Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation. Its aim is to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species. Jimmy Wales stated that editors are not required to fax in their degrees, but that submissions will have to pass muster with a technical audience. Wikispecies is available under the GNU Free Documentation License and CC BY-SA 3.0. Started in September 2004, with biologists across the world invited to contribute, the project had grown a framework encompassing the Linnaean taxonomy with links to Wikipedia articles on individual species by April 2005. Benedikt Mandl co-ordinated the efforts of several people who are interested in getting involved with the project and contacted potential supporters in early summer 2004. Databases were evaluated and the administrators contacted, some of them have agreed on providing their data for Wikispecies. Mandl defined two major tasks: Figure out how the contents of the data base would need to be presented—by asking experts, potential non-professional users and comparing that with existing databases Figure out how to do the software, which hardware is required and how to cover the costs—by asking experts, looking for fellow volunteers and potential sponsorsAdvantages and disadvantages were discussed by the wikimedia-I mailing list.
The board of directors of the Wikimedia Foundation voted by 4 to 0 in favor of the establishment of a Wikispecies. The project is hosted at species.wikimedia.org. It was merged to a sister project of Wikimedia Foundation on September 14, 2004. On October 10, 2006, the project exceeded 75,000 articles. On May 20, 2007, the project exceeded 100,000 articles with a total of 5,495 registered users. On September 8, 2008, the project exceeded 150,000 articles with a total of 9,224 registered users. On October 23, 2011, the project reached 300,000 articles. On June 16, 2014, the project reached 400,000 articles. On January 7, 2017, the project reached 500,000 articles. On October 30, 2018, the project reached 600,000 articles, a total of 1.12 million pages. Wikispecies comprises taxon pages, additionally pages about synonyms, taxon authorities, taxonomical publications, institutions or repositories holding type specimen. Wikispecies asks users to use images from Wikimedia Commons. Wikispecies does not allow the use of content.
All Species Foundation Catalogue of Life Encyclopedia of Life Tree of Life Web Project List of online encyclopedias The Plant List Wikispecies, The free species directory that anyone can edit Species Community Portal The Wikispecies Charter, written by Wales
Gammaproteobacteria are a class of bacteria. Several medically and scientifically important groups of bacteria belong to this class. Like all Proteobacteria, the Gammaproteobacteria are Gram-negative; the Gammaproteobacteria comprise several medically and scientifically important groups of bacteria, such as the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae. A number of important pathogens belong to e.g. Salmonella spp.. Yersinia pestis, Vibrio cholerae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli. Important plant pathogens such as Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, Xylella fastidiosa are Gammaproteobacteria. Members of Chromatium are photosynthetic and oxidize hydrogen sulfide instead of water, producing sulfur as a waste product; some Gammaproteobacteria are methane oxidizers, many are symbiotic with geothermic ocean vent-dwelling animals. A number of bacteria have been described as members of Gammaproteobacteria, but have not yet been assigned an order or family; these include bacteria of the genera Alkalimarinus, Arenicella, Ignatzschineria, Marinicella, Methylonatrum, Pseudohongiella, Thiohalobacter, Thiohalorhabdus and Wohlfahrtiimonas.
Betaproteobacteria Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings
Carboxysomes are bacterial compartments consisting of polyhedral protein shells filled with the enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase -the predominant enzyme in carbon fixation and the rate limiting enzyme in the Calvin Cycle-and a carbonic anhydrase. Carboxysomes are thought to have evolved as a consequence of the increase in oxygen concentration in the ancient atmosphere. To overcome the inefficiency of RuBisCO, carboxysomes concentrate carbon dioxide inside the shell by means of co-localized carbonic anhydrase activity, which produces carbon dioxide from the bicarbonate that diffuses into the carboxysome; the resulting production of carbon dioxide near RuBisCO decreases the proportion of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate oxygenation and thereby avoids costly photorespiratory reactions. The surrounding shell provides a barrier to carbon dioxide loss, helping to increase its concentration around RuBisCO; the carboxysome is an essential part of the carbon dioxide-concentrating mechanism.
Carboxysomes are the best studied example of a bacterial microcompartment, the term for functionally diverse organelles that are alike in having a protein shell. Polyhedral bodies were discovered by transmission electron microscopy in the cyanobacterium Phormidium uncinatum in 1956; these were observed in other cyanobacteria and in some chemotrophic bacteria that fixed carbon dioxide—many of them are sulfur reducers or nitrogen fixers. The polyhedral bodies were first purified from Thiobacillus neapolitanus in 1973 and shown to contain RuBisCO, held within a rigid outer covering; the authors proposed that since these appeared to be organelles involved in carbon fixation, they should be called carboxysomes. Structurally, carboxysomes quasi-icosahedral. Electron cryo-tomography studies have confirmed the icosahedral geometry of the carboxysome, have imaged protein molecules inside, arranged in a few concentric layers; the non-icosahedral faceted shapes of some carboxysomes can be explained within the elastic theory of heterogeneous thin shells.
The carboxysome has an outer shell composed of a few thousand protein subunits, which encapsulates a CO2-producing enzyme and a carbon-fixing enzyme. Proteins known to form the shell have been structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography; the protein that constitutes the majority of the shell forms a cyclical hexamer and belongs to BMC protein family. These hexamers, BMC-H proteins, are the basic building blocks of the shell. In some crystal forms the hexamers assemble further in a side-by-side fashion to form a packed molecular layer, how the facets of the shell are assembled. Small pores perforate many different types of BMC-H hexamers, may serve as the route for diffusion of small substrates into and out of the carboxysome. Positively charged amino acids in the pores help promote the diffusion of the negatively charged substrates and products. Other minor structural components of the shell that have been characterized include pentameric proteins, which have been proposed to occupy the vertices of the icosahedral shell.
A third building block of the carboxysome shell is a protein composed of two BMC domains in tandem. Structurally, many of these are known to form trimers; some members of the BMC-T protein family form tiny cages. Based on crystal structures, these protein cages have large gated pores on both sides, it has been proposed that the opening and closing of the pore could be controlled in a manner similar to an air-lock; such an air-lock, in contrast to BMC-H proteins with constitutively open pores, has been suggested to serve as a route for larger substrates and products that must cross the shell. A number of viral capsids are icosahedral, composed of hexameric and pentameric proteins, but there is no evidence suggesting any evolutionary relationship between the carboxysome shell and viral capsids. There are two types of carboxysomes. Although they may seem similar in appearance, they differ in their protein composition, including the form of RuBisCO they enclose. Furthermore, studies have revealed fundamental differences in their gene organization and in how they assemble.
Alpha-carboxysomes are referred as the cso type of carboxysome. They contain Form IA RuBisCO; the alpha-carboxysome was the first bacterial microcompartment to be characterized. Electron microscopy studies on purified alpha-carboxysomes or cell sections containing alpha-carboxysomes revealed that they are 100-160 nm in diameter. Common building blocks for the shell of alpha-carboxysomes are called CsoS1A/B/C, CsoS4A/B, CsoS1D. CsoS4A/B were the first BMC-P proteins to be experimentally demonstrated as minor components of the BMC shell. CsoS1D is first BMC-T, structurally characterized; the CsoS1D cage has gated pore at both end, proposed to facilitate large metabolites crossing the shell. In addition to the specific form of RuBisCO, other encapsulated proteins disti
Proteobacteria is a major phylum of gram-negative bacteria. They include a wide variety of pathogens, such as Escherichia, Vibrio, Yersinia and many other notable genera. Others include many of the bacteria responsible for nitrogen fixation. Carl Woese established this grouping in 1987, calling it informally the "purple bacteria and their relatives"; because of the great diversity of forms found in this group, it was named after Proteus, a Greek god of the sea capable of assuming many different shapes and is not named after the Proteobacteria genus Proteus. Some Alphaproteobacteria can grow at low levels of nutrients and have unusual morphology such as stalks and buds. Others include agriculturally important bacteria capable of inducing nitrogen fixation in symbiosis with plants; the type order is the Caulobacterales. The Betaproteobacteria are metabolically diverse and contain chemolithoautotrophs and generalist heterotrophs; the type order is the Burkholderiales, comprising an enormous range of metabolic diversity, including opportunistic pathogens.
The Hydrogenophilalia are obligate include heterotrophs and autotrophs. The type order is the Hydrogenophilales; the Gammaproteobacteria are the largest class in terms of species with validly published names. The type order is the Pseudomonadales, which include the genera Pseudomonas and the nitrogen-fixing Azotobacter; the Acidithiobacillia contain only sulfur and uranium-oxidising autotrophs. The type order is the Acidithiobacillales, which includes economically important organisms used in the mining industry such as Acidithiobacillus spp; the Deltaproteobacteria include bacteria that are predators on other bacteria and are important contributors to the anaerobic side of the sulfur cycle. The type order is the Myxococcales, which includes organisms with self-organising abilities such as Myxococcus spp; the Epsilonproteobacteria are slender, Gram-negative rods that are helical or curved. The type order is the Campylobacterales, which includes important food pathogens such as Campylobacter spp.
The Oligoflexia are filamentous aerobes. The type order is the Oligoflexales. All "Proteobacteria" are Gram-negative, with an outer membrane composed of lipopolysaccharides. Many move about using flagella; the latter include the myxobacteria, an order of bacteria that can aggregate to form multicellular fruiting bodies. A wide variety in the types of metabolism exists. Most members are facultatively or obligately anaerobic, chemolithoautotrophic, heterotrophic, but numerous exceptions occur. A variety of genera, which are not related to each other, convert energy from light through photosynthesis. "Proteobacteria" are associated with the imbalance of microbiota of the lower reproductive tract of women. These species are associated with inflammation. "Proteobacteria" are part of a healthy placental microbiome. The group is defined in terms of ribosomal RNA sequences; the "Proteobacteria" are divided into six classes with validly published names, referred to by the Greek letters alpha through epsilon and the Acidithiobacillia and Oligoflexia.
These were regarded as subclasses of the phylum, but they are now treated as classes. These classes are monophyletic; the genus Acidithiobacillus, part of the Gammaproteobacteria until it was transferred to class Acidithiobacillia in 2013, was regarded as paraphyletic to the Betaproteobacteria according to multigenome alignment studies. In 2017, the Betaproteobacteria was subject to major revisions and the class Hydrogenophilalia was created to contain the order HydrogenophilalesProteobacterial classes with validly published names include some prominent genera: e.g.: Alphaproteobacteria: Brucella, Agrobacterium, Rickettsia, etc. Betaproteobacteria: Bordetella, Neisseria, etc. Gammaproteobacteria: Escherichia, Salmonella, Buchnera, Vibrio, etc. Deltaproteobacteria: Desulfovibrio, Bdellovibrio, etc. Epsilonproteobacteria: Helicobacter, Wolinella, etc. Oligoflexia: Oligoflexus. Acidithiobacillia: Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Thermithiobacillus tepidarius Hydrogenophilalia: Hydrogenophilus thermoluteolus, Tepidiphilus margaritifer Transformation, a process in which genetic material passes from bacterium to another, has been reported in at least 30 species of "Proteobacteria" distributed in the classes alpha, beta and epsilon.
The best-studied "Proteobacteria" with respect to natural genetic transformation are the medically important human pathogens Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Haemophilus influenzae and Helicobacter pylori. Natural genetic transformation is a sexual process involving DNA transfer from one bacterial cell to another through the intervening medium and the integration of the donor sequence into the recipient genome. In pathogenic "Proteobacteria", transformation appears to serve as a DNA repair process that protects the pathogen's DNA from attack by their host's phagocytic defenses that employ oxidative free radicals. Proteobacteria information from Palaeos. Proteobacteria. – J. P. Euzéby: List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature
An autotroph or primary producer, is an organism that produces complex organic compounds from simple substances present in its surroundings using energy from light or inorganic chemical reactions. They are the producers such as plants on land or algae in water, they do not need a living source of energy or organic carbon. Autotrophs can reduce carbon dioxide to make organic compounds for biosynthesis and create a store of chemical energy. Most autotrophs use water as the reducing agent, but some can use other hydrogen compounds such as hydrogen sulfide; some autotrophs, such as green plants and algae, are phototrophs, meaning that they convert electromagnetic energy from sunlight into chemical energy in the form of reduced carbon. Autotrophs can be chemoautotrophs. Phototrophs use light as an energy source, while chemotrophs use electron donors as a source of energy, whether from organic or inorganic sources; such chemotrophs are lithotrophs. Lithotrophs use inorganic compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide, elemental sulfur and ferrous iron, as reducing agents for biosynthesis and chemical energy storage.
Photoautotrophs and lithoautotrophs use a portion of the ATP produced during photosynthesis or the oxidation of inorganic compounds to reduce NADP+ to NADPH to form organic compounds. The Greek term autotroph was coined by the German botanist Albert Bernhard Frank in 1892, it stems from the ancient Greek word τροφή, meaning "nourishment" or "food". Some organisms rely on organic compounds as a source of carbon, but are able to use light or inorganic compounds as a source of energy; such organisms are not defined rather as heterotrophic. An organism that obtains carbon from organic compounds but obtains energy from light is called a photoheterotroph, while an organism that obtains carbon from organic compounds but obtains energy from the oxidation of inorganic compounds is termed a chemoheterotroph, chemolithoheterotroph, or lithoheterotroph. Evidence suggests that some fungi may obtain energy from radiation; such radiotrophic fungi were found growing inside a reactor of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant.
Autotrophs are fundamental to the food chains of all ecosystems in the world. They take energy from the environment in the form of sunlight or inorganic chemicals and use it to create energy-rich molecules such as carbohydrates; this mechanism is called primary production. Other organisms, called heterotrophs, take in autotrophs as food to carry out functions necessary for their life. Thus, heterotrophs — all animals all fungi, as well as most bacteria and protozoa — depend on autotrophs, or primary producers, for the energy and raw materials they need. Heterotrophs obtain energy by breaking down organic molecules obtained in food. Carnivorous organisms rely on autotrophs indirectly, as the nutrients obtained from their heterotroph prey come from autotrophs they have consumed. Most ecosystems are supported by the autotrophic primary production of plants that capture photons released by the sun. Plants can only use a fraction of this energy for photosynthesis 1% is used by autotrophs; the process of photosynthesis splits a water molecule, releasing oxygen into the atmosphere, reducing carbon dioxide to release the hydrogen atoms that fuel the metabolic process of primary production.
Plants convert and store the energy of the photon into the chemical bonds of simple sugars during photosynthesis. These plant sugars are polymerized for storage as long-chain carbohydrates, including other sugars and cellulose; when autotrophs are eaten by heterotrophs, i.e. consumers such as animals, the carbohydrates and proteins contained in them become energy sources for the heterotrophs. Proteins can be made using nitrates and phosphates in the soil. Electrolithoautotroph Organotroph Electrotroph Primary nutritional groups Heterotrophic nutrition
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a