Harry Winston, Inc.
Harry Winston, Inc. is an American luxury jeweler and producer of Swiss timepieces. Harry Winston is an owned subsidiary of The Swatch Group. Named after its founder, the jeweler Harry Winston, the company has its headquarters in New York, Harry Winston opened its first store in 1932. After the death of the founder, Harry Winston, the company went to his two sons and Bruce, who entered into a decade-long battle over the control of the company. In 2000, Ronald along with new partner, Fenway Partners. In 2010–2011, the sales were €246 million in total sales. The company got a new CEO, Frederic de Narp, on January 14,2013, Harry Winston, Inc announced that it has entered into an agreement to sell its luxury brand diamond jewelry and timepiece division, Harry Winston Inc. to The Swatch Group Ltd. The transaction included the brand and all the related to jewelry and watches, including the 535 employees worldwide. The company bought the blue diamond The Winston Blue on 15 May 2014. New York Times article on Harry Winston Paris store heist
The Smithsonian Institution, established in 1846 for the increase and diffusion of knowledge, is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States. Originally organized as the United States National Museum, that ceased to exist as an administrative entity in 1967. Additional facilities are located in Arizona, Massachusetts, New York City, Virginia, more than 200 institutions and museums in 45 states, Puerto Rico, and Panama are Smithsonian Affiliates. The Institutions thirty million annual visitors are admitted without charge and its annual budget is around $1.2 billion with 2/3 coming from annual federal appropriations. Other funding comes from the Institutions endowment and corporate contributions, membership dues, and earned retail, Institution publications include Smithsonian and Air & Space magazines. The British scientist James Smithson left most of his wealth to his nephew Henry James Hungerford, Congress officially accepted the legacy bequeathed to the nation, and pledged the faith of the United States to the charitable trust on July 1,1836.
The American diplomat Richard Rush was dispatched to England by President Andrew Jackson to collect the bequest, Rush returned in August 1838 with 105 sacks containing 104,960 gold sovereigns. Once the money was in hand, eight years of Congressional haggling ensued over how to interpret Smithsons rather vague mandate for the increase, the money was invested by the US Treasury in bonds issued by the state of Arkansas which soon defaulted. The United States Exploring Expedition by the U. S. Navy circumnavigated the globe between 1838 and 1842, in 1846, the regents developed a plan for weather observation, in 1847, money was appropriated for meteorological research. The Institution became a magnet for young scientists from 1857 to 1866, the Smithsonian played a critical role as the U. S. partner institution in early bilateral scientific exchanges with the Academy of Sciences of Cuba. The Smithsonian Institution Building began construction in 1849, designed by architect James Renwick Jr. its interiors were completed by general contract Gilbert Cameron and the building opened in 1855.
The Smithsonians first expansion came with construction of the Arts and Industries Building in 1881, Congress had promised to build a new structure for the museum if the 1876 Philadelphia Centennial Exposition generated enough income. It did, and the building was designed by architects Adolf Cluss and Paul Schulze, meigs of the United States Army Corps of Engineers. The National Zoological Park opened in 1889 to accommodate the Smithsonians Department of Living Animals and this structure was designed by the D. C. architectural firm of Hornblower & Marshall. More than 40 years would pass before the museum, the Museum of History. It was designed by the firm of McKim, Mead & White. That same year, the Smithsonian signed an agreement to take over the Cooper Union Museum for the Arts of Decoration, the National Portrait Gallery and the Smithsonian American Art Museum opened in the Old Patent Office Building on October 7,1968. The first new building to open since the National Museum of Natural History was the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden
Black Star of Queensland
Black Star of Queensland is a 733-carat black sapphire, and was the worlds largest gem quality star sapphire. The stone was found by 12-year-old Roy Spencer in the mid-1930s in the Queensland gem fields near Anakie. Roy showed the stone to his father, who assumed that it was merely a large black crystal. Not realising the value of the stone with its rough exterior, the gem has been involved in several ownership disputes. The Black Star of Queensland was on display during the 1960s at the Smithsonian as part of a display with the Hope Diamond, from 2 June through 2 December 2007, it was on display at the Royal Ontario Museum. The sapphire is now owned by a private party and is not believed to be on public display. The Star of India at 563.4 carats is thought to be the largest gem quality star sapphire
Star of Bombay
The Star of Bombay is a 182-carat cabochon-cut star sapphire originating from Sri Lanka. The violet-blue gem was given to silent film actress Mary Pickford by her husband and she bequeathed it to the Smithsonian Institution. It is the namesake of the alcoholic beverage Bombay Sapphire. The Star of Bombay is a 182 carat cabochon-cut star sapphire, according to Southern Jewelry News, The Star of Bombay sapphire belongs to the mineral species corundum. Pure corundum is colorless, but trace amounts of elements like vanadium or chromium result in different colors in the crystal. The Star of Bombay’s violet-blue color is caused by the presence of titanium and iron giving the blue tint, the Star of Bombay originates from Sri Lanka and is one of the largest star sapphires which have names unrelated to their origin, the other being the Star of India. It is the namesake of the alcoholic beverage Bombay Sapphire. The gem was first acquired by Trabert & Hoeffer Inc. of Park Avenue in New York City and was set in a platinum ring.
It is believed that the ring was purchased by Douglas Fairbanks, a silent film movie star. A1935 advertisement for the Star of Bombay had it listed at 60 carats and did not include information on its origins, in 1979, Mary Pickford died and bequeathed the Star of Bombay, to the Smithsonian Museum. Edward Stotsenberg of the Mary Pickford Foundation called the Smithsonian and a representative was sent out to examine the stone. According to Stotsenberg, the stated that the Star of Bombay was much brighter than other stones and pried it from the clasps. The gem is currently displayed in the Smithsonians National Museum of Natural History, in the Janet Annenberg Hooker Hall of Geology, Star of India Star of Artaban Star of Asia
Star of Asia
The Star of Asia is a large,330 carat cabochon-cut star sapphire currently located at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. The stone originates from the Mogok mines of Burma, the gem is noted for its significant size and is considered to be one of the largest of its type. It is noted for its colour and clear star. It is said to once have belonged to the Maharaja of Jodhpur and it was acquired by the museum in 1961. Koh-i-Noor diamond Star of Artaban Star of Bombay Star of India
Yogos are typically cornflower blue, a result of trace amounts of iron and titanium. They have high clarity and maintain their brilliance under artificial light. Because Yogo sapphires occur within a vertically dipping resistive igneous dike, mining efforts have been sporadic and it is estimated that at least 28 million carats of Yogos are still in the ground. Today, several Yogo sapphires are part of the Smithsonian Institutions gem collection, Yogo sapphires were not initially recognized or valued. Hoover purchased the original mother lode from a sheepherder, selling it to other investors and this became the highly profitable English Mine, which flourished from 1899 until the 1920s. A second operation, the American Mine, was owned by a series of investors in the section of the Yogo dike. In 1984, a set of claims, known as the Vortex mine. The term Yogo sapphire is the wording for gems found in the Yogo Gulch. More gem-quality sapphires are produced in Montana than anywhere else in North America, Sapphires were first discovered in Montana in 1865, in alluvium along the Missouri River.
Finds in other locations in the half of the state occurred in 1889,1892. The Rock Creek location, near Phillipsburg, is the most productive site in Montana, in 1969, the sapphire was co-designated along with the agate as Montanas state gemstones. Although Intergem went out of business, the gems it mined appeared on the market through the 1990s because the company had paid its salesmen in sapphires during its financial demise. Citibank had obtained a large stock of Yogos as a result of Intergems collapse, Mining activity today is largely confined to hobby miners in the area, the major mines are currently inactive. Yogo sapphires are mined in Montana at Yogo Gulch, which is in Judith Basin County, Montana,12 miles southwest of Utica,45 miles west-southwest of Lewistown, and east of Great Falls. Yogo Gulch and the natural features of Yogo Peak, Yogo Creek, and the Yogo dike. The Gulch is located along the lower reaches of Yogo Creek, Yogo Creek starts just south of Yogo Peak, which is about 15 miles west of the Judith River.
From there the creek flows southeast into the Middle Fork of the Judith River, the Judith River flows northeast from the Little Belts toward Utica. East of the Judith River is Pig-Eye Basin, where Jake Hoover, credited as the person who discovered Yogo sapphires, other meanings for yogo have been suggested, including Going over the hill
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and abiogenic in origin. A mineral has one specific chemical composition, whereas a rock can be an aggregate of different minerals or mineraloids, the study of minerals is called mineralogy. There are over 5,300 known mineral species, over 5,070 of these have been approved by the International Mineralogical Association, the silicate minerals compose over 90% of the Earths crust. The diversity and abundance of species is controlled by the Earths chemistry. Silicon and oxygen constitute approximately 75% of the Earths crust, which translates directly into the predominance of silicate minerals, minerals are distinguished by various chemical and physical properties. Differences in chemical composition and crystal structure distinguish the various species, changes in the temperature, pressure, or bulk composition of a rock mass cause changes in its minerals. Minerals can be described by their various properties, which are related to their chemical structure.
Common distinguishing characteristics include crystal structure and habit, lustre, colour, tenacity, fracture, more specific tests for describing minerals include magnetism, taste or smell and reaction to acid. Minerals are classified by key chemical constituents, the two dominant systems are the Dana classification and the Strunz classification, the silicate class of minerals is subdivided into six subclasses by the degree of polymerization in the chemical structure. All silicate minerals have a unit of a 4− silica tetrahedron—that is, a silicon cation coordinated by four oxygen anions. These tetrahedra can be polymerized to give the subclasses, disilicates, inosilicates, other important mineral groups include the native elements, oxides, carbonates and phosphates. The first criterion means that a mineral has to form by a natural process, stability at room temperature, in the simplest sense, is synonymous to the mineral being solid. More specifically, a compound has to be stable or metastable at 25 °C, modern advances have included extensive study of liquid crystals, which extensively involve mineralogy.
Minerals are chemical compounds, and as such they can be described by fixed or a variable formula, many mineral groups and species are composed of a solid solution, pure substances are not usually found because of contamination or chemical substitution. Finally, the requirement of an ordered atomic arrangement is usually synonymous with crystallinity, crystals are periodic, an ordered atomic arrangement gives rise to a variety of macroscopic physical properties, such as crystal form and cleavage. There have been recent proposals to amend the definition to consider biogenic or amorphous substances as minerals. The formal definition of an approved by the IMA in 1995, A mineral is an element or chemical compound that is normally crystalline. However, if geological processes were involved in the genesis of the compound, Mineral classification schemes and their definitions are evolving to match recent advances in mineral science
Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia near south-east India. Sri Lanka has maritime borders with India to the northwest and the Maldives to the southwest, Sri Lankas documented history spans 3,000 years, with evidence of pre-historic human settlements dating back to at least 125,000 years. Its geographic location and deep harbours made it of strategic importance from the time of the ancient Silk Road through to World War II. Sri Lanka was known from the beginning of British colonial rule until 1972 as Ceylon, Sri Lankas recent history has been marred by a thirty-year civil war which decisively ended when the Sri Lankan military defeated the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam in 2009. A diverse and multicultural country, Sri Lanka is home to many religions, ethnic groups, in addition to the majority Sinhalese, it is home to large groups of Sri Lankan and Indian Tamils, Burghers, Malays and the aboriginal Vedda. Sri Lanka has a rich Buddhist heritage, and the first known Buddhist writings of Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka is a republic and a unitary state governed by a semi-presidential system.
The legislative capital, Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte, is a suburb of the capital and largest city. Along with the Maldives, Sri Lanka is one of the two countries in South Asia that are rated among high human development on the Human Development Index. In antiquity, Sri Lanka was known to travellers by a variety of names, according to the Mahavamsa, the legendary Prince Vijaya named the land Tambapanni, because his followers hands were reddened by the red soil of the area. In Hindu mythology, such as the Mahabharata, the island was referred to as Lankā, in Tamil, the island is referred to as Eelam. Ancient Greek geographers called it Taprobanā or Taprobanē from the word Tambapanni, as a British crown colony, the island was known as Ceylon, it achieved independence as the Dominion of Ceylon in 1948. The country is known in Sinhalese as Śrī Laṃkā and in Tamil as Ilaṅkai, in 1972, its formal name was changed to Free and Independent Republic of Sri Lanka. Later in 1978 it was changed to the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, as the name Ceylon still appears in the names of a number of organisations, the Sri Lankan government announced in 2011 a plan to rename all those over which it has authority.
The pre-history of Sri Lanka goes back 125,000 years, the era spans the Palaeolithic and early Iron Ages. Among the Paleolithic human settlements discovered in Sri Lanka, Pahiyangala and it is said that Kubera was overthrown by his demon stepbrother Ravana, the powerful emperor who built a mythical flying machine named Dandu Monara. The modern city of Wariyapola is described as Ravanas airport, early inhabitants of Sri Lanka were probably ancestors of the Vedda people, an indigenous people numbering approximately 2,500 living in modern-day Sri Lanka. According to the Mahāvamsa, a written in Pāḷi, the original inhabitants of Sri Lanka are the Yakshas and Nagas. Ancient cemeteries that were used before 600BC and other signs of advanced civilization has discovered in Sri Lanka
Sapphire is a gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum, an aluminium oxide. It is typically blue in color, but natural fancy sapphires occur in yellow, orange, the only color which sapphire cannot be is red - as red colored corundum is called ruby, another corundum variety. This variety in color is due to amounts of elements such as iron, chromium, copper. Commonly, natural sapphires are cut and polished into gemstones and worn in jewelry and they may be created synthetically in laboratories for industrial or decorative purposes in large crystal boules. Sapphire is the birthstone for September and the gem of the 45th anniversary, a sapphire jubilee occurs after 65 years. Sapphire is one of the two gem-varieties of corundum, the other being ruby, although blue is the best-known sapphire color, they occur in other colors, including gray and black, and they can be colorless. A a pinkish orange variety of sapphire is called padparadscha, significant sapphire deposits are found in Eastern Australia, Sri Lanka, Madagascar, East Africa, and in North America in a few locations, mostly in Montana.
Sapphire and rubies are often found in the geological setting. Every sapphire mine produces a range of quality - and origin is not a guarantee of quality. For sapphire, Kashmir receives the highest premium although Burma, Sri Lanka, the cost of natural sapphires varies depending on their color, size and overall quality. For gems of exceptional quality, an independent determination from a respected laboratory such as the GIA, gemstone color can be described in terms of hue and tone. Hue is commonly understood as the color of the gemstone, saturation refers to the vividness or brightness of the hue, and tone is the lightness to darkness of the hue. Blue sapphire exists in various mixtures of its primary and secondary hues, various tonal levels, blue sapphires are evaluated based upon the purity of their primary hue. Purple and green are the most common secondary hues found in blue sapphires and purple can contribute to the overall beauty of the color, while green is considered to be distinctly negative.
Blue sapphires with up to 15% violet or purple are generally said to be of fine quality, gray is the normal saturation modifier or mask found in blue sapphires. Gray reduces the saturation or brightness of the hue, and therefore has a negative effect. The 423-carat Logan sapphire in the National Museum of Natural History, in Washington, sapphires in colors other than blue are called fancy or parti colored sapphires. Fancy sapphires are found in yellow, green sapphires, purple
National Museum of Natural History
The National Museum of Natural History is a natural history museum administered by the Smithsonian Institution, located on the National Mall in Washington, D. C. Opened in 1910, the museum on the National Mall was one of the first Smithsonian buildings constructed exclusively to hold the national collections and research facilities. The main building has an area of 1,500,000 square feet with 325,000 square feet of exhibition and public space. The museums collections contain over 126 million specimens of plants, fossils, rocks, human remains, the United States National Museum was founded in 1846 as part of the Smithsonian Institution. The museum was housed in the Smithsonian Institution Building, which is better known today as the Smithsonian Castle. A formal exhibit hall opened in 1858, the growing collection led to the construction of a new building, the National Museum Building. Covering a then-enormous 2.25 acres, it was built in just 15 months at a cost of $310,000, congress authorized construction of a new building on June 28,1902.
The regents began considering sites for the new building in March, the D. C. architectural firm of Hornblower & Marshall was chosen to design the structure. Testing of the soil for the foundations was set for July 1903, the Natural History Building opened its doors to the public on March 17,1910, in order to provide the Smithsonian Institution with more space for collections and research. The building was not fully completed until June 1911, the structure cost $3.5 million dollars. The Neoclassical style building was the first structure constructed on the side of the National Mall as part of the 1901 McMillan Commission plan. In addition to the Smithsonians natural history collection, it housed the American history, art. Between 1981 and 2003, the National Museum of Natural History had 11 permanent, there were six directors alone between 1990 and 2002. Turnover was high as the directors were disenchanted by low levels of funding. Robert W. Fri was named the director in 1996. One of the largest donations in Smithsonian history was made during Fris tenure, kenneth E.
Behring donated $20 million in 1997 to modernize the museum. Fri resigned in 2001 after disagreeing with Smithsonian leadership over the reorganization of the scientific research programs. J. Dennis OConnor, Provost of the Smithsonian Institution was named acting director of the museum on July 25,2001, eight months later, OConner resigned to become the vice president of research and dean of the graduate school at the University of Maryland
Walter Hubert Annenberg was an American publisher and diplomat. He built up his family’s magazine business with success, extending it into radio. At Sunnylands, his estate near Palm Springs, California, he entertained royalty, presidents and he was US Ambassador to the UK from 1969 to 1974. A philanthropist, he was a trustee of the Eisenhower Fellowships and he is remembered for his media campaigns against the Barnes Foundation and the wish to relocate its art collection. Walter Annenberg was born to a Jewish family in Milwaukee, Wisconsin and he was the only son of Sadie Cecelia née Freedman and Moses Moe Louis Annenberg, who published the Daily Racing Form and purchased The Philadelphia Inquirer in 1936. Annenberg was a stutterer since childhood, the Annenberg family moved to Long Island, New York, in 1920, and Walter attended high school at the Peddie School in Hightstown, New Jersey, graduating in 1927. He dropped out of the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, while in college, he was a member of Zeta Beta Tau, a traditionally Jewish fraternity.
Annenberg was greatly affected by tax evasion charges and other scandals involving his father in the 1930s, a significant part of his adult life was dedicated to rehabilitating the familys name through philanthropy and public service. After his fathers death in 1942, Annenberg took over the family businesses and he bought additional print media as well as radio and television stations, resulting in great success. One of his most prominent successes was the creation of TV Guide in 1952, during the 1970s, TV Guide was making a $600,000 to $1,000,000 profit per week. While Annenberg ran his publishing empire as a business, he was not afraid to use it for his political purposes, one of his publications, The Philadelphia Inquirer, was influential in ridding Philadelphia of its largely corrupt city government in 1949. Shapp was highly critical of the merger of the Pennsylvania Railroad with the New York Central Railroad and was pushing the US Interstate Commerce Commission to prevent it from occurring.
Annenberg, who was the biggest individual stockholder of the Pennsylvania Railroad, wanted to see the merger succeed, during a press conference, an Inquirer reporter asked Shapp if he had ever been a patient in a mental hospital. Never having been in one, Shapp simply said no, the next day, a five-column front page Inquirer headline read, Shapp Denies Mental Institution Stay. Shapp and others have attributed his loss of the election to Annenbergs newspaper, even while an active businessman, Annenberg had an interest in public service. In 1953 he became one of the trustees of Eisenhower Fellowships. After Richard M. Nixon was elected President, he appointed Annenberg as ambassador to the Court of St Jamess in the UK. In 1969, under pressure after the Shapp controversy, Annenberg sold The Inquirer and the Philadelphia Daily News, after being appointed as ambassador, he became quite popular in Britain, being made an honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1976
Star of India (gem)
The Star of India is a 563. 35-carat star sapphire, one of the largest such gems in the world. It is almost flawless and is unusual in that it has stars on both sides of the stone, the greyish blue gem was mined in Sri Lanka and is housed in the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. The milky quality of the stone is caused by the traces of the mineral rutile, the tiny fibers of the mineral, aligned in a three-fold pattern within the gem, reflect incoming light into the star pattern. After the Exposition, Morgan donated the Star of India along with the rest of the collection to the American Museum of Natural History, apart from its Sri Lankan origin, the gems history prior to its acquisition for this collection is unknown. Kunz wrote in 1913 that the Star of India has a more or less indefinite historic record of three centuries. On October 29,1964, the famous golf-ball-sized stone was stolen, along several other gems of note, including the Midnight Star, the DeLong Star Ruby. The stones stolen were valued at more than $400,000, within two days the culprits were arrested, Jack Murphy, Allen Kuhn and Roger Clark, the gems had already been handed off.
In January 1965, in a bid for leniency, Kuhn led authorities to a bus locker in Miami where the uninsured Star of India and some of the other stolen stones were recovered