west to Divisadero Street and Castro Street, in response to the lawlessness and vigilantism that escalated rapidly between 1855 and 1856, the California government decided to divide the county. A straight line was drawn across the tip of the San Francisco Peninsula just north of San Bruno Mountain.
The consolidated city-county of San Francisco was formed by an introduced by Horace Hawes. San Mateo County was officially organized on 18 April 1857 under a bill introduced by Senator T. G, San Mateo County annexed part of northern Santa Cruz County in March 1868, including Pescadero and Pigeon Point. Although the forming bill named Redwood City the county seat, a May 1856 election marked by unblushing frauds, perpetuated on an unorganized and wholly unprotected community by thugs and ballot stuffers from San Francisco named Belmont the county seat. The election results were declared illegal and the county government was moved to Redwood City, Redwood Citys status as county seat was upheld in two succeeding elections in May 1861 and 9 December 1873, defeating San Mateo and Belmont. Another election in May 1874 named San Mateo the county seat, but the supreme court overturned that election on 24 February 1875. San Mateo County bears the Spanish name for Saint Matthew, until about 1850, the name appeared as San Matheo.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 741 square miles. It is the third-smallest county in California by land area, a number of bayside watercourses drain the eastern part of the county including San Bruno Creek and Colma Creek. Streams draining the county include Frenchmans Creek, Pilarcitos Creek, Naples Creek, Arroyo de en Medio. These streams originate along the spur of the Santa Cruz Mountains that run through the county. San Mateo County straddles the San Francisco Peninsula, with the Santa Cruz Mountains running its entire length, the county encompasses a variety of habitats including estuarine, oak woodland, redwood forest, coastal scrub and oak savannah
The raccoon, sometimes spelled racoon, known as the common raccoon, North American raccoon, northern raccoon and colloquially as coon, is a medium-sized mammal native to North America. The raccoon is the largest of the family, having a body length of 40 to 70 cm. Its grayish coat mostly consists of dense underfur which insulates it against cold weather, two of the raccoons most distinctive features are its extremely dexterous front paws and its facial mask, which are themes in the mythology of several Native American ethnic groups. Raccoons are noted for their intelligence, with studies showing that they are able to remember the solution to tasks for up to three years, the diet of the omnivorous raccoon, which is usually nocturnal, consists of about 40% invertebrates, 33% plant foods, and 27% vertebrates. As a result of escapes and deliberate introductions in the century, raccoons are now distributed across mainland Europe, Caucasia. Though previously thought to be solitary, there is now evidence that raccoons engage in social behavior.
Home range sizes vary anywhere from 3 hectares for females in cities to 5,000 hectares for males in prairies, after a gestation period of about 65 days, two to five young, known as kits, are born in spring. The kits are subsequently raised by their mother until dispersal in late fall, although captive raccoons have been known to live over 20 years, their life expectancy in the wild is only 1.8 to 3.1 years. In many areas and vehicular injury are the two most common causes of death, the word raccoon was adopted into English from the native Powhatan term, as used in the Virginia Colony. It was recorded on Captain John Smiths list of Powhatan words as aroughcun and it has been identified as a Proto-Algonquian root *ahrah-koon-em, meaning one who rubs and scratches with its hands. Similarly, Spanish colonists adopted the Spanish word mapache from the Nahuatl mapachitli of the Aztecs, in French and European Portuguese, the washing behavior is combined with these languages term for rat, respectively, raton laveur and ratão-lavadeiro.
The colloquial abbreviation coon is used in words like coonskin for fur clothing and in phrases like old coon as a self-designation of trappers. In the 1830s, the U. S. Whig Party used the raccoon as an emblem, causing them to be known as coons by their political opponents. Soon after that it became an ethnic slur, especially in use between 1880 and 1920, and the term is considered offensive. In 1780, Gottlieb Conrad Christian Storr placed the raccoon in its own genus Procyon and it is possible that Storr had its nocturnal lifestyle in mind and chose the star Procyon as eponym for the species. Based on fossil evidence from France and Germany, the first known members of the family Procyonidae lived in Europe in the late Oligocene about 25 million years ago. Similar tooth and skull structures suggest procyonids and weasels share a common ancestor, after the then-existing species crossed the Bering Strait at least six million years in the early Miocene, the center of its distribution was probably in Central America.
Coatis and raccoons have been considered to share common descent from a species in the genus Paranasua present between 5.2 and 6.0 million years ago
Mexicans are the people of the United Mexican States, a multiethnic country in North America. Mexicans can be those who identify with the Mexican cultural and/or national identity, the Mexica founded Mexico-Tenochtitlan in 1325 as an altepetl located on an island in Lake Texcoco, in the Valley of Mexico. It became the capital of the expanding Mexica Empire in the 15th century, at its peak, it was the largest city in the Pre-Columbian Americas. It subsequently became a cabecera of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, today the ruins of Tenochtitlan are located in the central part of Mexico City. In 2015,21. 5% of Mexicos population in Mexico self-identify as being indigenous, there are about 12 million Mexican nationals residing outside of Mexico, with about 11.7 million living in the United States. The larger Mexican diaspora can include individuals that trace ancestry to Mexico, the Nahuatl language was a common tongue in the region of modern Central Mexico during the Aztec Empire, but after the arrival of Europeans the common language of the region became Spanish.
Mexicano is derived from the word Mexico itself, in the principal model to create demonyms in Spanish, the suffix -ano is added to the name of the place of origin. Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from the Nahuatl words for Moon and this meaning might refer to Tenochtitlans position in the middle of Lake Texcoco. The system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, still another hypothesis suggests that it is derived from Mēctli, the goddess of maguey. The term Mexicano as a word to describe the different peoples of the region of Mexico as a group emerged in the 16th century. In that time the term did not apply to a nationality nor to the limits of the modern Mexican Republic. The document stated, el venturoso descubrimiento que los Mexicanos han hecho, Mexican politicians and reformers such as José Vasconcelos and Manuel Gamio were instrumental in building a Mexican national identity on the concept of mestizaje. The word has somewhat pejorative connotations and most of the Mexican citizens who would be defined as mestizos in the sociological literature would probably self-identify primarily as Mexicans, in Chiapas the word Ladino is used instead of mestizo.
White Mexicans are Mexican citizens of full European descent, another group in Mexico, the mestizos, include people with varying amounts of European ancestry, with some having a European admixture superior to 90%. Because of this, the line between whites and mestizos has become rather blur, and the Mexican government decided to abandon racial classifications. Intermixing would produce a group which would become the majority by the time of Independence. However, at its height, the immigrant population in Mexico never exceeded twenty percent of the total. Many of these came with money to invest and/or ties to allow them to become prominent in business
California sea lion
The California sea lion is a coastal eared seal native to western North America. It is one of five species of sea lion and its natural habitat ranges from southeast Alaska to central Mexico, including the Gulf of California. Sea lions are sexually dimorphic, males are larger than females and they mainly haul-out on sandy or rocky beaches, but they frequent manmade environments such as marinas and wharves. Sea lions feed on a number of species of fish and squid, California sea lions have a polygynous breeding pattern. From May to August, males establish territories and try to attract females with which to mate, females are free to move in between territories, and are not coerced by males. Mothers nurse their pups in between foraging trips, sea lions communicate with numerous vocalizations, notably with barks and mother-pup contact calls. Outside of their season, sea lions spend much of their time at sea. Sea lions are particularly intelligent, can be trained to various tasks. Because of this, California sea lions are a choice for public display in zoos and oceanariums.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature lists the species as Least Concern due to its abundance, predation by California sea lions on threatened or endangered salmon species at Bonneville Dam has resulted in more than 50 of them being killed by state officials. The California sea lion was described by René Primevère Lesson, a French naturalist and it is grouped with other sea lions and fur seals in the family Otariidae. Otariids, known as eared seals, differ from true seals in having external ear flaps and this refers to the protruding sagittal crest of the males, which distinguishes members of the genus. Traditionally, the Galapagos sea lion and Japanese sea lion were classified as subspecies of the California sea lion, however, a genetic study in 2007 found that all three are in fact separate species. The lineages of the California and Japanese sea lion appear to have split off 2.2 million years ago during the Pliocene, the California sea lion differs from the Galapagos sea lion in its greater sexual dimorphism.
The Steller sea lion is the closest extant relative of the Zalophus sea lions, being sexually dimorphic, California sea lions differ in size and coloration between the sexes. Males are typically around 2.4 m long and weigh up to 350 kg, while females are typically around 1.8 m, females and juveniles have a tawny brown pelage, although they may be temporarily light gray or silver after molting. The pelage of adult males can be anywhere from light brown to black, the face of adult males may be light tan in some areas. Pups have a black or dark brown pelage at birth, although the species has a slender build, adult males have robust necks and shoulders