Bandy is a team winter sport played on ice, in which skaters use sticks to direct a ball into the opposing team's goal. The sport is considered a form of hockey and has a common background with association football, ice hockey and field hockey. Like football, the game is played in halves of 45 minutes each, there are eleven players on each team, the bandy field is about the same size as a football pitch, it is played on ice like ice hockey, but like field hockey, players use bowed sticks and a small ball. A variant of bandy, rink bandy, is played to the same rules but on a field the size of an ice hockey rink, with ice hockey goal cages and with six players on each team, or five in USA Rink Bandy League. Traditional eleven-a-side bandy and rink bandy are recognized by the International Olympic Committee. More informal varieties exist, like seven-a-side bandy with sized goal cages but without corner strokes; those rules were applied at Davos Cup in 2016. Rink bandy has in turn led to the creation of the sport rinkball.
Bandy is the predecessor of floorball, invented when people started playing with plastic bandy-shaped sticks and lightweight balls when running on the floors of indoor gym halls. Based on the number of participating athletes, bandy is the world's second-most participated winter sport after ice hockey. Bandy is ranked as the number two winter sport in terms of tickets sold per day of competitions at the sport's world championship. However, compared with the seven Winter Olympic sports, bandy's popularity among other winter sports across the globe is considered by the International Olympic Committee to have a, "gap between popularity and participation and global audiences", a roadblock to future Olympic inclusion; the earliest origin of the sport is debated. Though many Russians see their old countrymen as the creators of the sport – reflected by the unofficial title for bandy, "Russian hockey" – Russia and Holland each had sports or pastimes which can be seen as forerunners of the present sport.
English bandy developed as a winter sport in the Fens of East Anglia. Large expanses of ice would form on the flooded meadows or shallow washes in cold winters, skating has been a tradition. Members of the Bury Fen Bandy Club published rules of the game in 1882, introduced it into other countries; the first international match took place in 1891 between Bury Fen and the Haarlemsche Hockey & Bandy Club from the Netherlands. The same year, the National Bandy Association was started in England; the match dubbed "the original bandy match", was held in 1875 at The Crystal Palace in London. However, at the time, the game was called "hockey on the ice" as it was considered an ice variant of field hockey; the first national bandy league was started in Sweden in 1902. Bandy was played at the Nordic Games in Stockholm and Kristiania in 1901, 1903, 1905 and between Swedish and Russian teams at similar games in Helsinki in 1907. A European championship was held in 1913 with eight countries participating. In modern times, Russia has held a top position in the bandy area, both as a founding nation of the International Federation in 1955 and fielding the most successful team in the World Championships.
The highest altitude where bandy has been played is in the capital of the Tajik autonomous province of Gorno-Badakhshan, Khorugh. As a precursor to ice hockey bandy has influenced its development and history – in European and former Soviet countries. While modern ice hockey was created in Canada, a game more similar to bandy was played after British soldiers introduced the game in the late 19th century. At the same time as modern ice hockey rules were formalized in British North America, bandy rules were formulated in Europe. A cross between English and Russian bandy rules developed, with the football-inspired English rules dominant, together with the Russian low border along most of the two sidelines, this is the basis of the present sport since the 1950s. Before Canadians introduced ice hockey into Europe in the early 20th century, "hockey" was another name for bandy, still is in parts of Russia and Kazakhstan. With football and bandy being dominant sports in parts of Europe, it was common for sports clubs to have bandy and football sections, with athletes playing both sports at different times of the year.
Some examples are English Nottingham Forest Football and Bandy Club and Norwegian Strømsgodset IF and Mjøndalen IF, with the latter still having an active bandy section. In Sweden, most football clubs which were active during the first half of the 20th Century played bandy; as the season for each sport increased in time, it was not as easy for the players to engage in both sports, so some clubs came to concentrate on one or the other. Many old clubs still have both sports on their program. Both bandy and ice hockey were played in Europe during the 20th century in Sweden and Norway. Ice hockey became more popular than bandy in most of Europe because it had become an Olympic sport, while bandy had not. Athletes in Europe who had played bandy switched to ice hockey in the 1920s to compete in the Olympics; the smaller ice fields needed for ice hockey made its rinks easier to maintain in countries with short winters. On the other hand, ice hockey was not played in the Soviet Union until the 1950s when the USSR wanted to compete internationally.
The typical European style of ice hockey, with flowing, less physical play, represents a heritage of bandy. The sp
Västmanland County is a county or län in central Sweden. It borders to the counties of Södermanland, Örebro, Gävleborg and Uppsala; the county has a stretch of shoreline towards Mälaren. For history and culture, see: Västmanland The main aim of the County Administrative Board is to fulfil the goals set in national politics by the Riksdag and the Government, to coordinate the interests of the county, to promote the development of the county, to establish regional goals and safeguard the due process of law in the handling of each case; the County Administrative Board is a Government Agency headed by a Governor. See List of Västmanland Governors; the County Council of Västmanland or Landstinget Västmanland. Lake at the lower right is Mälaren. Arboga Fagersta Hallstahammar Kungsör Köping Norberg Sala Skinnskatteberg Surahammar Västerås The County of Västmanland inherited its coat of arms from the province of Västmanland; when it is shown with a royal crown it represents the County Administrative Board.
Football in the county is administered by Västmanlands Fotbollförbund. Bandy is popular, with the most successful Swedish team Västerås SK. Several Bandy World Championship finals have been played in Västerås. Västmanland County Administrative Board Västmanland County Council
Swedish Football Association
The Swedish Football Association is the governing and head body of football in Sweden. It organises the football leagues — Allsvenskan for men and Damallsvenskan for women — and the men's and women's national teams, it is based in Solna and is a founding member of both FIFA and UEFA. SvFF is supported by 24 district organisations. Svenska Fotbollförbundet was founded on 18 December 1904 and is the sports federation responsible for the promotion and administration of organised football in Sweden and represents the country outside Sweden. SvFF is affiliated to the Swedish Sports Confederation and the Fédération Internationale de Football Association and Union of European Football Associations. Karl-Erik Nilsson has been the President since 2012. In 2009 there were 3,359 clubs affiliated to the Svenska Fotbollförbundet with a total of more than a million members, of whom about 500,000 were active players. Together, they accounted for one third of the total Swedish sports movement activities. SvFF administers the Swedish men's women's national football teams, other football teams and leagues including the Allsvenskan and Superettan.
The motto of Swedish football – "one club in every village, football for all" – is reflected in the democratic constitution of Swedish football. All football competition in the nation is arranged by its 24 district organisations; the clubs are voting members at the annual meetings of the district organisations. The district organisations and the elite clubs are entitled to vote at the F. A.'s general meeting. SvFF was the sole owner of Sweden's national stadium, the Råsunda Stadium in Solna, from 1999 until it was replaced in 2012 by Friends Arena, located about 1 kilometer away and in Solna. SvFF is the lead partner in the consortium that owns the current stadium, maintains its offices there; the Swedish Football Association Football Gala is held annually in November since 2005. It includes the award for female players. SvFF had a turnover 2008 of 554 MSEK; the first Swedish national football championship was played in 1896 but it was 7 years in 1903 that the Riksidrottsförbundet was formed, to be the precursor to the Svenska Fotbollförbundet.
The new organisation had a hockey section. In 1904 Sweden was one of 7 nations that founded FIFA, it introduced ice hockey to Sweden in 1920, before the 1922 establishment of the Swedish Ice Hockey Association. Before the 1925 establishment of the Swedish Bandy Association, the Swedish Football Association administered organized bandy in Sweden. In 1906 the name Svenska Fotbollförbundet was accepted and the following year SvFF was voted into FIFA. On 12 July 1908, Sweden's first international match was played in which Norway were defeated 11–3 in Gothenburg; however the Olympics were a disappointment for Sweden, losing 1–12 to England and 0–2 to the Netherlands. Svenska Fotbollförbundet is responsible for organising the following competitions: Allsvenskan Superettan Division 1 – two sections Division 2 – six sections Division 3 – twelve sections Folksam utvecklingsserie – two sections Damallsvenskan Elitettan Division 1 Norrettan Division 1 Söderettan Division 2 – nine sections Juniorallsvenskan Pojkallsvenskan Svenska Cupen – Men Svenska Cupen – Women CANAL+-cupen – Junior Boys Cup Kommunal – Junior Girls FIFA World CupRunners-up Third place Olympic GamesWinners Third place FIFA U-17 World CupThird place UEFA European Under-21 ChampionshipWinners Runners-up FIFA Women's World CupRunners-up Third place Olympic GamesRunners-up UEFA Women's ChampionshipWinners Runners-up UEFA Women's Under-19 ChampionshipWinners Runners-up UEFA Women's Under-17 ChampionshipRunners-up Swedish football is built on a single pyramid league system.
While the SvFF administers the top leagues, the 24 district or regional associations administers youth football and the lower tier leagues from Division 4 and Division 3 and further below. The 24 district organisations are as follows: Swedish Football Association Svenska Fotbollslandslagen Facebook Sweden at FIFA site Sweden at UEFA site
Hallstahammar is a locality and the seat of Hallstahammar Municipality in Västmanland County, Sweden with 10,478 inhabitants in 2010. The King Gustaf Vasa built Strömsholm Castle along the lake about 1558, its current appearance goes back to the 1680s. Today it hosts an interesting museum; the town is situated by the small river Kolbäcksån. Along that river many industries were established, in 1628 the first smithy was built. In 1795 the Strömsholm Canal was inaugurated; the town became a centre for commerce. In the 1930s it was shaped as a typical Swedish industrial town with close ties to the engineering industry. From the 1970s on, that industry has lost its strong significance; the Swedish soap opera Vänner och Fiender, which aired between 1996 and 2000, was recorded in the studio known as Hollyhammar. The local bus traffic in Hallstahammar is free of charge, one of few Swedish experiments with that type of service. Steel production company Ovako has a production site in Hallstahammar. Anders Hans Karlsson and agronomist Thore Skogman, singer and entertainer Hans von Kantzow, engineer Sofi Flinck and field athlete Emma Strandberg, beauty queen, model
Away colours are a choice of coloured clothing used in team sports. They are required to be worn by one team during a game between teams that would otherwise wear the same colours as each other, or similar colours; this change prevents confusion for officials and spectators. In most sports, it is the visiting or road team that must change – second-choice kits are known as away kits or change kits in British English, road uniforms in American English; some sports leagues mandate that away teams must always wear an alternative kit, while others state that the two teams' colours should not match. In some sports, conventionally the home team has changed its kit. In most cases, a team wears its away kit only when its primary kit would clash with the colours of the home team. However, sometimes teams wear away colours by choice even in a home game. At some clubs, the away kit has become more popular than the home version. Replica home and away kits are available for fans to buy; some teams have produced third-choice kits, or old-fashioned throwback uniforms.
In North American sports, road teams wear a change uniform regardless of a potential colour clash. "Color vs. color" games are a rarity, having been discouraged in the era of black-and-white television. All road uniforms are white in gridiron football and the National Hockey League, while in baseball, visitors wear grey. In the National Basketball Association and NCAA basketball, home uniforms are white or yellow, visiting teams wear the darker colour. Most teams choose to wear their colour jerseys at home, with the road team changing to white in most cases. White road uniforms gained prominence with the rise of television in the 1950s. A "white vs. color" game was easier to follow in black-and-white. According to Phil Hecken, "until the mid 1950′s, not only was color versus color common in the NFL, it was the norm." Long after the advent of colour television, the use of white jerseys has remained in every game. The NFL's current rules require that a team's home jerseys must be "either white or official team color" throughout the season, "and visiting clubs must wear the opposite".
If a team insists on wearing its home uniforms on the road, the NFL Commissioner must judge on whether their uniforms are "of sufficient contrast" with those of their opponents. The road team might instead wear a third jersey, such as the Seattle Seahawks' "Wolf Grey" alternate. According to the Gridiron Uniform Database, the Cleveland Browns wore white for every home game of the 1955 season; the only times they wore brown was for games at Philadelphia and the New York Giants, when the Eagles and Giants chose to wear white. In 1964 the Baltimore Colts, Cleveland Browns, Minnesota Vikings and Los Angeles Rams wore white for their home games according to Tim Brulia's research; the St. Louis Cardinals wore white for several of their home games, as well as the Dallas Cowboys; until 1964 Dallas had worn blue at home, but it was not an official rule that teams should wear their coloured jerseys at home. The use of white jerseys was introduced by general manager Tex Schramm, who wanted fans to see a variety of opponents' jersey colours at home games.
The Cowboys still wear white at home today. White has been worn at home by the Miami Dolphins, Washington Redskins, Philadelphia Eagles, several other NFL teams. Teams in cities with hot climates choose white jerseys at home during the first half of the season, because light colours absorb and retain less heat in sunlight – as such, the Dolphins, who stay white year-round, will use their coloured jerseys for home night games; every current NFL team except the Seattle Seahawks has worn white at home at some time in its history. During the successful Joe Gibbs era, the Washington Redskins chose to wear white at home in the 1980s and 1990s, including the 1982 NFC Championship Game against Dallas. Since 2001 the Redskins have chosen to wear white jerseys and burgundy jerseys equally in their home games, but they still wear white against the Cowboys; when Gibbs returned from 2004 to 2007, they wore white at home exclusively. In 2007, they wore a white throwback jersey; the Dallas Cowboys' blue jersey has been popularly viewed to be "jinxed" because of defeats at Super Bowl V in 1971, in the 1968 divisional playoffs at Cleveland, Don Meredith's final game as a Cowboys player.
Dallas's only victory in a conference championship or Super Bowl wearing the blue jerseys was in the 1978 NFC Championship game at the Los Angeles Rams. Super Bowl rules changed to allow the designated home team to pick their choice of jersey. White was chosen by the Cowboys, the Redskins, the Pittsburgh Steelers, the Denver Broncos, the New England Patriots; the latter three teams wear colours at home, but Pittsburgh had worn white in three road playoff wins, while Denver cited its previous Super Bowl success in white jerseys, while being 0–4 when wearing orange in Super Bowls. Teams playing against Dallas at home wear their white jerseys to try to invoke the "curse", as when the Philadelphia Eagles hosted the Cowboys in the 1980 NFC Championship Game. Teams including the St. Louis Cardinals and New York Giants followed suit in the 1980s, the Carolina Panthers did so from 1995 until 2006, including two playoff games; the Hous
Sweden women's national football team
Sweden women's national football team won the European Competition for Women's Football in 1984, one World Cup-silver, as well as three European Championship-silvers. The team has participated in six Olympic Games, seven World Cups, as well as nine European Championships. Sweden won the bronze medal at the 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup; the 2003 World Cup-final was the second most watched event in Sweden that year. Lotta Schelin is the top goalscorer in the history of Sweden with 85 goals. Schelin surpassed Hanna Ljungberg's 72-goal record against Germany on 29 October 2014; the player with the most caps is Therese Sjögran, with 214. The team was coached by Thomas Dennerby from 2005 to 2012, the current trainer is Pia Sundhage, who joined in September'12 after most winning the Olympic gold medal in London with the United States. Sundhage's contract goes into effect in December 2012. After winning the two qualifying matches against Denmark for the Beijing 2008 Olympics, the Swedish Olympic Committee approved of record increases in investments for the women's team.
The new budget granted over a million SEK for the team and 150,000 SEK per player for developing physical fitness. The new grants are a 100% increase of the 2005 and 2006 season funds; the developments and conditions of the Sweden women's national football team can be seen in the Sveriges Television documentary television series The Other Sport from 2013. *Denotes draws include knockout matches decided on penalty kicks. ** Gold background color indicates. Red border color indicates; the Algarve Cup is a global invitational tournament for national teams in women's soccer hosted by the Portuguese Football Federation. Held annually in the Algarve region of Portugal since 1994, it is one of the most prestigious women's football events, alongside the Women's World Cup and Women's Olympic Football. UEFA Women's Euro Champion: 1984 Olympic Games Silver Medal, 2016 Algarve CupChampion: 1995, 2001, 2009, 2018 Nordic ChampionshipChampion: 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981 Cyprus TournamentChampion: 1990, 1992 North America CupChampion: 1987 Australia CupChampion: 2003 The following table shows Sweden's all-time international record, from 1973 to 2016.
The following players were selected for the friendly vs. England on 11 November 2018. Caps and goals as of 24 October 2018. Head coach: Peter Gerhardsson The following players have been named to a squad in the last 12 months; this list may be incomplete. INJ Withdrew due to an injury. PRE Preliminary squad. *Active players in bold, statistics as of 24 October 2018. *Statistics as of 24 October 2018. Official website FIFA profile
Handball is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each pass a ball using their hands with the aim of throwing it into the goal of the other team. A standard match consists of two periods of 30 minutes, the team that scores more goals wins. Modern handball is played on a court of 40 with a goal in the middle of each end; the goals are surrounded by a 6-meter zone. The sport is played indoors, but outdoor variants exist in the forms of field handball and Czech handball and beach handball; the game is fast and high-scoring: professional teams now score between 20 and 35 goals each, though lower scores were not uncommon until a few decades ago. Body contact is permitted, the defenders trying to stop the attackers from approaching the goal. No protective equipment is mandated, but players may wear soft protective bands and mouth guards; the game was codified at the end of the 19th century in Denmark. The modern set of rules was published in 1917 in Germany, had several revisions since; the first international games were played under these rules for men in 1925 and for women in 1930.
Men's handball was first played at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin as outdoors, the next time at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich as indoors, has been an Olympic sport since. Women's team handball was added at the 1976 Summer Olympics; the International Handball Federation was formed in 1946 and, as of 2016, has 197 member federations. The sport is most popular in the countries of continental Europe, which have won all medals but one in the men's world championships since 1938. In the women's world championships, only two non-European countries have won the title: South Korea and Brazil; the game enjoys popularity in East Asia, North Africa and parts of South America. There is evidence of ancient Roman women playing a version of handball called expulsim ludere. There are records of handball-like games in medieval France, among the Inuit in Greenland, in the Middle Ages. By the 19th century, there existed similar games of håndbold from Denmark, házená in the Czech Republic, handbol in Ukraine, torball in Germany.
The team handball game of today was codified at the end of the 19th century in northern Europe: in Denmark, Germany and Sweden. The first written set of team handball rules was published in 1906 by the Danish gym teacher and Olympic medalist Holger Nielsen from Ordrup grammar school, north of Copenhagen; the modern set of rules was published on 29 October 1917 by Max Heiser, Karl Schelenz, Erich Konigh from Germany. After 1919 these rules were improved by Karl Schelenz; the first international games were played under these rules, between Germany and Belgium by men in 1925 and between Germany and Austria by women in 1930. In 1926, the Congress of the International Amateur Athletics Federation nominated a committee to draw up international rules for field handball; the International Amateur Handball Federation was formed in 1928 and the International Handball Federation was formed in 1946. Men's field handball was played at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin. During the next several decades, indoor handball flourished and evolved in the Scandinavian countries.
The sport re-emerged onto the world stage as team handball for the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich. Women's team handball was added at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal. Due to its popularity in the region, the Eastern European countries that refined the event became the dominant force in the sport when it was reintroduced; the International Handball Federation organised the men's world championship in 1938 and every four years from World War II to 1995. Since the 1995 world championship in Iceland, the competition has been held every two years; the women's world championship has been held since 1957. The IHF organizes women's and men's junior world championships. By July 2009, the IHF listed 166 member federations - 795,000 teams and 19 million players; the rules are laid out in the IHF's set of rules. Two teams of seven players take the field and attempt to score points by putting the game ball into the opposing team's goal. In handling the ball, players are subject to the following restrictions: After receiving the ball, players can pass, keep possession, or shoot the ball.
If possessing the ball, players must dribble, or can take up to three steps for up to three seconds at a time without dribbling. No attacking or defending players other than the defending goalkeeper are allowed to touch the floor of the goal area. A shot or pass in the goal area is valid. Goalkeepers are allowed outside the goal area, but are not allowed to cross the goal area boundary with the ball in their hands; the ball may not be passed back to the goalkeeper. Notable scoring opportunities can occur. For example, an attacking player may catch a pass while launching inside the goal area, shoot or pass before touching the floor. Doubling occurs. Handball is played on a court 40 with a goal in the centre of each end; the goals are surrounded by a near-semicircular area, called the zone or the crease, defined by a line six meters from the goal. A dashed near-semicircular line nine metres f