1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Texas State Highway 70
State Highway 70 is a state highway in Texas. The route runs 315 miles from US 277 near Blackwell to US 83 south of Perryton. SH 70 begins in far northeastern Coke County at a junction with US 277 north of Bronte; the highway soon crosses into Nolan County, where it serves as the northern terminus of SH 153. The first large city along SH 70's route is Sweetwater. SH 70 intersects SH 92 in Rotan. Continuing north into Kent County, the route begins a concurrency with US 380 that lasts until Jayton. In Dickens County, SH 70 serves as the northern terminus of SH 208 and passes through the east and north side of Spur before reaching Dickens and an intersection with US 82 / SH 114. After heading due north from here, the route enters Motley County and passes through the town of Roaring Springs; the next major city along the route is Matador, where US 70 intersect one another. After leaving Matador, SH 70 enters Hall County, where it has a brief concurrency with SH 86 through Turkey; the highway briefly turns to the northwest and enters Briscoe County, beginning a brief concurrency with SH 256, before turning to the west and reentering Hall County.
SH 70 resumes a more northerly path into Donley County, has a short concurrency with US 287 through Clarendon. After the two routes separate, SH 70 heads due north to a junction with Interstate 40 at its Exit #124, near the Donley–Gray County line. Northbound SH 70 is concurrent with the freeway for about 3.5 mi before the routes split at IH 40 Exit #121. SH 70 continues north into Pampa, where it intersects US 60 and has a half-mile duplex with SH 152. After leaving Pampa, the route turns more to the north-northeast, enters the sparsely-populated Roberts County, where its only intersections are with a few farm to market roads that connect to the county seat of Miami. SH 70 enters Ochiltree County and reaches its northern terminus at US 83 south of Perryton. While the current official route description of SH 70 indicates a concurrency with US 83 to a junction with SH 15 in Perryton, that roadway is presently signed only as US 83, which agrees with TxDOT's County Map Book, signage in Perryton at the SH 15 junction with US 83 directs traffic to SH 70 using "TO SH 70" markers.
SH 70 was designated on August 21, 1923 from Aspermont to San Angelo along a portion of the original SH 4, shifted farther east. On October 13, 1925, it was routed through Robert Lee. On September 18, 1929, SH 70 was rerouted to bypass Robert Lee. Part became SH 70A, but Robert Lee to San Angelo was cancelled, but restored as SH 208 on July 16, 1934. On December 1, 1930, the route had been rerouted north to Jayton, replacing SH 161 and a small portion of SH 84.. On September 26, 1939, SH 70 was extended north from Jayton to Dickens, absorbing a portion of SH 18. Significant extension came on October 10, 1947, when SH 70 was extended to Perryton in the northern Panhandle. On February 12, 1948, US 277 was rerouted to a more westerly alignment between Abilene and San Angelo and the section from just south of Blackwell to near San Angelo was transferred to that route. On September 27, 1957, SH 70 was shifted to a more westerly alignment in Dickens, Loop 120 was extended along the old route of SH 70 through the city.
A spur, SH 70A, was designated on September 1929 from Robert Lee east to Bronte. This route was renumbered as SH 158 on March 19, 1930. On September 27, 1985, Texas State Highway Loop 549 was designated as a bypass of SH 70 in Sweetwater and was signed, but not designated, as SH 70, the old route was signed as a business route. On June 21, 1990, SH 70 was designated on Loop 549, the old route of SH 70 became a business route, cancelling Loop 549. SH 70 has one business route, Business SH 70-G in Sweetwater, a former alignment of the state highway through that city; the route was designated in 1990, when SH 70 was rerouted along the south and east side of the city to use the I-20 freeway. The business route is concurrent with BL I-20 through downtown Sweetwater. Junction listThe entire route is in Sweetwater, Nolan County
Muenster is a German Catholic city in western Cooke County, United States, along U. S. Route 82; the population was 1,544 at the 2010 census. In 1887, the Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railroad constructed a line from Gainesville to Henrietta that passed through the site that would become Muenster; the town was subsequently founded in 1889 by German Catholic settlers Carl and Emil Flusche, who invited other German Catholics to join them. The town was to be called "Westphalia", but since the name Westphalia, was taken, Muenster was selected instead in honor of Münster, the capital of Westphalia, but these cities are not sister-cities. Many residents still spoke German in day-to-day life up until the First World War, after which the language was no longer taught in the schools and declined in use. With more than 90% of the population German and Catholic, the city has preserved many German customs, still produces traditional foods at the local meat market and Bäckerei. An annual festival in April, includes beer, BBQ, German food and bike and footraces.
A Christkindlmarkt is held each year on Thanksgiving weekend. Catholicism was so important to the early settlers that they built a school before a church was established; that school, Sacred Heart Catholic School, still exists today, along with the public Muenster Independent School District. Muenster is located in western Cooke County at 33°39′03″N 97°22′32″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.5 square miles, of which 2.3 acres, or 0.14%, is covered by water. As of the census of 2000, 1,556 people, 588 households, 401 families resided in the city; the population density was 1,209.3 people per square mile. The 628 housing units averaged 488.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.62% White, 0.13% Native American, 0.51% Asian, 0.71% from other races, 1.03% from two or more races. About 2.19% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 588 households, 35.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.1% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.8% were not families.
Around 28.9% of all households were made up of individuals, 17.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.20. In the city, the population was distributed as 29.5% under the age of 18, 6.0% from 18 to 24, 26.9% from 25 to 44, 18.3% from 45 to 64, 19.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $39,125, for a family was $48,000. Males had a median income of $29,688 versus $22,697 for females; the per capita income for the city was $20,638. About 4.3% of families and 5.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.7% of those under age 18 and 8.1% of those age 65 or over. Augustine Danglmayr, Auxiliary Bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Dallas, was born in Muenster; the climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters.
According to the Köppen climate classification system, Muenster has a humid subtropical climate, Cfa on climate maps. City of Muenster official website Muenster from the Handbook of Texas Online
Donley County, Texas
Donley County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 3,677, its county seat is Clarendon. The county was created in 1876 and organized in 1882. Donley County was established in 1876 from land given by the Bexar District, it is named for justice of the state supreme court. There are several historical sites listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Donley County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 933 square miles, of which 927 square miles are land and 5.6 square miles are covered by water. Interstate 40 U. S. Highway 287 State Highway 70 State Highway 273 Gray County Collingsworth County Hall County Briscoe County Armstrong County Wheeler County As of the census of 2000, 3,828 people, 1,578 households, 1,057 families resided in the county; the population density was four people per square mile. The 2,378 housing units averaged 3 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 91.41% White, 3.94% Black or African American, 0.89% Native American, 0.10% Asian, 2.72% from other races, 0.94% from two or more races.
About 6.35% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 1,578 households, 24.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.70% were married couples living together, 7.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.00% were not families. About 31.40% of all households were made up of individuals, 17.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.86. In the county, the population was distributed as 22.40% under the age of 18, 9.80% from 18 to 24, 20.60% from 25 to 44, 25.50% from 45 to 64, 21.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,006, for a family was $37,287. Males had a median income of $24,375 versus $18,882 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,958. About 10.50% of families and 15.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.90% of those under age 18 and 15.90% of those age 65 or over.
The Saints' Roost Museum in Clarendon is dedicated to the American West. The Harold Dow Bugbee Ranch owned by the Western artist and his second wife, Olive Vandruff Bugbee an artist, is located in Donley County; the legendary cattle baron Charles Goodnight spent his years in Donley County. It was the home of historian Harley True Burton, author of A History of the JA Ranch, which Goodnight co-owned. Burton was president of Clarendon College and the mayor of Clarendon from 1955 to 1963; the JA Ranch is located in the counties of Donley, Hall and Armstrong. U. S. Highway 287, which runs through the county, no longer offers wi-fi; the rest area offers sanctuary from weather offering a tornado shelter in the main building. Clarendon Hedley Howardwick Lelia Lake Aviation historian Randy Acord U. S. Representative Mac Thornberry List of museums in the Texas Panhandle National Register of Historic Places listings in Donley County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Donley County Donley County in Handbook of Texas Online at the University of Texas Donley County Donley County Profile from the Texas Association of Counties
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government