Kollum is a village in Noardeast-Fryslân municipality in the province Friesland, the Netherlands. It had a population of around 5529 in January 2017. There is Tochmaland in the village, it was the site of a battle during the Eighty years war in 1581. Before 2019, the village was part of the Kollumerland en Nieuwkruisland municipality; the village made national headlines after the murder of Marianne Vaatstra and subsequent riots which took place in the area in 1999. The case was only solved 13 years after the murder when the perpetrator was arrested after a DNA match. Media related to Kollum at Wikimedia Commons
North Friesland Railway
The North Friesland Railway was a railway serving the sparsely populated north of the Dutch province of Friesland. It was operated by the North Friesland Local Railway Company, it was. The line was about 91 kilometres in length; the NFLS had a network of lines in north Friesland. The lines opened in eight stages: Wetsens station closed in May 1902, less than eight months after opening. On 1 December 1905, the NFLS was taken over by the Hollandsche IJzeren Spoorweg-Maatschappij, which itself was nationalised on 1 December 1938, becoming part of Nederlandse Spoorwegen; the NFLS had a fleet of 10 2-4-2T locomotives, numbered 1-10. They became HSM 1051-60 and NS 7101-10; the locos were built by Maschinenfabrik Hohenzollern. The NFLS had the following passenger stock, all built by Nederlandsche Fabriek van Werktuigen & Spoorwegmaterieel, Amsterdam: The NFLS had the following freight stock: The stock was all built by Nederlandsche Fabriek van Werktuigen & Spoorwegmaterieel, Amsterdam except for the two 6,500 litre water tanks, which were built by Nivelles in 1896, thus acquired second hand.
The lines were closed in stages, with some short term reopenings taking place during the Second World War: All distances are from Leeuwarden station. Leeuwarden 0 km Leeuwarden Rijksweg 3 km Leeuwarden Rijksweg station was demolished in 1970 Jelsum 5 km Jelsum station was demolished in 1944. Cornjum 7 km Britsum 8 km Stiens 9 km Finkum 11 km Finkum station was demolished by 1970 Hijum 13 km Hallum 15 km Hallum station was demolished in 1970 Marrum-Westenijkerk 18 km Ferwerd 20 km Ferwerd station was demolished in 1974 Blija 22 km Holwerd 26 km Ternaard 30 km Hantum 32 km Hantum station was demolished by 1960. Dokkum-Aalsum 37 km Dokkum-Aalsum station was demolished in 1974. Wetsens 40 km Wetsens station closed in May 1902. Metslawier 42 km Morra-Lioessens 45 km Anjum 47 km Vrouwbuurtstermolen 13 km Vrouwenparochie 14 km. Langhuisterweg 16 km St. Annaparochie 17 km Koudeweg 19 km St. Jacobiparochie 21 km. Minnertsga 24 km Firdgum 26 km Tzummarum 27 km Oosterbierum 30 kmOosterbierum station was demolished by 1980.
Sexbierum-Pieterbierum 32 km Wijnaldum 35 km Midlum-Herbaijum 36 km Koetille 38 km Harlingen 39 km. Berlikum Dongjum 31 km Franeker Halte 34 km On 12 June 1927, NS locomotive 7124 derailed near Holwerd and ended up on its side in a dike; the locomotive was returned to service after repairs were made. Spoorlijn Leeuwarden - Anjum Noord-Friesche Locaalspoorweg-Maatschappij Spoorlijn Stiens - Harlingen Spoorlijn Tzummarum - Franeker Information contained in the above articles has been used in compiling this article. Spoar fan Ljouwert nei Eanjum Stationsweb.nl Railway stations in Friesland stichting Noord-Friesche Lokaal Spoorwegmaatschappij
Jannum is a small village in Noardeast-Fryslân municipality in the province of Friesland, the Netherlands. It had a population of around 63 in January 2017. Before 2019, the village was part of the Ferwerderadiel municipality. Media related to Jannum at Wikimedia Commons
Aylvapoldermolen is a smock mill in Burgwerd, Netherlands, restored to working order. The mill is listed as a Rijksmonument, number 15626; the first mill on this site was a smock mill, built in 1827. The mill was known as the Molen van de Tjaard, it drained the Aylvapolder, the first polder established in Friesland in 1680. On 9 November 1959 the mill was burnt down; the present Aylvapoldermolen was built at Hallum in 1846. It was known as the Hoekstermolen; the mill was restored in 1964 and again in 1971. On 4 May 1976 it was sold to Stichting De Fryske Mole. In 1989, the Stichting Aylvapoldermolen was set up with the aim of rebuilding a windmill on the site of the lost mill, it was suggested in 1996 that the Vijfhuistermolen would be a suitable candidate as a replacement because the land it stood on was needed for the expansion of a business in Hallum. The mill was dismantled in 1999 and re-erected in Burgwerd on the site of the original Aylvapoldermolen; the official opening ceremony was performed on 3 June 2009 by Mrs Annemarie Jorritsma, at that time the Minister van Economische Zaken.
Mrs Jorritsma is the daughter of a miller. On 20 August 2009, the mill was set on fire; the fire brigade was able to confine the damage to the thatch on the cap. The mill is equipped with an automatic sprinkler system; the fire brigade used 135,000 litres of water to extinguish the fire. About 6 square metres of thatch was destroyed; the Aylvapoldermolen is what the Dutch describe as an "achtkante grondzeiler". It is a smock mill without a stage, the sails reaching to the ground; the brick base is one storey high with a three-storey smock on top. Both smock and cap are thatched; the four Patent sails, which have a span of 22.00 metres are carried on a cast-iron windshaft. The windshaft carries the brake wheel which has 57 cogs; this drives the wallower at the top of the upright shaft. At the lower end of the upright shaft the crown wheel drives the steel Archimedes' screw via a gear wheel with 48 cogs; the axle of the Archimedes' screw is 660 millimetres diameter and the Archimedes' screw is 1.70 metres diameter.
It is inclined at 22½°. Each revolution of the Archimedes' screw lifts 1,560 litres of water; the mill is open to the public by appointment
Holwerd is a village in Noardeast-Fryslân municipality in the northern Netherlands, in the province of Friesland. It had a population of around 1,607 in January 2017. Before 2019, the village was part of the Dongeradeel municipality. Wadloopcentrum Fryslân in Holwerd is a center for the training of wadlopen guides and the preservation of the sport, it was the birthplace of astronomer Johannes Phocylides Holwarda. There are two windmills in De Hoop and Miedenmolen. Holwerd had a station on the North Friesland Railway, which opened in 1901 and closed to passengers in May 1935, it closed in July 1942. The ferry to Ameland departs from Holwerd. Media related to Holwerd at Wikimedia Commons
Daylight saving time
Daylight saving time daylight savings time or daylight time and summer time, is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times. Regions that use daylight saving time adjust clocks forward one hour close to the start of spring and adjust them backward in the autumn to standard time. In effect, DST causes a lost hour of an extra hour of sleep in the fall. George Hudson proposed the idea of daylight saving in 1895; the German Empire and Austria-Hungary organized the first nationwide implementation starting on April 30, 1916. Many countries have used at various times since particularly since the 1970s energy crisis. DST is not observed near the equator, where sunrise times do not vary enough to justify it; some countries observe it only in some regions. Only a minority of the world's population uses DST, because Asia and Africa do not observe it. DST clock shifts sometimes complicate timekeeping and can disrupt travel, record keeping, medical devices, heavy equipment, sleep patterns.
Computer software adjusts clocks automatically, but policy changes by various jurisdictions of DST dates and timings may be confusing. Industrialized societies follow a clock-based schedule for daily activities that do not change throughout the course of the year; the time of day that individuals begin and end work or school, the coordination of mass transit, for example remain constant year-round. In contrast, an agrarian society's daily routines for work and personal conduct are more governed by the length of daylight hours and by solar time, which change seasonally because of the Earth's axial tilt. North and south of the tropics daylight lasts longer in summer and shorter in winter, with the effect becoming greater the further one moves away from the tropics. By synchronously resetting all clocks in a region to one hour ahead of standard time, individuals who follow such a year-round schedule will wake an hour earlier than they would have otherwise. However, they will have one less hour of daylight at the start of each day, making the policy less practical during winter.
While the times of sunrise and sunset change at equal rates as the seasons change, proponents of Daylight Saving Time argue that most people prefer a greater increase in daylight hours after the typical "nine to five" workday. Supporters have argued that DST decreases energy consumption by reducing the need for lighting and heating, but the actual effect on overall energy use is disputed; the manipulation of time at higher latitudes has little impact on daily life, because the length of day and night changes more throughout the seasons, thus sunrise and sunset times are out of phase with standard working hours regardless of manipulations of the clock. DST is of little use for locations near the equator, because these regions see only a small variation in daylight in the course of the year; the effect varies according to how far east or west the location is within its time zone, with locations farther east inside the time zone benefiting more from DST than locations farther west in the same time zone.
Ancient civilizations adjusted daily schedules to the sun more flexibly than DST does dividing daylight into 12 hours regardless of daytime, so that each daylight hour became progressively longer during spring and shorter during autumn. For example, the Romans kept time with water clocks that had different scales for different months of the year. From the 14th century onwards, equal-length civil hours supplanted unequal ones, so civil time no longer varies by season. Unequal hours are still used in a few traditional settings, such as some monasteries of Mount Athos and all Jewish ceremonies. Benjamin Franklin published the proverb "early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy and wise", he published a letter in the Journal de Paris during his time as an American envoy to France suggesting that Parisians economize on candles by rising earlier to use morning sunlight; this 1784 satire proposed taxing window shutters, rationing candles, waking the public by ringing church bells and firing cannons at sunrise.
Despite common misconception, Franklin did not propose DST. However, this changed as rail transport and communication networks required a standardization of time unknown in Franklin's day. In 1810, the Spanish National Assembly Cortes of Cádiz issued a regulation that moved certain meeting times forward by one hour from May 1 to September 30 in recognition of seasonal changes, but it did not change the clocks, it acknowledged that private businesses were in the practice of changing their opening hours to suit daylight conditions, but they did so of their own volition. New Zealand entomologist George Hudson first proposed modern DST, his shift-work job gave him leisure time to collect insects and led him to value after-hours daylight. In 1895, he presented a paper to the Wellington Philosophical Society proposing a two-hour daylight-saving shift, considerable interest was expressed in
Hiaure is a small village in Noardeast-Fryslân in the province of Friesland, the Netherlands. It had a population of around 65 in January 2017. Before 2019, the village was part of the Dongeradeel municipality. Media related to Hiaure at Wikimedia Commons