20th Century Press Archives
The 20th Century Press Archives comprises about 19 million of newspaper clippings, organized in folders about persons, wares and topics. It originates from the Hamburg Kolonialinstitut founded in 1908. Within the Hamburg Institute of International Economics it turned into a unique public press archives. In 2007 it was absorbed by the German National Library of Economics and merged with the Wirtschaftsarchiv of the Kiel Institute for the World Economy, founded in 1914. Article collection was discontinued by end of 2005. After a few years, the "Zentralstelle" of the Kolonialinstitut was transformed from a free information center for colonial issues into a comprehensive archive of global political and economic topics, which supported Hamburg's merchants. After the breakdown of the German colonial empire in World War I, the renaming to "Hamburgisches Welt-Wirtschafts-Archiv" in 1919 sealed this reorientation; the staff of HWWA reflected its importance and grew from 54 in 1919 to 183 permanent or temporary employees in 1958 - a state that seems to have remained stable until the late 1990s.
Founded shortly before the outbreak of the First World War, the Kiel Economic Archive and its library were linked to the scientific work of the IfW, which focused on global economic contexts and their practical use. In 1966, the library of the IfW was given the function of a central library for economics by the German Research Foundation in the Federal Republic of Germany, in 1993, the department was renamed accordingly. During the First and the Second World War both archives were intensively involved in the foreign and wartime planning of the empire and the Nazi state. Starting in 1936, "Confidential Reports from the Foreign Press" provided selected economic leaders and Nazi departments with "largely unfiltered information and comments on economic issues from foreign media and represented a unique feature in Nazi media policy". By acting with the informal means of a foreign cultural and information policy supplementing the military expansion policy, HWWA and IfW dedicated their services to the Nazi regime.
In 1996, a closer cooperation between HWWA and ZBW / Wirtschaftsarchiv began with the aim of merging the two archives. Since the beginning of 2001, the articles were indexed according to a new common classification system and made retrievable via a reference database, "EconPress". Following a recommendation from the evaluation within the Leibniz Association in 2003, the current press documentation was finished at the end of 2005 and the materials were frozen at the level reached; the existence of the HWWA ended in 2007 with the integration of its press documentation and library into the ZBW as a newly formed foundation under public law. Today, the press archive belongs to the infrastructures of the Leibniz Association. By 1919 at the latest, the Hamburg archive collected "press clippings on a global scale"; the archive was subdivided in four sections: The Sacharchiv with subject matter "from all countries and the whole world". For the individual countries and regions, which constituted the primary order criterion, up to 1200 individual topics were recorded.
Further special folders were created for individual events or questions "such as the Boer War, the issue of slavery or the Suez Canal". Since the late 1990s, collecting had focused on "domestic and international economic issues"; the Warenarchiv with national and international raw materials, semi-finished and finished products. The product names are subdivided into 980 upper and 3400 sub-terms. Here and regions represent the secondary order criterion; the Firmenarchiv with business reports, anniversary publications and press clippings of c. 36,000 domestic and foreign companies. In addition, material on several hundred institutions and international organizations and research institutes has been collected; the Personenarchiv with dossiers of about 16,000 people from business, science and society. More than 1400 sources have been evaluated for the press archives, their broad international distribution provides access to the history of political thought and receptive history of the covered topics.
The collected publications go back as far as 1826. While the persons archive was only available in paper form until its partial digitization, the holdings of the topics and companies archives have been saved every ten years on roll film or microfiche since the 1960s and the paper clippings were pulped; the holdings of the Kiel Wirtschaftsarchiv are less comprehensively documented. They are subdivided into a topics archive, which served the research and teaching of the IfW and, microfilmed up to 1945, a personal archive, only in paper form, which contains publications of these persons, a home archive with publications about the IfW itself in paper; the archive on corporate bodies, which in 1958 comprised 4800 companies and more than 5600 German and international scientific and cultural societies and institutions, political parties and trade associations. And represented "one of the most complete collections for twentieth-century business history" is not mentioned any more in the archive's profile.
The "war archive" of 1914-1918, which comprehended one million clippings, was destroyed by a bomb strike in 1942. For 1958, when six scientific experts and more than 30 employees in total were collecting and organizing the material, the total extent of the archive was estimated a
The food industry is a complex, global collective of diverse businesses that supplies most of the food consumed by the world's population. Only subsistence farmers, those who survive on what they grow, hunter-gatherers can be considered outside the scope of the modern food industry; the food Industry includes: Agriculture: raising crops and seafood Manufacturing: agrichemicals, agricultural construction, farm machinery and supplies, etc. Food processing: preparation of fresh products for market, manufacture of prepared food products Marketing: promotion of generic products, new products, marketing campaigns, public relations, etc. Wholesale and food distribution: logistics, warehousing Foodservice Grocery, farmers' markets, public markets and other retailing Regulation: local, regional and international rules and regulations for food production and sale, including food quality, food security, food safety, marketing/advertising, industry lobbying activities Education: academic, vocational Research and development: food technology Financial services: credit, insurance It is challenging to find an inclusive way to cover all aspects of food production and sale.
The UK Food Standards Agency describes it thus: "...the whole food industry – from farming and food production and distribution, to retail and catering."The Economic Research Service of the USDA uses the term food system to describe the same thing: "The U. S. food system is a complex network of the industries that link to them. Those links include makers of farm equipment and chemicals as well as firms that provide services to agribusinesses, such as providers of transportation and financial services; the system includes the food marketing industries that link farms to consumers, which include food and fiber processors, wholesalers and foodservice establishments."The term food industries covers a series of industrial activities directed at the processing, preparation and packaging of foodstuffs. The food industry today has become diversified, with manufacturing ranging from small, family-run activities that are labor intensive, to large, capital-intensive and mechanized industrial processes.
Many food industries depend entirely on local agriculture or fishing. Agriculture is the process of producing food, feeding products and other desired products by the cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals; the practice of agriculture is known as "farming". Scientists and others devoted to improving farming methods and implements are said to be engaged in agriculture. 1 in 3 people worldwide are employed in agriculture, yet it only contributes 3% to global GDP. Agronomy is the science and technology of producing and using plants for food, fuel and land reclamation. Agronomy encompasses work in the areas of plant genetics, plant physiology and soil science. Agronomy is the application of a combination of sciences. Agronomists today are involved with many issues including producing food, creating healthier food, managing environmental impact of agriculture, extracting energy from plants. Food processing includes the methods and techniques used to transform raw ingredients into food for human consumption.
Food processing takes clean, harvested or slaughtered and butchered components and uses them to produce marketable food products. There are several different ways. One-off production: This method is used when customers make an order for something to be made to their own specifications, for example a wedding cake; the making of one-off products could take days depending on. Batch production: This method is used when the size of the market for a product is not clear, where there is a range within a product line. A certain number of the same goods will be produced to make up a batch or run, for example a bakery may bake a limited number of cupcakes; this method involves estimating consumer demand. Mass production: This method is used when there is a mass market for a large number of identical products, for example chocolate bars, ready meals and canned food; the product passes from one stage of production to another along a production line. Just-in-time: This method of production is used in restaurants.
All components of the product are available in-house and the customer chooses what they want in the product. It is prepared in a kitchen, or in front of the buyer as in sandwich delicatessens and sushi bars; the food industry has a large influence on consumerism. Organizations, such as The American Academy of Family Physicians, have been criticized for accepting monetary donations from companies within the food industry, such as Coca-Cola; these donations have been criticized for creating a conflict of interest and favoring an interest such as financial gains. Since World War II, agriculture in the United States and the entire national food system in its entirety has been characterized by models that focus on monetary profitability at the expense of social and environmental integrity. Regulations exist to protect consumers and somewhat balance this economic orientation with public interests for food quality, food security, food safety, animal well-being, environmental protection and health. A vast global cargo network connects the numerous parts of the industry.
These include suppliers, warehousers and the end consumers. Wholesale markets for fresh food products have tended to decline in importance in urbanizing countries, including Latin America and some Asian countries a
East Germany the German Democratic Republic, was a country that existed from 1949 to 1990, when the eastern portion of Germany was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War. It described itself as a socialist "workers' and peasants' state", the territory was administered and occupied by Soviet forces at the end of World War II — the Soviet Occupation Zone of the Potsdam Agreement, bounded on the east by the Oder–Neisse line; the Soviet zone did not include it. The German Democratic Republic was established in the Soviet zone, while the Federal Republic was established in the three western zones. East Germany was a satellite state of the Soviet Union. Soviet occupation authorities began transferring administrative responsibility to German communist leaders in 1948, the GDR began to function as a state on 7 October 1949. However, Soviet forces remained in the country throughout the Cold War; until 1989, the GDR was governed by the Socialist Unity Party, though other parties nominally participated in its alliance organisation, the National Front of Democratic Germany.
The SED made the teaching of Marxism -- the Russian language compulsory in schools. The economy was centrally planned and state-owned. Prices of housing, basic goods and services were set by central government planners rather than rising and falling through supply and demand. Although the GDR had to pay substantial war reparations to the USSR, it became the most successful economy in the Eastern Bloc. Emigration to the West was a significant problem – as many of the emigrants were well-educated young people, it further weakened the state economically; the government fortified its western borders and, in 1961, built the Berlin Wall. Many people attempting to flee were killed by border guards or booby traps, such as landmines. Several others were imprisoned for many years. In 1989, numerous social and political forces in the GDR and abroad led to the fall of the Berlin Wall and the establishment of a government committed to liberalisation; the following year, open elections were held, international negotiations led to the signing of the Final Settlement treaty on the status and borders of Germany.
The GDR dissolved itself, Germany was reunified on 3 October 1990, becoming a sovereign state again. Several of the GDR's leaders, notably its last communist leader Egon Krenz, were prosecuted in reunified Germany for crimes committed during the Cold War. Geographically, the German Democratic Republic bordered the Baltic Sea to the north. Internally, the GDR bordered the Soviet sector of Allied-occupied Berlin, known as East Berlin, administered as the state's de facto capital, it bordered the three sectors occupied by the United States, United Kingdom and France known collectively as West Berlin. The three sectors occupied by the Western nations were sealed off from the rest of the GDR by the Berlin Wall from its construction in 1961 until it was brought down in 1989; the official name was Deutsche Demokratische Republik abbreviated to DDR. Both terms were used in East Germany, with increasing usage of the abbreviated form since East Germany considered West Germans and West Berliners to be foreigners following the promulgation of its second constitution in 1968.
West Germans, the western media and statesmen avoided the official name and its abbreviation, instead using terms like Ostzone, Sowjetische Besatzungszone, sogenannte DDR. The centre of political power in East Berlin was referred to as Pankow. Over time, the abbreviation DDR was increasingly used colloquially by West Germans and West German media; the term Westdeutschland, when used by West Germans, was always a reference to the geographic region of Western Germany and not to the area within the boundaries of the Federal Republic of Germany. However, this use was not always consistent. Before World War II, Ostdeutschland was used to describe all the territories east of the Elbe, as reflected in the works of sociologist Max Weber and political theorist Carl Schmitt. Explaining the internal impact of the DDR regime from the perspective of German history in the long term, historian Gerhard A. Ritter has argued that the East German state was defined by two dominant forces – Soviet Communism on the one hand, German traditions filtered through the interwar experiences of German Communists on the other.
It always was constrained by the powerful example of the prosperous West, to which East Germans compared their nation. The changes wrought by the Communists were most apparent in ending capitalism and transforming industry and agriculture, in the militarization of society, in the political thrust of the educational system and the media. On the other hand, there was little change made in the independent domains of the sciences, the engineering professions, the Protestant churches, in many bourgeois lifestyles. Social policy, says Ritter, became a critical legitimization tool in the last decades and mixed socialist and traditional elements about equally. At the Yalta Conference during World War II, the Allies (the U. S. the UK and
Salt is a mineral composed of sodium chloride, a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts. Salt is present in vast quantities in seawater; the open ocean has about 35 grams of solids per liter of sea water, a salinity of 3.5%. Salt is essential for life in general, saltiness is one of the basic human tastes. Salt is one of the oldest and most ubiquitous food seasonings, salting is an important method of food preservation; some of the earliest evidence of salt processing dates to around 6,000 BC, when people living in the area of present-day Romania boiled spring water to extract salts. Salt was prized by the ancient Hebrews, the Greeks, the Romans, the Byzantines, the Hittites and the Indians. Salt became an important article of trade and was transported by boat across the Mediterranean Sea, along specially built salt roads, across the Sahara on camel caravans; the scarcity and universal need for salt have led nations to go to war over it and use it to raise tax revenues. Salt has other cultural and traditional significance.
Salt is processed from salt mines, by the evaporation of seawater and mineral-rich spring water in shallow pools. Its major industrial products are caustic chlorine. Of the annual global production of around two hundred million tonnes of salt, about 6% is used for human consumption. Other uses include water conditioning processes, de-icing highways, agricultural use. Edible salt is sold in forms such as sea salt and table salt which contains an anti-caking agent and may be iodised to prevent iodine deficiency; as well as its use in cooking and at the table, salt is present in many processed foods. Sodium is an essential nutrient for human health via its role as an osmotic solute. Excessive salt consumption may increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, in children and adults; such health effects of salt have long been studied. Accordingly, numerous world health associations and experts in developed countries recommend reducing consumption of popular salty foods; the World Health Organization recommends that adults should consume less than 2,000 mg of sodium, equivalent to 5 grams of salt per day.
All through history, the availability of salt has been pivotal to civilization. What is now thought to have been the first city in Europe is Solnitsata, in Bulgaria, a salt mine, providing the area now known as the Balkans with salt since 5400 BC; the name Solnitsata means "salt works". While people have used canning and artificial refrigeration to preserve food for the last hundred years or so, salt has been the best-known food preservative for meat, for many thousands of years. A ancient salt-works operation has been discovered at the Poiana Slatinei archaeological site next to a salt spring in Lunca, Neamț County, Romania. Evidence indicates that Neolithic people of the Precucuteni Culture were boiling the salt-laden spring water through the process of briquetage to extract the salt as far back as 6050 BC; the salt extracted from this operation may have had a direct correlation to the rapid growth of this society's population soon after its initial production began. The harvest of salt from the surface of Xiechi Lake near Yuncheng in Shanxi, dates back to at least 6000 BC, making it one of the oldest verifiable saltworks.
There is more salt in animal tissues, such as meat and milk, than in plant tissues. Nomads who subsist on their flocks and herds do not eat salt with their food, but agriculturalists, feeding on cereals and vegetable matter, need to supplement their diet with salt. With the spread of civilization, salt became one of the world's main trading commodities, it was of high value to the ancient Hebrews, the Greeks, the Romans, the Byzantines, the Hittites and other peoples of antiquity. In the Middle East, salt was used to ceremonially seal an agreement, the ancient Hebrews made a "covenant of salt" with God and sprinkled salt on their offerings to show their trust in him. An ancient practice in time of war was salting the earth: scattering salt around in a defeated city to prevent plant growth; the Bible tells the story of King Abimelech, ordered by God to do this at Shechem, various texts claim that the Roman general Scipio Aemilianus Africanus ploughed over and sowed the city of Carthage with salt after it was defeated in the Third Punic War.
Salt may have been used for barter in connection with the obsidian trade in Anatolia in the Neolithic Era. Salt was included among funeral offerings found in ancient Egyptian tombs from the third millennium BC, as were salted birds, salt fish. From about 2800 BC, the Egyptians began exporting salt fish to the Phoenicians in return for Lebanon cedar and the dye Tyrian purple. Herodotus described salt trading routes across Libya back in the 5th century BC. In the early years of the Roman Empire, roads were built for the transportation of salt from the salt imported at Ostia to the capital. In Africa, salt was used as currency south of the Sahara, slabs of rock salt were used as coins in Abyssinia. Moorish merchants in the 6th century traded salt for weight for weight; the Tuareg have traditionally maintained routes across the Sahara for the transportation of salt by Azalai. The caravans
German National Library of Economics
The German National Library of Economics is the world’s largest research infrastructure for economic literature, online as well as offline. The ZBW is a member of the Leibniz Association and has been a foundation under public law since 2007. Several times the ZBW received the international LIBER award for its innovative work in librarianship; the ZBW allows for access of millions of documents and research on economics, partnering with over 40 research institutions to create a connective Open Access portal and social web of research. Through its EconStor and EconBiz and students have accessed millions of datasets and thousands of articles; the ZBW edits two journals: Wirtschaftsdienst and Intereconomics. The ZBW is Germany's central subject research infrastructure for economics in Germany, its mandate is to acquire, to index, to archive theoretical and empirical literature and subject-specific information from economics and business studies, to provide access to these materials to the general public on a national basis.
The ZBW acquires all publications from related and auxiliary disciplines focussing on economics, in order to accommodate the increasing tendency towards interdisciplinary work in economic research. The ZBW is part of the system of national literature provision within the German Research Foundation; the ZBW holds 4.4 million items. The ZBW subscribes to more than 27,100 journals and enables access to 2.3 million electronic documents. The search portal. More than 134,000 full-texts from German research institutes and universities are available online and free of charge on the repository EconStor; the ZBW creates content-descriptive metadata not only for books, but for articles in journals and working papers, i.e. they are indexed with keywords from the Standard Thesaurus for Economics. The ZBW maintains the search portal EconBiz containing more than 10 million datasets of bibliographic references for economics and business studies; the ZBW offers an online reference service, Research Guide EconDesk, which provides guidance for literature and data searches in economics and business studies.
The ZBW is an active player in the Open Access movement which aims for free access to scholarly research output. It is the chief negotiator for national licences in economics in Germany; the repository EconStor serves as a platform for the free publication of research output in economics. Authors and publishing institutions can publish without charges on EconStor. More than 400 institutions use EconStor for the digital dissemination of their publications in Open Access, it is an input service for RePEc and one of its most used archives. All titles in EconStor are indexed by search engines such as Google, Google Scholar and BASE, distributed to databases such as WoldCat, OpenAire and EconBiz; the ZBW Journal Data Archive is a service for the editors of scholarly journals in economics. Editors can deposit datasets and other material relating to empirical articles and provide access to them in order to enable reproducibility of published research findings; the ZBW publishes two journals of Wirtschaftsdienst and Intereconomics.
The ZBW provides support for researchers dealing with the different aspects of the digitisation of the science system, such as publishing in Open Access or research data management. The ZBW participates in international projects to develop new services for its users. GeRDI – Generic Research Data Infrastructure; the project aims to develop a linked-up research data infrastructure. It aims to link existing and future research data centres all over Germany; this allows scientists to search for and re-use research data across disciplines and without barriers. The ZBW coordinates the project, funded by the German Research Foundation. Linked Open Citation Database; the project LOC-DB develops tools and processes based on linked data technologies that will enable individual libraries to participate in an open, distributed infrastructure for the indexation of citations. It aims to show that extensive automation of metadata creation can produce relevant added value to scholarly information discovery. Metrics: MEasuring The Reliability and perception of Indicators for interactions with sCientific productS.
The project focuses on gaining a deeper understanding of alternative indicators for measuring scientific performance. Under review are the quality and reliability of the indicators, but how far they are able to map discipline-specific differences. MOVING: the project aims to build a working environment for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of large collections of documents and data; the ZBW is the research partner for text and data mining and the scientific coordinator, contributes its expertise in the field of Science 2.0. Digital Imperial Statistics: Historical statistics are not available online. In this pilot project, the German Imperial Statistics 1873-1883 have been digitised and processed into a format that researchers can download for re-use in spreadsheets; this project is funded by the German Research Foundation. Digital preservation: Because of the rapid technical development of recent years, information is only available in digital form. At the same time, the hard- and software needed for reading this information becomes obsolete more rapidly.
Digital preservation ensures. To this end, the ZBW cooperates with two other German Libraries, the Leibniz Information Centre for Science and Technology (TIB