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Halley's Comet

Halley's Comet or Comet Halley designated 1P/Halley, is a short-period comet visible from Earth every 75–76 years. Halley is the only known short-period comet, visible to the naked eye from Earth, the only naked-eye comet that might appear twice in a human lifetime. Halley last appeared in the inner parts of the Solar System in 1986 and will next appear in mid-2061 to 2062. Halley's returns to the inner Solar System have been observed and recorded by astronomers since at least 240 BC. Clear records of the comet's appearances were made by Chinese and medieval European chroniclers, but, at those times, were not recognized as reappearances of the same object; the comet's periodicity was first determined in 1705 by English astronomer Edmond Halley, after whom it is now named. During its 1986 apparition, Halley's Comet became the first comet to be observed in detail by spacecraft, providing the first observational data on the structure of a comet nucleus and the mechanism of coma and tail formation.

These observations supported a number of longstanding hypotheses about comet construction Fred Whipple's "dirty snowball" model, which predicted that Halley would be composed of a mixture of volatile ices—such as water, carbon dioxide, ammonia—and dust. The missions provided data that reformed and reconfigured these ideas. Comet Halley is pronounced, rhyming with valley, or, rhyming with daily. Colin Ronan, one of Edmond Halley's biographers, preferred. Spellings of Halley's name during his lifetime included Hailey, Hayley, Halley and Hawly, so its contemporary pronunciation is uncertain, but contemporary individuals with this last name appear to prefer the version that rhymes with "valley". Halley was the first comet to be recognized as periodic; until the Renaissance, the philosophical consensus on the nature of comets, promoted by Aristotle, was that they were disturbances in Earth's atmosphere. This idea was disproved in 1577 by Tycho Brahe, who used parallax measurements to show that comets must lie beyond the Moon.

Many were still unconvinced that comets orbited the Sun, assumed instead that they must follow straight paths through the Solar System. In 1687, Sir Isaac Newton published his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, in which he outlined his laws of gravity and motion, his work on comets was decidedly incomplete. Although he had suspected that two comets that had appeared in succession in 1680 and 1681 were the same comet before and after passing behind the Sun, he was unable to reconcile comets into his model, it was Newton's friend and publisher, Edmond Halley, who, in his 1705 Synopsis of the Astronomy of Comets, used Newton's new laws to calculate the gravitational effects of Jupiter and Saturn on cometary orbits. Having compiled a list of 24 comet observations, he calculated that the orbital elements of a second comet that had appeared in 1682 were nearly the same as those of two comets that had appeared in 1531 and 1607. Halley thus concluded that all three comets were, in fact, the same object returning about every 76 years, a period that has since been found to vary between 74 and 79 years.

After a rough estimate of the perturbations the comet would sustain from the gravitational attraction of the planets, he predicted its return for 1758. While he had observed the comet around perihelion in September 1682, Halley died in 1742 before he could observe its predicted return. Halley's prediction of the comet's return proved to be correct, although it was not seen until 25 December 1758, by Johann Georg Palitzsch, a German farmer and amateur astronomer, it did not pass through its perihelion until 13 March 1759, the attraction of Jupiter and Saturn having caused a retardation of 618 days. This effect was computed prior to its return by a team of three French mathematicians, Alexis Clairaut, Joseph Lalande, Nicole-Reine Lepaute; the confirmation of the comet's return was the first time anything other than planets had been shown to orbit the Sun. It was one of the earliest successful tests of Newtonian physics, a clear demonstration of its explanatory power; the comet was first named in Halley's honour by French astronomer Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille in 1759.

Some scholars have proposed that first-century Mesopotamian astronomers had recognized Halley's Comet as periodic. This theory notes a passage in the Bavli Talmud that refers to "a star which appears once in seventy years that makes the captains of the ships err."Researchers in 1981 attempting to calculate the past orbits of Halley by numerical integration starting from accurate observations in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries could not produce accurate results further back than 837 due to a close approach to Earth in that year. It was necessary to use ancient Chinese comet observations to constrain their calculations. Halley's orbital period has varied between 74–79 years since 240 BC, its orbit around the Sun is elliptical, with an orbital eccentricity of 0.967. The perihelion, the point in the comet's orbit when it is nearest the Sun, is just 0.6 AU. This is between the orbits of Venus, its aphelion, or farthest distance from the Sun, is 35 AU. Unusual for an object in the Solar System, Halley's orbit is retrograde.

Paula DeAnda

Paula Dacia DeAnda is an American singer and songwriter. She first came to prominence with her first single, "Doing Too Much", which became a hit in the Southwest, she got the opportunity to audition for Clive Davis, who signed her to Arista Records on the spot. Her debut album, Paula DeAnda, was released in 2006 and contained the US Billboard Hot 100 top twenty song "Walk Away". DeAnda was born in San Angelo, Texas, to Mexican American parents Steven and Barbara, a restaurant general manager and a registered nurse, respectively. At age six she began taking piano lessons and was soon singing at functions around town at the recommendation of her piano teacher, she sang the national anthem at local football games. In 2002, DeAnda's family decided to move to Corpus Christi in order to help advance her career in music since Corpus Christi had a reputation as a music hub, she attended Mary Carroll High School. DeAnda was the opening act for a concert which featured hip-hop artists, Baby Bash and Frankie J. performing in front of twenty thousand people.

Her first single, "What Would It Take" was serviced to local radio stations in July, received airplay from ten radio stations across the country. Her next single, it was that she got the opportunity to audition for Clive Davis who signed her for a seven-album deal with Arista Records on the spot."Doing Too Much" served as the lead single to her self-titled debut album, released in the summer of 2006, charted in the Top50 of the Billboard Hot 100. It was was certified gold in the US in 2007. Paula DeAnda charted at #54 on the Billboard 200 chart; the album consists of songs about love and relationships and is of the pop-R&B genre. DeAnda co-wrote four songs on the album, she was only 16 years old at the time of the album's release. Her second single "Walk Away" was her biggest hit, reaching the top twenty on the Hot 100; the single was certified gold by the RIAA. Follow-up singles from her debut included "When It Was Me" and "Easy" which the latter featured rapper Lil Wayne, she appeared in the MTV television film Super Sweet 16: The Movie.

In 2008, DeAnda began production on next effort due in 2009. A buzz single "Stunned Out" was released and garnered some airplay, but the set's lead single ended up being the ballad "Roll the Credits", released with a music video was planned. Clive Davis left Arista's parent company at the time, RCA Label Group in 2008 to become the chief creative officer for Sony BMG. DeAnda parted ways Arista following his departure. After she was leaving Arista Records, DeAnda's sophomore album was shelved, in addition to a tentative Spanish album. Following this period, DeAnda began posting a series of covers on YouTube in the summer of 2010. DeAnda released a series of digital singles: "Besos" in 2011 which would be covered by Jojo, "Your Place" in 2012 and "Shut Up and Love Me" in 2013. Following her digital releases in 2013, DeAnda was selected to perform the National Athem live on television at the Canelo vs Trout fight. In 2014, DeAnda auditioned for Season 6 of NBC's singing competition, The Voice, as revealed on her Twitter page.

Both Shakira and Blake Shelton turned their chairs but she opted for Blake Shelton. During the Battles, Round 1, she was defeated by fellow Team Blake teammate Sisaundra Lewis after their duet of Lady Gaga's "Do What U Want". – Studio version of performance reached the top 10 on iTunesAfter The Voice, DeAnda collaborated with the Jump Smokers on her first EP The Voice & The Beats, released on June 25, 2014 and featured the first single "Horns Blow". In early 2015, DeAnda announced. In February, she launched a Kickstarter campaign to help fund her new album, achieved in a couple of weeks. After the success of the campaign, she announced a new EP was in the works in addition to a full-length album. On March 23, 2015, she released the music video for her song "Brand New". In May 2015, she announced the title of her next EP would be PDA. In early 2018 Paula was called back to do the star spangled banner once more for the televised fight Canelo vs. GGG 2, the rematch to the disappointing tie just months earlier.

In late 2018 Deanda released her single titled "Don't Werk", available on all platforms and digital download. She performed the single at event for Tionne Watkins, hosting a venue of veteran singers. In April 2019, Paula De'Anda releasee an unpromoted single titled "Killin' My Vibe" by the musical sensation Waseem Shark & Dub Shakes which introduced her to a whole new Bollywood sound and featured her vocals in Hindi. After it garnered success in Southeast Asia on their airplay, Paula was interviewed in to discuss the success of the single. In mid 2019, Paula announced a new project. One song on the project includes "I Don't Wan na Wait" featuring M-Status; the project was followed by a music video, that debuted in Deutsche Urban Charts and landed in the top 30 and is rising. Her next project was "Roll It", a single appreciating prop 64, the legalization of Marijuana, released on 4/20, she followed the song with a music video, released on Paula DeAnda's official channel, making it the first video on there in the past 12 years.

Paula DeAnda attended the BET Awards 2019 as an audience member. Prior to the award show, Paula attended the pre-celebration of the 2019 award show for PrettyLittleThing. By October 3rd 2019, Paula Released her next single titled Iddi Biddi, which played homage to Selena and Aaliyah. The

Blue lorikeet

The blue lorikeet is a small lorikeet from French Polynesia and the Cook Islands. It is known as the Tahiti lorikeet, violet lorikeet, Tahitian lory, blue lory and the indigo lory, it was found on 23 islands around Tahiti, but now restricted to eight islands: Motu, Tikehau, Aratua, Apataki and Harvey Island and Manihi. Its plumage is dark blue and it has a white area over its upper chest and face; the first captive breeding in the UK was by the Marquess of Tavistock in the 1930s. He was awarded a silver medal by the Foreign Bird League for this achievement, they are active birds, feeding on nectar and ground forage. The blue lorikeet was endemic to the islands of French Polynesia, it is present in the Cook Islands, where it is one of a small number of landbirds on the island of Aitutaki. Dean Amadon, writing in 1942 after the Whitney South Seas Expedition, thought that it might have been introduced to the Cooks. David Steadman, who studied the extinct species of the areas, wrote in 1991 that it might have been but that he could find no evidence of this.

Had it been native there it would have coexisted with Kuhl's lorikeet. He concluded that it was introduced, as extensive excavations of fossils had found remains of Kuhl's lorikeet as well as two other species of extinct Vini lorikeet, but no fossils of the blue lorikeet; the blue lorikeet will live in any wooded habitat including cultivated areas. It is most abundant in mixed stands of Heliotropium foertherianum; the blue lorikeet is 18 cm long with a short rounded tail. Its plumage is dark blue and it has a white area over its upper chest and lower face. Erectile feathers on the top of its head show light blue streaks, its beak is orange and its irises are yellow-brown. It has orange legs. Adult males and females have identical external appearance; the juvenile has a dark grey-blue face and lower parts. The juvenile has a black bill, dark brown irises, its legs are orange brown. Blue plumage, shares with the related ultramarine lorikeet, is unusual in the parrot order, they roost in coconut palm trees and preening before feeding.

They are found in small flocks of less than ten birds. They rest during the heat of the day in shade before resuming feeding in the afternoon. At dusk groups fly around calling until dark, when they retreat to spaces between palm leaves to roost for the night. Blue lorikeets feed on the nectar and pollen of coconut palms, Guettarda speciosa, Pemphis acidula, bay cedar, beach mulberry, Heliotropium foertherianum, Scaevola spp and Musa. On Rangiroa they fed on coconut flowers during one three week study, they feed silently in small groups, use their brush-like tongue to lap up nectar and pollen. Where flowers had not opened, they will use their bills to open them. After all the flowers on one tree have been fed at, they will move to the next tree, calling as they go, they feed on insects among leaves and on the forest floor, on leaf shoots and soft fruits. They are endangered by invasive species, including cats, swamp harriers, mosquitoes carrying avian malaria. Juniper & Parr. Parrots: A Guide to Parrots of the World.

ISBN 0-300-07453-0. Forshaw, Joseph M.. Parrots of the World. Illustrated by Frank Knight. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09251-6. Steadman, David. Extinction and Biogeography of Tropical Pacific Birds. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. P. 298. Ziembicki, Marc. Status and conservation of the Vini lorikeets of French Polynesia. Report to the Loro Parque Foundation & CEPA. Papeete, French Polynesia: Société d’Ornithologie de Polynésie. Archived from the original on 8 November 2012. Retrieved 20 May 2017. BirdLife Species Factsheet