A talisman is an object that someone believes holds magical properties that bring good luck to the possessor or protect the possessor from evil or harm. According to the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, a magical order active in the United Kingdom during the late 19th and early 20th century, a talisman is "a magical figure charged with the force which it is intended to represent." The Order cautions that one must take great care in creating a talisman and ensure that the physical item's symbolism represents the intended purpose of the talisman. The Order notes that the forces depicted by the item "should be in exact harmony with those you wish to attract, the more exact the symbolism, the easier it is to attract the force." The word talisman comes from French talisman, via Arabic tilism, which comes from the ancient Greek telesma, meaning "completion, religious rite, payment" from the verb teleō, "I complete, perform a rite". Traditional magical schools advise that a talisman should be created by the person who plans to use it.
It is said that the person who makes the talisman must be well-versed in the symbolism of elemental and planetary forces. For example, several known medieval talismans featured geomantic signs and symbols in relation to planets symbols, which are frequently used in geomantic divination and Alchemy. Other features with magical associations—such as colors, symbology and Kabbalistic figures—can be integrated into the creation of a talisman in addition to the chosen planetary or elemental symbolism. However, these must be used in harmony with the elemental or planetary force chosen so as to amplify the intended power of the talisman, it is possible to add a personal touch to the talisman by incorporating a verse, inscription, or pattern, of particular meaning to the maker. These inscriptions can be sigils, bible verses, or sonnets, but they too must be in harmony with the talisman's original purpose. Lea Olsan writes of the use of amulets and talismans as prescribed by medical practitioners in the medieval period.
She notes that the use of such charms and prayers was "rarely a treatment of choice" because such treatments could not be properly justified in the realm of Galen medical teachings. Their use, was considered acceptable. For example, one well-known medieval physician, writes of the necessity of using a talisman to ensure conception of a child, he describes the process of producing this kind of talisman as "...writing words, some uninterruptible, some biblical, on a parchment to be hung around the neck of the man or woman during intercourse." Zulfiqar, the magical sword of Ali, was depicted on Ottoman flags as used by the Janissary cavalry, in the 16th and 17th centuries. This version of the complete prayer of Zulfiqar is frequently invoked in talismans of the Qizilbash warriors: A record of Live like Ali, die like Hussein as part of a longer talismanic inscription was published by Tewfik Canaan in The Decipherment of Persian and sometimes Arabic Talismans; the Seal of Solomon known as the interlaced triangle, is another ancient talisman and amulet, used in several religions.
Reputed to be the emblem by which King Solomon ruled the Genii, it could not have originated with him. Its use has been traced in different cultures long before the Jewish Dispensation; as a talisman it was believed to be all-powerful, the ideal symbol of the absolute, was worn for protection against all fatalities and trouble, to protect its wearer from all evil. In its constitution, the triangle with its apex upwards represents good, with the inverted triangle, evil; the triangle with its apex up was typical of figures that occur in several religions. In India and Japan, its three angles represent Brahma and Shiva, the Creator and Destroyer or Re-generator. In ancient Egypt, it represented the deities Osiris and Horus. In Christianity, it represented the Holy Trinity; as a whole it stands for the elements of spirit, composed of the three virtues. The triangle with its apex downward symbolized the element of water, typified the material world, or the three enemies of the soul: the world, the flesh, the Devil, the cardinal sins, envy and malice.
Therefore, the two triangles interlaced represent the victory of spirit over matter. The early cultures that contributed to Western civilization believed that the Seal of Solomon was an all-powerful talisman and amulet when used with either a Cross of Tau, the Hebrew Yodh, or the Egyptian Crux Ansata in the center; this object, a Talismanic Scroll dating from the 11th-century was discovered in Egypt and produced in the Fatimid Islamic Caliphate. It resides in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art along with a number of other Medieval Islamic amulets and talismans that were donated to the museum by the Abemayor family in 1978. About 9 inches by 3 inches in size, the miniature paper scroll contains a combination of prayers and Quranic verses, was created for placement in an amulet box; this block print bears Kufic, the oldest calligraphic Arabic script, as well as Solomon's Seal, a star with six points, identified in a large number of Islamic art pieces of the period. The swastika, one of the oldest and most widespread talismans known, can be traced to the Stone Age, has been found incised on stone implements of this era.
It can be found in all parts of the Old and New Worlds, on the most prehistoric ruins and remnants. In spite of the assertion by some writers t
A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gestures and objects, performed in a sequestered place, performed according to set sequence. Rituals may be prescribed by the traditions including a religious community. Rituals are characterized but not defined by formalism, invariance, rule-governance, sacral symbolism, performance. Rituals are a feature of all known human societies, they include not only the worship rites and sacraments of organized religions and cults, but rites of passage and purification rites, oaths of allegiance, dedication ceremonies, coming of age ceremony or rites and presidential inaugurations and funerals, school "rush" traditions and graduations, club meetings, sporting events, Halloween parties, veterans parades, Christmas shopping and more. Many activities that are ostensibly performed for concrete purposes, such as jury trials, execution of criminals, scientific symposia, are loaded with purely symbolic actions prescribed by regulations or tradition, thus ritualistic in nature.
Common actions like hand-shaking and saying "hello" may be termed rituals. The field of ritual studies has seen a number of conflicting definitions of the term. One given by Kyriakidis is that a ritual is an outsider's or "etic" category for a set activity that, to the outsider, seems irrational, non-contiguous, or illogical; the term can be used by the insider or "emic" performer as an acknowledgement that this activity can be seen as such by the uninitiated onlooker. In psychology, the term ritual is sometimes used in a technical sense for a repetitive behavior systematically used by a person to neutralize or prevent anxiety; the English word ritual derives from the Latin ritualis, "that which pertains to rite". In Roman juridical and religious usage, ritus was the proven way of doing something, or "correct performance, custom"; the original concept of ritus may be related to the Sanskrit ṛtá" in Vedic religion, "the lawful and regular order of the normal, therefore proper and true structure of cosmic, worldly and ritual events".
The word "ritual" is first recorded in English in 1570, came into use in the 1600s to mean "the prescribed order of performing religious services" or more a book of these prescriptions. There are hardly any limits to the kind of actions; the rites of past and present societies have involved special gestures and words, recitation of fixed texts, performance of special music, songs or dances, manipulation of certain objects, use of special dresses, consumption of special food, drink, or drugs, much more. Catherine Bell argues that rituals can be characterized by formalism, invariance, rule-governance, sacral symbolism and performance. Ritual utilizes a limited and rigidly organized set of expressions which anthropologists call a "restricted code". Maurice Bloch argues that ritual obliges participants to use this formal oratorical style, limited in intonation, vocabulary and fixity of order. In adopting this style, ritual leaders' speech becomes more style than content; because this formal speech limits what can be said, it induces "acceptance, compliance, or at least forbearance with regard to any overt challenge".
Bloch argues that this form of ritual communication makes rebellion impossible and revolution the only feasible alternative. Ritual tends to support traditional forms of social hierarchy and authority, maintains the assumptions on which the authority is based from challenge. Rituals appeal to tradition and are continued to repeat historical precedent, religious rite, mores or ceremony accurately. Traditionalism varies from formalism in that the ritual may not be formal yet still makes an appeal to the historical trend. An example is the American Thanksgiving dinner, which may not be formal, yet is ostensibly based on an event from the early Puritan settlement of America. Historians Eric Hobsbawm and Terrence Ranger have argued that many of these are invented traditions, such as the rituals of the British monarchy, which invoke "thousand year-old tradition" but whose actual form originate in the late nineteenth century, to some extent reviving earlier forms, in this case medieval, discontinued in the meantime.
Thus, the appeal to history is important rather than accurate historical transmission. Catherine Bell states that ritual is invariant, implying careful choreography; this is less an appeal to traditionalism than a striving for timeless repetition. The key to invariance is bodily discipline, as in monastic prayer and meditation meant to mold dispositions and moods; this bodily discipline is performed in unison, by groups. Rituals tend to be governed by a feature somewhat like formalism. Rules impose norms on the chaos of behavior, either defining the outer limits of what is acceptable or choreographing each move. Individuals are held to communally approved customs that evoke a legitimate communal authority that can constrain the possible outcomes. War in most societies has been bound by ritualized constraints that limit the legitimate means by which war was waged. Activities appealing to supernatural beings are considered rituals, although the appeal may be quite indirect, expressing only a generalized belief in the existence of the sacred demanding a human response.
National flags, for example, may be considered more than signs representing a country. The flag stands for larger symbols such as freedom, free enterprise or national superiority. Anthropologi
An arrow is a fin-stabilized projectile, launched via a bow, consists of a long straight stiff shaft with stabilizers called fletchings, as well as a weighty arrowhead attached to the front end, a slot at the rear end called the nock for engaging the bowstring. The use of bows and arrows by humans is common to most cultures. A craftsman who makes arrows is a fletcher, one that makes arrowheads is an arrowsmith; the oldest evidence of stone-tipped projectiles, which may or may not have been propelled by a bow, dating to c. 64,000 years ago, were found in Sibudu Cave, current South Africa. The oldest evidence of the use of bows to shoot arrows dates to about 10,000 years ago, they had shallow grooves on the base. The oldest bow so far recovered is about 8,000 years old. Archery seems to have arrived in the Americas with the Arctic small tool tradition, about 4,500 years ago. Arrow sizes vary across cultures, ranging from eighteen inches to six feet. However, most modern arrows are 75 centimetres to 96 centimetres.
Short arrows have been used, shot through a guide attached either to the bow or to the archer's wrist. These may fly farther than heavier arrows, an enemy without suitable equipment may find himself unable to return them; the shaft is the primary structural element of the arrow, to which the other components are attached. Traditional arrow shafts are made from strong, lightweight wood, bamboo or reeds, while modern shafts may be made from aluminium, carbon fibre reinforced plastic, or a combination of materials; such shafts are made from an aluminium core wrapped with a carbon fibre outer. A traditional premium material is Port Orford Cedar; the stiffness of the shaft is known as its spine, referring to how little the shaft bends when compressed, hence an arrow which bends less is said to have more spine. In order to strike a group of arrows must be spined. "Center-shot" bows, in which the arrow passes through the central vertical axis of the bow riser, may obtain consistent results from arrows with a wide range of spines.
However, most traditional bows are not center-shot and the arrow has to deflect around the handle in the archer's paradox. Bows with higher draw weight will require stiffer arrows, with more spine to give the correct amount of flex when shot; the weight of an arrow shaft can be expressed in GPI. The length of a shaft in inches multiplied by its GPI rating gives the weight of the shaft in grains. For example, a shaft, 30 inches long and has a GPI of 9.5 weighs 285 grains, or about 18 grams. This does not include the other elements of a finished arrow, so a complete arrow will be heavier than the shaft alone. Sometimes a shaft will be made of two different types of wood fastened together, resulting in what is known as a footed arrow. Known by some as the finest of wood arrows, footed arrows were used both by early Europeans and Native Americans. Footed arrows will consist of a short length of hardwood near the head of the arrow, with the remainder of the shaft consisting of softwood. By reinforcing the area most to break, the arrow is more to survive impact, while maintaining overall flexibility and lighter weight.
A barreled arrow shaft is one. This allows for an arrow that retains enough strength to resist flex. A Qing dynasty arrow shaft was examined by archery enthusiast Peter Dekker and found to exhibit the following qualities: Total shaft length: 944mm Thickness at waist line: 8.5mm Thickness at end of feather: 11mm Thickness 530mm from end: 12mm Thickness 300mm from end: 12mm Thickness 218mm from end: 11mm Thickness 78mm from end: 10mm Thickness at end: 9mmThe resultant point-of-balance of the arrow shaft was thus 38.5% of the length of the arrow from the tip. Barreled arrow shafts are considered the zenith of pre-industrial archery technology, reaching their peak design among the Ottomans; the arrowhead or projectile point is the primary functional part of the arrow, plays the largest role in determining its purpose. Some arrows may use a sharpened tip of the solid shaft, but it is far more common for separate arrowheads to be made from metal, horn, or some other hard material. Arrowheads are separated by function: Bodkin points are short, rigid points with a small cross-section.
They were made of unhardened iron and may have been used for better or longer flight, or for cheaper production. It has been mistakenly suggested that the bodkin came into its own as a means of penetrating armour, but research has found no hardened bodkin points, so it is that it was first designed either to extend range or as a cheaper and simpler alternative to the broadhead. In a modern test, a direct hit from a hard steel bodkin point penetrated Damascus chain armour. However, archery was not effective against plate armour, which became available to knights of modest means by the late 14th century. Blunts are unsharpened arrowheads used for types of target shooting, for shooting at stumps or other targets of opportunity, or hunting small game when the goal is to concuss the target without penetration. Blunts are made of metal or hard rubber, they may stun, occ
Sangha is a Sanskrit word used in many Indian languages, including Pali, meaning "association", "assembly", "company" or "community". It was used in a political context to denote a governing assembly in a republic or a kingdom, it is used in modern times by groups such as the political party and social movement Rashtriya Seva Sangh. It has long been used by religious associations including by Jains and Sikhs. In Buddhism sangha refers to the monastic community of bhikkhunis; these communities are traditionally referred to as the bhikkhuni-sangha. As a separate category, those who have attained any of the four stages of enlightenment, whether or not they are members of the monastic community, are referred to as the āryasaṅgha "noble Sangha". According to the Theravada school, the term "sangha" does not refer to the community of sāvakas nor the community of Buddhists as a whole. In a glossary of Buddhist terms, Richard Robinson et al. define sangha as: Sangha. Community; this word has two levels of meaning: on the ideal level, it denotes all of the Buddha’s followers, lay or ordained, who have at least attained the level of srotāpanna.
Mahayana practitioners may use the word "sangha" as a collective term for all Buddhists, but the Theravada Pāli Canon uses the word pariṣā for the larger Buddhist community—the monks, lay men, lay women who have taken the Three Refuges—with a few exceptions reserving "sangha" for a its original use in the Pāli Canon—the ideal and the conventional. The two meanings overlap but are not identical; some members of the ideal Sangha are not ordained. Unlike the present Sangha, the original Sangha viewed itself as following the mission laid down by the Master, viz, to go forth "…on tour for the blessing of the manyfolk, for the happiness of the manyfolk out of compassion for the world, for the welfare, the blessing, the happiness of deva and men"; the Sangha is the third of the Three Jewels in Buddhism. Common over all schools is; as for recognizable current-life forms, the interpretation of what is the Jewel depends on how a school defines Sangha. E.g. for many schools, monastic life is considered to provide the safest and most suitable environment for advancing toward enlightenment and liberation due to the temptations and vicissitudes of life in the world.
In Buddhism, the Buddha, the Dharma and the Sangha each are described as having certain characteristics. These characteristics are chanted either on a daily basis and/or on Uposatha days, depending on the school of Buddhism. In Theravada tradition they are a part of daily chanting: The Sangha: The Sangha of the Blessed One's disciples is: practicing the good way practicing the upright way practicing the knowledgeable or logical way practicing the proper way practicing the mindful wayThat is, the four pairs of persons, the eight types of individuals - This Sangha of the Blessed One's disciples is: worthy of gifts worthy of hospitalities worthy of offerings worthy of reverential salutation the unsurpassed field of merit for the world; the Sangha was established by Gautama Buddha in the fifth century BCE in order to provide a means for those who wish to practice full-time in a direct and disciplined way, free from the restrictions and responsibilities of the household life. The Sangha fulfils the function of preserving the Buddha’s original teachings and of providing spiritual support for the Buddhist lay-community.
The Sangha has assumed responsibility for maintaining the integrity of the doctrine as well as the translation and propagation of the teachings of the Buddha. The key feature of Buddhist monasticism is the adherence to the vinaya which contains an elaborate set of 227 main rules of conduct including complete chastity, eating only before noon, not indulging in malicious or salacious talk. Between midday and the next day, a strict life of scripture study, chanting and occasional cleaning forms most of the duties for members of the Sangha. Transgression of rules carries penalties ranging from confession to permanent expulsion from the Sangha. Saichō, the founder of the Japanese school of Tendai, decided to reduce the number of rules down to about 60 based on the Bodhisattva Precepts. In the Kamakura, many Japanese schools that originated in or were influenced by the Tendai such as Zen, Pure Land Buddhism and Nichiren Buddhism abolished traditional ordination in favor of this new model of the vinaya.
The Order of Interbeing, established in 1964 and associated with the Plum Village Tradition, has fourteen precepts observed by all monastics. They were written by Thích Nhất Hạnh. Monks and nuns own a minimum of possessions due to their samaya as renunciants, including three robes, an alms bowl, a cloth belt, a needle and thread, a razor for shaving the head, a water filter. In practice, they have a few additional personal possessions. Traditionally, Buddhist monks and novices eschew ordinary clothes and wear robes; the robes were sewn together from rags and stained with earth or other available dyes. The color of modern robes varies from community to community: saffron is characteristic for Theravada groups. A Buddhist monk is a bhikkhu in Pali, Sanskrit bhikṣu while a nun is a bhikkhuni, Sanskrit bhikṣuṇī; these words mean "beggar" or "one who lives by alms", it was traditional in early Buddhism for
Toxicodendron vernicifluum known by the common name Chinese lacquer tree, is an Asian tree species of genus Toxicodendron native to China and the Indian subcontinent, cultivated in regions of China and Japan. Other common names include Japanese lacquer tree, Japanese sumac, varnish tree; the trees are cultivated and tapped for their toxic sap, used as a durable lacquer to make Chinese and Korean lacquerware. The trees grow up to 20 metres tall with each containing from 7 to 19 leaflets; the sap contains the allergenic compound urushiol, which gets its name from this species' Japanese name urushi. Urushiol is the oil found in poison ivy. A caustic, toxic sap, containing urushiol, is tapped from the trunk of the Chinese lacquer tree to produce lacquer; this is done by cutting 5 to 10 horizontal lines on the trunk of a 10-year-old tree, collecting the greyish yellow sap that exudes. The sap is filtered, heat-treated, or coloured before applying onto a base material, to be lacquered. Curing the applied sap requires "drying" it in a warm, humid chamber or closet for 12 to 24 hours where the urushiol polymerizes to form a clear and waterproof surface.
In its liquid state, urushiol can cause extreme rashes from vapours. Once hardened, reactions are less common. Products coated with lacquer are recognizable by an durable and glossy finish. Lacquer has many uses. There are various types of lacquerware; the cinnabar-red is regarded. Unpigmented lacquer is dark brown but the most common colors of urushiol finishes are black and red, from powdered iron oxide pigments of ferrous-ferric oxide and ferric oxide, respectively. Lacquer is cured in a warm and humid environment. Artistic application and decoration of lacquer can be a long process, requiring many hours or days of careful and repetitive layers and drying times; the creation of a single piece of urushi art, such as a bowl or a fountain pen, may take weeks to months to complete. Lacquer is a strong adhesive; the leaves and the resin of the Chinese lacquer tree are sometimes used in Chinese medicine for the treatment of internal parasites and for stopping bleeding. Compounds butein and sulfuretin are antioxidants, have inhibitory effects on aldose reductase and advanced glycation processes.
Buddhist monks who practiced the art of Sokushinbutsu would use the tree's sap in their ceremony. Lacquer Lacquerware Urushi-e Urushiol Duke, James A.. Algonac, Mich.: Reference Publications, Inc. 1985. ISBN 0-917256-20-4. Kim, Ki Hyun. "Identification of cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory constituents from the bark of Toxicodendron vernicifluum F. A. Barkley". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 162: 231–237. Doi:10.1016/j.jep.2014.12.071. PMID 25582488. Stutler, Russ. "A Little more information on Urushi". December 2002. Suganuma, Michiko. "Japanese lacquer". Toxicodendron vernicifluum in the Flora of China Heat treatment of Japanese lacquerware renders it hypoallergenic
Shinto or kami-no-michi is the traditional religion of Japan that focuses on ritual practices to be carried out diligently to establish a connection between present-day Japan and its ancient past. Shinto practices were first recorded and codified in the written historical records of the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki in the 8th century. Still, these earliest Japanese writings do not refer to a unified religion, but rather to a collection of native beliefs and mythology. Shinto today is the religion of public shrines devoted to the worship of a multitude of "spirits", "essences" or "gods", suited to various purposes such as war memorials and harvest festivals, applies as well to various sectarian organizations. Practitioners express their diverse beliefs through a standard language and practice, adopting a similar style in dress and ritual, dating from around the time of the Nara and Heian periods; the word Shinto was adopted as Jindō or Shindō, from the written Chinese Shendao, combining two kanji: shin, meaning "spirit" or kami.
The oldest recorded usage of the word Shindo is from the second half of the 6th century. Kami is rendered in English as "spirits", "essences", or "gods", refers to the energy generating the phenomena. Since the Japanese language does not distinguish between singular and plural, kami refers to the singular divinity, or sacred essence, that manifests in multiple forms: rocks, rivers, objects and people can be said to possess the nature of kami. Kami and people are not separate; as much as nearly 80% of the population in Japan participates in Shinto practices or rituals, but only a small percentage of these identify themselves as "Shintoists" in surveys. This is. Most of the Japanese attend Shinto shrines and beseech kami without belonging to an institutional Shinto religion. There are no formal rituals to become a practitioner of "folk Shinto". Thus, "Shinto membership" is estimated counting only those who do join organised Shinto sects. Shinto has about 85,000 priests in the country. According to surveys carried out in 2006 and 2008, less than 40% of the population of Japan identifies with an organised religion: around 35% are Buddhists, 3% to 4% are members of Shinto sects and derived religions.
In 2008, 26% of the participants reported visiting Shinto shrines, while only 16.2% expressed belief in the existence of a god or gods in general. According to Inoue: "In modern scholarship, the term is used with reference to kami worship and related theologies and practices. In these contexts,'Shinto' takes on the meaning of'Japan's traditional religion', as opposed to foreign religions such as Christianity, Islam and so forth." Shinto religious expressions have been distinguished by scholars into a series of categories: Shrine Shinto, the main tradition of Shinto, has always been a part of Japan's history. It consists of taking part in worship events at local shrines. Before the Meiji Restoration, shrines were disorganized institutions attached to Buddhist temples; the current successor to the imperial organization system, the Association of Shinto Shrines, oversees about 80,000 shrines nationwide. Imperial Household Shinto are the religious rites performed by the imperial family at the three shrines on the imperial grounds, including the Ancestral Spirits Sanctuary and the Sanctuary of the Kami.
Folk Shinto includes the numerous folk beliefs in spirits. Practices include divination, spirit possession, shamanic healing; some of their practices come from Buddhism, Taoism or Confucianism, but most come from ancient local traditions. Sect Shinto is a legal designation created in the 1890s to separate government-owned shrines from local organised religious communities; these communities originated in the Edo period. The basic difference between Shrine Shinto and Sect Shinto is that sects are a development and grew self-consciously, they can identify a founder, a formal set of teachings and sacred scriptures. Sect Shinto groups are thirteen, classified under five headings: pure Shinto sects, Confucian sects,mountain worship sects, purification sects, faith-healing sects (Kurozumikyo／黒住教, Konkokyo/金光教 and its branching Omotokyo/大本教 and Tenrikyo／天理教. Koshintō, literally'Old Shinto', is a reconstructed "Shinto from before the time of Buddhism", today based on Ainu religion and Ryukyuan practices.
It continues the restoration movement begun by Hirata Atsutane. Many other sects and schools can be distinguished. Faction Shinto is a grouping of Japanese new religions developed since the second half of the 20th century that have departed from traditional Shinto and are not always regarded as part of it. Kami, shin, or, jin is defined in English as "god", "spirit", or "spiritual essence", all these terms meaning "the energy generating a thing". Since the Japanese language does not distinguish between singular and plural, kami refers to the divinity, or sacred essence, that manifests in multiple forms. Rocks, rivers, objects, places
O-fuda is a type of household amulet or talisman, issued by a Shinto shrine, hung in the house for protection, a gofu. It may be called shinpu, it is made by inscribing the name of a kami and the name of the Shinto shrine or of a representative of the kami on a strip of paper, cloth, or metal. The Ofuda is customarily renewed annually before the end of a year, attached to a door, pillar, or ceiling, it may be placed inside a private shrine. It is believed to protect the family in residence such as a disease. A more specific o-fuda may be placed near particular objects such as one for kitchen to protect from accidental fire. A popular o-fuda called jingū-taima or taima is issued by Ise Shrine, it used to be made from hemp cloth but nowadays it is made of IseWashi, blessed and replaced every year — as the use of hemp as a material was common in antiquity. A portable form of o-fuda called omamori is given out wrapped in a small bag made of decorated cloth; this was subsequently adopted by Shintoism.
Both Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines give out these o-mamori. While an o-fuda is said to protect a whole family, an o-mamori offers support for personal benefits. Magatama Fulu Nelson, Andrew N. Japanese-English Character Dictionary, Charles E. Tuttle Company: Publishers, Tokyo 1999, ISBN 4-8053-0574-6 Masuda Koh, Kenkyusha's New Japanese-English Dictionary, Kenkyusha Limited, Tokyo 1991, ISBN 4-7674-2015-6