Orust is an island in western Sweden, Sweden's third largest island. In 2014 Statistics Sweden declared it to instead be the fourth largest island, under a definition which adds artificial canals to the possible bodies of water surrounding an island, it has been noted that under this definition, all of Götaland would be the country's largest island, rendering Orust instead the fifth largest. The largest town on Orust is Henån, where 1,800 inhabitants live. Orust is home to 15,160 inhabitants in the winter and many more in the summer; the main industry on Orust is the two largest being Najadvarvet and Hallberg-Rassy. The largest town is Henån, it is the municipal capital. Other communities, many of which are fishing communities, include Ellös, Edshultshall, Hälleviksstrand, Mollösund, Stocken, Svanesund and Varekil, Orust is twinned with: Aalborg, Denmark Orust Municipality Orust Eastern Hundred Orust Western Hundred Haga dolmen Orust Municipality - Official site
A shipyard is a place where ships are built and repaired. These can be military vessels, cruise liners or other cargo or passenger ships. Dockyards are sometimes more associated with maintenance and basing activities than shipyards, which are sometimes associated more with initial construction; the terms are used interchangeably, in part because the evolution of dockyards and shipyards has caused them to change or merge roles. Countries with large shipbuilding industries include Australia, China, Denmark, France, India, Italy, the Netherlands, the Philippines, Romania, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, Vietnam; the shipbuilding industry is more fragmented in Europe than in Asia where countries tend to have fewer, larger companies. Many naval vessels are built or maintained in shipyards owned or operated by the national government or navy. Shipyards are constructed near tidal rivers to allow easy access for their ships; the United Kingdom, for example, has shipyards on many of its rivers.
The site of a large shipyard will contain many specialised cranes, dry docks, dust-free warehouses, painting facilities and large areas for fabrication of the ships. After a ship's useful life is over, it makes its final voyage to a shipbreaking yard on a beach in South Asia. Shipbreaking was carried on in drydock in developed countries, but high wages and environmental regulations have resulted in movement of the industry to developing regions. Welding, sandblasting and other maintenance work contribute pollution. Ship hulls have many layers of anti-fouling and anti-corrosion paint. Shipyards around the world paint ships by airtight spraying or by thermal spraying. Studies have shown that painting generates half of the dangerous waste at a shipyard due to using high-pressure equipment to wash or remove any unwanted material, on it like rust; this material will make its way to the water as water pollution. In a study in 2011 samples of sediments were collected from two sites in coastal marine area of Yongho Bay, one from the shipyard and the other 500m away.
Both samples contained metals that included Al, Fe, Li, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sn, Pb. In addition, it had been confirmed that the concentration was higher in the first sample, by the shipyard the sample taking 500m away and was due to paint fragments applied to the steel ship hulls. After a ship has been used it is scrapped at a shipyard, but the process can release excessive amounts of pollution. Paints used for hulls are anti-fouling paints. Over time weathering from ships will sink to the bottom of the seabed and the most common component, toxic in paint used in shipyards is triphenyl tetrazolium and can be treated by using dolomitic sorbents. In 2005, a study showed the high level of toxicity of TBT compounds to organisms in the ocean and what can be done to reduce the pollution by using dolomitic sorbents. In the study, a sample of shipyard water was used in the experiment in a period over 14 days. At the end the experiment it was concluded that dolomitic and dolomite were successful in reducing the contaminants from the shipyard wastewater.
Welding is the most important factor in ship building and should be performed by qualified welders in order to protect the ship structure. It is achieved by heating the surfaces to the point of melting using oxy-acetylene, electric arc, or other means, uniting them by pressing, etc, but in shipyards, there are times when the welder weld. Welding can produce toxic fumes such as Nitric Oxide, Nitrogen Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Hydrogen Fluoride, Carbon Dioxide can result in serious damage to human health or death if ventilation is not present. A case study was performed to see where would be most effective place to exhaust the hull cells on the bulkhead in between two spaces using an air horn versus air with an electric blower, they asked them to weld in a specific space. One that had shipyard dilution ventilation and the other had local exhaust ventilation recorded to see which typed of ventilation worked the best. In the results, they found that local exhaust ventilation reduced particulate concentrations but the efficiency of either method depended on equipment maintenance and their own work practices because everyone has a different way of getting things done.
The world's earliest known dockyards were built in the Harappan port city of Lothal circa 2600 BC in Gujarat, India. Lothal's dockyards connected to an ancient course of the Sabarmati river on the trade route between Harappan cities in Sindh and the peninsula of Saurashtra when the surrounding Kutch desert was a part of the Arabian Sea. Lothal engineers accorded high priority to the creation of a dockyard and a warehouse to serve the purposes of naval trade; the dock was built on the eastern flank of the town, is regarded by archaeologists as an engineering feat of the highest order. It was located away from the main current of the river to avoid silting, but provided access to ships in high tide as well; the name of the ancient Greek city of Naupactus means "shipyard". Naupactus' reputation in this field extends to the time of legend, where it is depicted as the place where the Heraclidae built a fleet to invade the Peloponnesus. In the Spanish city of Barcelona, the Drassanes shipyards were active from at least the mid-13th century until the 18th century, although i
Punta Ala is a frazione of the town of Castiglione della Pescaia, in the province of Grosseto, Italy. It is a famous seaside resort which lies at the bottom of the northern hillsides of the promontory of the same name. Known as Punta Troia, changed its name to Punta Ala after the great Italian aviator Italo Balbo, who had purchased some fortifications and villas in the area which became his residences; the modern day tourist center developed during the course of the twentieth century in the 1970s. The town is famous for its sailing regattas which are held by the local "Punta Ala Yacht Club" and the well equipped tourist port, the home of Luna Rossa; the place is a tourist destination of the elite in every season, thanks to its luxury residences, second homes and boats moored at the port While presenting itself as a modern and exclusive beach resort, Punta Ala was situated in a vital strategical position on the border between the Principality of Piombino in the north and the Grand Duchy of Tuscany to the south.
The fear of pirate invasions forced the construction of some fortifications to protect the coast. The Hidalgo Tower, overlooking the modern town, was built during the sixteenth century to defend the far end of the southern principality of Piombino. Il Castello di Punta Ala, was built in the sixteenth century by the Medici on the headland to the south-east of the site for the control of the north coast of Castiglione della Pescaia; the Appiani Tower was built by its name sake to further enhance the defense system of the principality. Buriano, Castiglione della Pescaia Pian d'Alma Pian di Rocca Roccamare Rocchette Tirli Vetulonia Portale PuntaAla.net Associazione Tutela di Punta Ala Parrocchia della Consolata di Punta Ala
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Germán Frers, Sr. is a naval architect renowned for designing successful racing yachts. He designed his first yacht in 1958. There is a design team consisting of Germán Frers and his son Germán Frers, Jr. supported by a team of engineers and designers, some of whom have been with the company for more than 25 years. The company has designed more than 1,000 yachts; the designs range from exotic super yachts to no-nonsense racing hulls. Yachts designed by the Frers team have won many different yachting events around the world including: the Admiral’s Cup, Onion Patch, Bermuda Race, Whitbread Round the World Race, Sardinia Cup, Buenos Aires-Rio Race, S. O. R. C. Kenwood Cup, Copa del Rey, San Francisco Big Boat Series, Giraglia Race, Settimana delle Bocche, Two Ton Cup World Championship, Martini Middle Sea Race and the Maxi World Championship. Successful yachts designed by Frers include: Scaramouche I and II, Noryema X, Hitchhiker, Retaliation I and II, Ragamuffin IV and V, Morning Star 45', Morning Star 50', Bribon IV and V, Enteara, Kodiak, Bumblebee III and IV, Guia 2000, Kialoa V, Ondine VIII, Matador and Il Moro di Venezia I, II and III.
His largest project was Jim Clark's 156ft Hyperion, launched in 1997 at the Royal Huisman yard. At the time of her launch, Hyperion was the largest sloop made. ARA Fortuna III Beneteau CS 50 CS 395 Dufour Yachts Nautor's Swan Hallberg-Rassy Hallberg-Rassy 31 from 1992 Hallberg-Rassy 310 Hallberg-Rassy 34 from 1990 Hallberg-Rassy 342 from 2005 Hallberg-Rassy 36 Hallberg-Rassy 37 Hallberg-Rassy 372 from 2009 Hallberg-Rassy 39 from 1990 Hallberg-Rassy 40 Hallberg-Rassy 412 Hallberg-Rassy 42 from 1991 Hallberg-Rassy 43 from 2001 Hallberg-Rassy 45 Hallberg-Rassy 46 from 1995 Hallberg-Rassy 48 Hallberg-Rassy 53 from 1996 Hallberg-Rassy 54 Hallberg-Rassy 55 Hallberg-Rassy 62 Hallberg-Rassy 64 from 2011 Kong & Halvorsen Dawn 48 Dawn 41 Wally Yachts Mystic Yachts Hylas Yachts D`Angelo 24 Numerous large yachts, see list of large sailing yachts List of sailboat designers and manufacturers Barry Pickthall, "The Maxis", Germán Frers: A Passion for Design, Wiley Publishing, pp. 37–49, ISBN 9780953104406 Daniel Spurr, Heart of Glass, McGraw Hill Professional, pp. 244–250, ISBN 9780071798921 Best Boats to Build or Buy Ferenc Máté, Albatross Publishing House, 1982
Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i
Orust Municipality is a municipality in Västra Götaland County in western Sweden. Its seat is located in the town of Henån, with an approximate population of 1,800; the municipality includes some other small adjacent islets. The year-round population of around 15,000 increases in the summer due to an influx of summer vacationers; the former municipal entities on the island Orust and adjacent minor islands were grouped into larger units in 1952 and united into a single municipality in connection with the nationwide municipal reform of 1971. The villages in the municipality are Ellös, Henån, Hälleviksstrand, Mollösund and Varekil; the area has been inhabited for thousands of years, as evident by ancient remains such as tombs, grave fields and rock carvings. Dating from the Viking Age, runestones are plentiful throughout Orust. In the Nordisk familjebok the island of Orust is mentioned as a Geatish territory. Ramshult, a hill fort, is mentioned in Beowulf as Hrefnesholt, the Geatish hill fort which became the prison of Onela and their mother until their rescue by Ongenþeow.
The geography offers several sights, with a couple of picturesque small villages. A nature reserve called. Industry wise, the area has always been dominated by boat production. Shipyard Hallberg-Rassy is the largerst employer nowadays, its shipyard is located in Ellös, on the north-west part of the island, it has a significant export of sailing boats. The second largest employer is Najad-varvet a shipyard; the island Orust has a land area of Sweden's third largest island. Orust Eastern Hundred, historical hundred Orust Western Hundred, historical hundred Varekilsnäs, most southern village on Orust Orust Municipality - Official site Orust map - From the official site Please see corresponding article on Swedish and German Wikipedia