Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Peder Henrik Kristian Zahrtmann, known as Kristian Zahrtmann, was a Danish painter. He was a part of the Danish artistic generation in the late 19th century, along with Peder Severin Krøyer and Theodor Esbern Philipsen, who broke away from both the strictures of traditional Academicism and the heritage of the Golden Age of Danish Painting, in favor of naturalism and realism, he was known for his history paintings, those depicting strong, legendary women in Danish history. He produced works of many other genres including landscapes, street scenes, folk scenes and portraits, he had a far-reaching effect on the development of Danish art through his effective support of individual style among his students during the many years he taught. In addition, his bold use of color dazzled contemporaries and has been seen as an anticipation of Expressionism by art historians, he was born in Rønne, Denmark, on the island of Bornholm to chief doctor for the island Carl Vilhelm Zahrtmann and wife Laura Pauline.
He was the oldest child among two girls. After graduating from Rønne Realskole at seventeen years of age, he was sent to Sorø Academy, where he studied painting with landscape painter Johannes Georg Smith Harder, he was a guest at the home of the Academy’s Director, poet Bernhard Severin Ingemann and his wife, where he had the chance to socialize with teachers of the school and other guests, such as Hans Christian Andersen. He graduated in 1862, received his cand. phil in 1863. During these years he lived with a family whose daughter was a painter, which inspired him to try his luck as an artist. After graduating he came to Copenhagen, where during the winter 1863-1864 he studied drawing at the Technical Institute under Christian Hetsch and architect Ferdinand Vilhelm Jensen, he received private instruction from genre painter Wenzel Ulrich Tornøe during this same time. He began his studies in October 1864 at the Royal Danish Academy of Art where he studied under Johan Adolph Kittendorff, Wilhelm Marstrand, Jørgen Roed, Niels Simonsen, Frederik Vermehren, a fellow graduate of Sorø Academy.
Classmates included August Jerndorff, Peder Severin Krøyer, Rasmus Frederik Hendriksen. He graduated from the Academy in 1868, exhibited for the first time at Charlottenborg the following year with "En Konfirmandinde paa Bornholm", he exhibited at Charlottenborg 1869-1891, sporadically afterwards. He became friends with painter Otto Haslund and Pietro Købke Krohn Museum Director, with whom he shared a studio, he had become interested in the story of the heroic 17th century daughter of a Danish king, Leonora Christina Ulfeldt, before the 1869 posthumous publication of her 1674 autobiographical narrative Jammers Minde, which he had received as a birthday gift from Haslund and Krohn. Countess Leonora Christina of Schleswig-Holstein, King Christian IV's daughter by his morganatic love marriage to a noble Danish maiden, had fallen from grace because of her husband Corfits Ulfeldt's high treason, she was imprisoned for 22 years in the Blue Tower in Copenhagen Castle, spent her final years in the solitude of the Maribo Cloister.
Zahrtmann commemorated her story in a series of 18 large paintings over many years. The first of these paintings was made public in 1871, Slotsfogden skjæmter med Kvinderne i den nylig fængslede Kongedatters Kammer paa Blaataarn; the painting won him a Neuhausen Prize, was sold to Niels Laurits Høyen's influential Art Union, was followed by a series of other paintings on the same theme. These paintings established his reputation as one of the leading artists of his time. Other pictures in the series include: Leonora Christina forlader Fængselet. At the same time he explored other motifs, although Leonora Christina was an obsession that followed him throughout life. In 1872 he made a portrait of Georg Brandes, who summered near Zahrtmann at Christiansholm near Klampenborg north of Copenhagen. In 1873 he won another Neuhausen Prize for Sigbrit gennemgår toldregnskaberne med Christian II, exhibited a preparatory painting for Job og hans Venner, which won him the Academy’s gold medallion; the final painting of "Job and His Friends" is considered one of his masterpieces and won him the Academy’s gold medallion in 1887.
In 1873 he painted "Scene from the Court of Christian VII 1772" to retell the tragic story of Queen Caroline Matilda on the centenniel of the fall of Johann Friedrich Struensee. The painting is in the Hirschsprung Collection. Characteristically for Zahrtmann, he made several other paintings over the years depicting the story of these figures, he tried to extract a travel stipend from the Academy three times, which should have been due him as winner of the large gold medal, but the funds were n
Project Gutenberg is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks". It is the oldest digital library. Most of the items in its collection are the full texts of public domain books; the project tries to make these as free as possible, in long-lasting, open formats that can be used on any computer. As of 23 June 2018, Project Gutenberg reached 57,000 items in its collection of free eBooks; the releases are available in plain text but, wherever possible, other formats are included, such as HTML, PDF, EPUB, MOBI, Plucker. Most releases are in the English language, but many non-English works are available. There are multiple affiliated projects that are providing additional content, including regional and language-specific works. Project Gutenberg is closely affiliated with Distributed Proofreaders, an Internet-based community for proofreading scanned texts. Project Gutenberg was started by Michael Hart in 1971 with the digitization of the United States Declaration of Independence.
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Knud Larsen Bergslien was a Norwegian painter, art teacher and master artist. In his art, he portrayed the lives of the Norwegian people, their history and heroes of the past. Bergslien is most associated with his historical paintings Skiing Birchlegs Crossing the Mountain with the Royal Child. Knud Larsen Bergslien was born in Hordaland, Norway, his parents were Kirsten Knutsdotter Gjelle. Knud Bergslien was the brother of sculptor Brynjulf Bergslien and uncle of painter and sculptor Nils Bergslien. Monuments honoring the three famous Bergslien artists now exist in Bergslien park located in Voss, Hordaland. Knud Bergslien enlisted in the army when he was 18 years old, but his unusual gift for drawing was soon noticed. After having been a student at the artist Hans Reusch's school of drawing in Bergen, he continued his studies abroad. Bergslien studied in Antwerpen from 1844 to 1852, in Paris from 1850 to 1851 and Düsseldorf from 1855 to 1869, he belonged to the Düsseldorf school of painting and was associated with follow artists Hans Fredrik Gude and Adolph Tidemand.
Norwegian artist Johan Fredrik Eckersberg had established an art school on Lille Grensen in Christiania in 1859. After his death in 1870, the school would be continued by Knud Bergslien together with Morten Müller. Knud Bergslien served as the director of. A whole generation of Norwegian painters became his students, among them Harriet Backer, Edvard Munch, Ragnvald Hjerlow; some of his students emigrated to America including the Norwegian-American artists, Lars Jonson Haukaness, Carl L. Boeckmann and Herbjørn Gausta. Today, Bergslien is most associated with his historical paintings Skiing Birchlegs Crossing the Mountain with the Royal Child, his depiction of Birkebeiner skiers carrying Prince Haakon to safety during the winter of 1206 has become a national Norwegian icon. The prince grew up to be King Haakon IV whose reign marked the end of the period known as the Civil war era in Norway. Bergslien was honored by the Oscar II, King of Sweden and Norway with the Order of Vasa, an esteemed order of Knighthood, for his 1875 painting titled The Crowning of King Oscar II in the Nidaros Cathedral.
Bergslien’s work is represented the National Gallery of Norway. Andreas Bloch Carl L. Boeckmann Hans Dahl Halfdan Egedius Herbjørn Gausta Andrea Gram Nils Hansteen Lars Jonson Haukaness Ragnvald Hjerlow Kristen Holbø Morten Müller Gerhard Munthe Lars Osa Eyolf Soot Gustav Wentzel Dagestad, Magnus Dei tre Bergsli-kunstnarane Voss, the Bergslien Track O. Væring photo agency archives
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Harriet Backer was a Norwegian painter who achieved recognition in her own time and was a pioneer among female artists both in the Nordic countries and in Europe generally. She is best known for her detailed interior scenes, communicated with rich colors and the interplay of light and shadow. Backer was one of four daughters born to an affluent family at Holmestrand in Norway, her parents were Nils Backer and Sofie Smith Petersen, she was the aunt of the painter Astri Welhaven Heiberg. Her father was a shipping merchant, her family moved to Christiania in 1856. She attended Hartvig Nissen School. At 12, she first took lessons in painting, notably with Joachim Calmeyer, she studied with art instructor Johan Fredrik Eckersberg, in Berlin with Alphons Holländer, with artist Christen Brun and attended the painting school of Knud Bergslien. She was a student of Eilif Peterssen in Munich, she was Jean-Léon Gérôme in Paris. Additionally she traveled extensively as a companion to her sister, noted concert pianist Agathe Backer Grøndahl, on her concert tours throughout Europe.
She took further lessons in the course of these trips. From 1880 to 1888, she stayed in Paris where she shared a studio with fellow Norwegian artist, Kitty Lange Kielland, she was associated with Salon Marie Trélat in Paris. In 1888, she settled in Sandvika, outside of Christiania. From 1889 until 1912, she operated an art school and was an influence on a number of younger artists including Marie Hauge, Lars Jorde and Henrik Lund, she gave art lessons to the novelist Cora Sandel. Backer produced just around 180 works of art based upon local themes, her work was both thorough. In 1880, she debuted in Paris with the painting Solitude, in 1883 exhibited Blått interiør at the Autumn Exhibition in Oslo, she was influenced by impressionism. She never belonged to any school but her work is compared with that of her contemporary Eilif Peterssen. Backer worked in the tradition of realism in painting, where she is regarded as both a naturalist and an early Impressionist, she was awarded the Schäffers legat 1878, 1879 and 1880.
She won a silver medal at the Exposition Universelle. Backer exhibited her work at the Palace of Fine Arts at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois. From 1907 until his death in 1925, she received an annual private grant from wealthy industrialist and patron of the arts, Olaf Fredrik Schou, she received the King's Medal of Merit in Gold in 1908. In 1912, she was awarded the Petter Dass Metal. In 1925, she was made a Knight 1st class in the Order of St. Olav. Backer was buried at Vår Frelsers gravlund in Oslo. Ada Madssen designed a bronze statue of Harriet Backer and her sister Agathe Backer Grøndahl, erected in 1982 in their hometown of Holmestrand. Several of the largest museums and art collections in Norway exhibit art by Backer, including the National Museum in Oslo, Bergen Museum and Rasmus Meyers Collection at the Bergen Kunstmuseum in Bergen. Backer was included in the 2018 exhibit Women in Paris 1850-1900. Christening in Tanum Church Harriet Backer collection at the National Museum Lange, Marit Ingeborg Harriet Backer ISBN 978-82-05-19301-7 Lange, Marit Ingeborg Harriet Backer, 1845-1932, Kitty L. Kielland, 1843-1914 ISBN 978-82-990568-5-4 Kielland, Else Christie Harriet Backer, 1845-1932 Durban, Arne Paintings from Norway: Popular pictures by Harriet Backer, Frits Thaulo, Gerhard Munthe and Theodor Kittelsen Lone, Erling Harriet Backer: med en skildring av barndoms